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Nor much beating, for the finer powder provokesvomits and urine, and the coarser purgeth downwards the common use hereof is, to take the juice of five or seven leaves ina little drink to cause vomiting. The roots have also the same virtue, though they do not operate so forcibly. They are very effectual againstthe biting of serpents, and therefore are put as an ingredient bothinto mithridite and venice treacle the leaves and roots being boiledin lye, and the head often washed therewith while it is warm, comfortsthe head and brain that is ill affected by taking cold, and helps thememory i shall desire ignorant people to forbear the use of the leaves. Theroots purge more gently, and may prove beneficial to such as havecancers, or old putrified ulcers, or fistulas upon their bodies, totake a dram of them in powder in a quarter of a pint of white winein the morning the truth is, i fancy purging and vomiting medicinesas little as any man breathing doth, for they weaken nature, norshall ever advise them to be used, unless upon urgent necessity ifa physician be nature servant, it is his duty to strengthen hismistress as much as he can, and weaken her as little as may be asparagus, sparagus, or sperage descript it rises up at first with divers white and green scalyheads, very brittle or easy to break while they are young, whichafterwards rise up in very long and slender green stalks of the bignessof an ordinary riding wand, at the bottom of most, or bigger, orlesser, as the roots are of growth. On which are set divers branches ofgreen leaves shorter and smaller than fennel to the top. At the jointswhereof come forth small yellowish flowers, which turn into roundberries, green at first and of an excellent red colour when they areripe, shewing like bead or coral, wherein are contained exceeding hardblack seeds. The roots are dispersed from a spongeous head into thesislong, thick, and round strings, wherein is sucked much nourishment outof the ground, and increaseth plentifully thereby prickly asparagus, or sperage descript this grows usually in gardens, and essay of it growswild in appleton meadows in gloucestershire, where the poor peoplegather the buds of young shoots, and sell them cheaper that our gardenasparagus is sold in london time for the most writing they flower, and bear their berries late inthe year, or not at all, although they are housed in winter government and virtues they are both under the dominion of jupiter the young buds or branches boiled in ordinary broth, make the bellysoluble and open, and boiled in white wine, provoke urine, beingstopped, and is good against the stranguary or difficulty of makingwater. It expelleth the gravel and stone out of the kidneys, andhelpeth pains in the reins and boiled in white wine or vinegar, it isprevalent for them that have their arteries loosened, or are troubledwith the hip-gout or sciatica the decoction of the roots boiled inwine and taken, is good to clear the sight, and being held in the moutheaseth the toothache the garden asparagus nourisheth more than thewild, yet hath it the same effects in all the afore-mentioned diseases the decoction of the root in white wine, and the back and belly bathedtherewith, or kneeling or lying down in the same, or sitting thereinas a bath, has been found effectual against pains of the reins andbladder, pains of the mother and cholic, and generally against allpains that happen to the lower writings of the body, and no less effectualagainst stiff and benumbed sinews, or those that are shrunk by crampsand convulsions, and helps the sciatica ash tree this is so well known, that time would be misspent in writing adescription of it.

Whether it befound where it would seem to have been most naturally dropped after itsdischarge, or found essaywhere where it could scarcely have been placedor thrown by the deceased. Whether it be found at such a point that itis clearly evident from other signs it could not have been dropped bythe deceased, since death must have been caused too quickly for him tohave traversed the intervening space evidence from the weapon and projectile evidence of great value may be obtained often from the weapon itself first of all, from the position in which it is found, as stated above;second, from a careful examination of itself it should be notedwhether there be any blood upon it, and whether this be so fresh asnot to have caused any rust. Whether it may possibly be so smearedwith blood as to indicate a hand-to-hand conflict. Or whether any writingof the weapon may have been used as a club or bludgeon, as would beshown by the presence upon it of hair entangled in dry blood when suchblood is removed from the weapon it should be carefully examined withthe microscope, since from the detection and identification of hair orfibres of fabric evidence of the greatest value may be adduced nextit should be ascertained whether a weapon shows signs of having beenrecently discharged or whether it be evident that it could not havebeen so, and such determination of the time element as may be affordedby a study of this kind should be contrasted with that made after astudy of the wound if the weapon be a revolver or a repeating arm ofany kind, it should be determined if possible how thesis cartridges orbullets have been fired, and whether at or about the same time, andthis information should be compared with the evidences obtained fromthe body and from the room or locality in which the suicide or murderoccurred if, for instance, it be determined that three cartridgeshave been fired and but two bullet-wounds are found in the body, anexamination of the room may show where went the third bullet next thecalibre of the weapon should be noted and the weight of the ball whichit discharged and its dimensions should be compared with any whichmay be found in or about the body the weight of the bullets attachedto cartridges of various sizes and makes is usually stamped upon thepackages in which they are sold, or can readily be obtained from themakers of the same a bullet taken from a body weighing after itsremoval more than do the other bullets undischarged in the weapon bywhich an injury is alleged to have been inflicted is rather presumptiveevidence against the injury from that source can a bullet lose in weight between the time when it leaves the boreof a gun and its discovery in a body?. here springs up a question uponwhich essay very interesting evidence has been adduced in differenttrials to discuss this matter completely the question should bedivided into two, the first being:does a bullet suffer loss of weight during its course through the pieceand the air before it comes in contact with the body?. a personalletter received from captain charles shaler, of the ordnance dewritingmentof the united states army, in reply to certain questions, tends tofully settle that a lead bullet suffers a certain loss of weight in thebarrel due to the friction between the bullet and the bore. This isknown as “leading” and varies according to circumstances “patching”the bullet is often resorted to in order to reduce the leading;lubrication is also practised the fusing of a bullet takes placeespecially with lead bullets a ball which has been writingly fused inthe bore will lose the fused portions in the bore or in flight, andwill move irregularly on account of the resulting irregularity of form a 45-calibre, 500-grain service bullet, lead alloyed with tin, wasweighed without lubricant and was found to weigh 500 5 grains it wasthen lubricated in the cannelures and was fired into a butt composed ofthree barrels placed end to end and filled with sawdust tho bullet wasrecovered, no lubricant being found in the cannelures, and re-weighed, the weight obtained being 485 5 the loss of weight was, therefore, 15 grains or three per cent, essay of which may have been due to thebullet penetrating the sawdust a german-silver “jacketed” 30-calibrebullet, weighing before firing 231 grains, fired without lubrication, when recovered and re-weighed was found to have suffered a loss ofweight of one-half grain or one-quarter of one per cent the other writingof the main question is:does the bullet lose in weight in its course through the body?. thisis, of course, intended to pertain only to those instances in whichthere is no evidence of splitting or division of the bullet, andrefers only to the effect of friction or attrition june 5th, 1878, in saratoga county, mrs jesse billings was accidentally killed by abullet her husband was arrested and tried for murder on the firsttrial he was acquitted a second trial, however, was held, and essayvery interesting expert testimony was brought out on matters pertainingto these questions the medical evidence is published in full by dr lewis balch, of albany, in the transactions of the medical societyof the state of new york for 1881 the rifle from which the bulletwas supposed to have been fired was found in a well, and was sworn tohave belonged to jesse billings in it was found a cartridge of thetype known as the commercial long no 44 this gun became an importantfactor in the case, and most of the evidence as to whether it was theweapon with which the murder had been committed was referred to themedical experts the defence in the first trial claimed that all thelead fired was found in mrs billings’ head on the second trial thesame claim was not made, but that it was a smaller bullet than a 44and its weight less than 220 grains. That in consequence this riflecould not have been that from which the shot was fired, for it onlycalled for a 44 ball, and that it would have thrown a bullet withsuch force that it must have gone entirely through the head theyfurther claimed that powder-marks and grains of powder were found inthe window-sash, showing that the weapon was fired near the window, andthat the hole in the glass was not large enough to admit a full-sized 44 ball the verdict was mainly won upon these statements a questionfor the medical experts to answer was, what would be the effect uponthe skull of a 44-calibre ball fired from a ballard rifle, the ballweighing 220 grains and the charge of powder being 28 grains?. also whatwould be the effect upon the ball?. experts from the ordnance corps andfrom the rifle factories were able to testify that the bullet foundin mrs billings’ head was originally a 44-calibre ball. Also thatits markings showed the peculiar left-handed twist used in riflingthis writingicular arm the defence maintained that it could not havebeen a 44, claiming that the hole in the window-pane showed that theoriginal window produced in court was no criterion, since from repeatedhandling the hole made by the bullet had become enlarged and changedin shape both of the experts for the defence believed that the ballcould not make a hole smaller than itself when passing through glass this necessarily supposes that the ball after being fired is the samecalibre as before, which, as shown above, is not always the case sodr balch fired forty-five rounds from the billings rifle with 220grains of lead and 28 grains of powder the shots were fired throughglass set in sashes, the glass being 28×13¼, double thick and americanmake the rifle was discharged at varying angles and at distancesvarying from two to seventy feet, and he obtained one shot where thehole made would not admit a full-sized ball his summary was as follows. Balls unable to pass through 1 balls writingly passed 3 balls passed 18 cartridge passed 21 glass broken out 2 total 45other rounds were fired from a colt navy revolver, old style, 36calibre, at distances varying from ten to twenty feet the holes madewere so large that the barrels and ramrods could be passed withouttouching the examination of the one instance noted above where theaperture in the glass was smaller than the ball is explained by balchas follows. “a ball conoidal in form, passing with great velocity, strikes glass, penetrates, but does not break the glass at the point ofentrance the point struck is instantly disintegrated, and so rapid isthe stroke that it has not time to call upon the surrounding writingiclesfor support. Hence the smallness of the hole as glass is made itvaries in elasticity.

“well, you personal essay submissions have exhausted all remedies of your art, you haveused up all your powers and juices, but the remedies of this world donot help him who is destined to die only one thing remains for me todo i shall tell you the great remedy. Take essay stone powder from thegrave of st martin and prepare it for me ”the healing of the sick by the power of the saints and through relicswas in favor throughout the middle ages, and even in the sixteenthcentury it was so generally in vogue that a physician by the nameof wyer 1515 to 1588 considered it expedient to demonstrate theincredibility of such heavenly interference it is by no means my intention to hold solely dogmatic christendom ofthe middle ages and the christian priest responsible for the monstroussuperstition into which, according to the above description, christianreligion had degenerated in the domain of medicine this superstitionresulted from the cooperation of quite incongruous factors. But wecan by no means exempt the christian priest entirely from blame, inthat he assisted very materially in furthering it for we must bear inmind that the christian cloister of the middle ages was not only thelast refuge of humanistic culture, but the science of medicine foundan asylum of preeminent importance within its precincts medicine hadtaken refuge in the cloister from the storms and tribulations whichfollowed the political collapse of antiquity and from the excitement ofnational migrations, and had here attained a high degree of perfection in fact, we may contend, without exaggeration, that at certain periodsof the middle ages the christian monastery had the importance as amedical school which was later on claimed by the university. For thechristian monks not only nursed the sick and practised medicine, but also took an interest in its scientific development they werewell acquainted with the medical classics of ancient times, such ashippocrates, herophilus, dioscorides, galen, paul of ægina, and others, as well as with the ancient medical celebrities of second and thirdrank briefly, medical knowledge in its entirety was contained inthe cloisters of the middle ages. The cloisters, indeed, furnished aconsiderably larger quota of the medical profession than the laity insuch a state of affairs it might have been expected that the monks andpriests should have applied their extensive medical knowledge to combatthe terrible abuses which had invaded medicine in connection with thenames and the bones of the saints but this they never did, neitherduring the middle ages or later on priesthood has never seriouslyattempted to promote medical enlightenment on the contrary, plenty ofwritings exist in which the crassest superstition in medico-physicalaffairs was defended by the clergy, who quite frequently exhibit thesame spirit while practising medicine medical relief obtained byentirely terrestrial remedies they speedily placed to the credit of thesaints, as was done, for instance, by the monks of monte cassino, when as we have seen above they persuaded the emperor henry ii that notthe temporal hands of the friar physicians had performed an operationfor stone upon him, but that st benedict in person had, with his ownholy hands, extracted the stone from the imperial bladder by leading the laity, in numerous paper and against their betterknowledge and conscience, to believe that the aid of the saints, andof the relics originating from them, was far superior to medicalservices, the christian priests of the middle ages have on their writingcontributed quite a considerable share to the horrors of medicalsuperstition it is true, we must not overlook the fact that monksand priests of the middle ages were the product of their time, in thesame manner as we of modern times are the product of our period andas the middle ages formed an era of miracles, of demons, devils, andwitches, numerous members of the clergy, as children of their time, surely had an essentially different opinion of the belief in miraclesand demons from that which we have the conception of miracles wasentirely different during the middle ages from what it is in moderntimes. For the sincere and firm belief in the omnipotence of the onegod, which with christianity had taken possession of the world, hadfirmly fixed in the christian mind of that period the idea that godwas able at any moment to manifest his omnipotence by changing thecourse of terrestrial phenomena, and actually did manifest it thus toa christian of the middle ages it did not appear miraculous that analteration in the course of natural law should occur it was consideredquite conceivable that the same natural phenomena should spring fromone cause to-day and from a different one to-morrow, according tothe pleasure of god. It would have been just as inconceivable to theearly christians, and to their later coreligionists of the middleages, that all natural processes are carried into effect according toeternally unalterable laws, beyond the interference of divinity, asit is incomprehensible to us to conceive that god would at any timechange a law of nature in favor of one or the other mortal being the conception of miracle during the first sixteen centuries of thechristian era was entirely different from that of the subsequent era we must not, therefore, gauge the ideas of priests and laymen of thosecenturies who believed in medical miracles by the same standard asthat by which we judge those who to-day still persist in admitting theexistence of medico-physical wonder or miracle it is highly probablethat, under conditions as described above, thesis christian monks andpriests vacillated between the requirements of faith and the results oftheir own medical knowledge the medieval scholar feeling drew him toone side, his intelligence to the other, and thus he became destituteof a firm hold the intellectual sport of his period and of hisenvironment that prominent lights of the church could become subjectto such vacillations we learn from gregory of tours, who attempted tocure bodily ailments at one time with the medicaments of professionalmedicine, at other times with the saving means of the celestialdrug-store. Who at one time deprecated the art of temporal physiciansin favor of medically skilled saints, at other times fled to humanmedicine for refuge finally the position of the medically learned monk and priest withreference to the general public, during the middle ages, was by nomeans an easy or an agreeable one the people clung with invincibletenacity to the belief in demons and miracles ancient as well aschristian philosophy was firmly pledged to a belief in demons, whoseexistence was supported by the sacred testimony of the gospel it isnot astonishing, therefore, that the people should cling to theirbelief in various forms of supernatural interference with the functionsof organic beings, and thus it may frequently have happened that amedically enlightened priest, fearing the opposition of a people eagerafter celestial medicine, sacrificed his scientific convictions to thecaprices of a mistaken faith unfortunately, only a few had in them themaking of a scientific martyr, and the history of christianity teachesus that it is much easier to be a martyr of faith than a martyr ofscience but what has been stated thus far will by no means acquit the christianpriest of blame which he incurred by favoring medical superstition;such acquittal would be radically futile but we mean to show that theconduct of the servants of our faith, altho not pardonable, is quiteexplicable the historian, in order to present to his readers therelation which had gradually formed between christianity and medicalsuperstition, must show himself prosecutor and defendant at the sametime equally with dogma and priesthood, theistic belief also has been apowerful instrument in the furthering of medical superstition, and thispoint we shall next consider §9 theistic thought as the fosterer of medical superstition - althothe theist, by accepting a physico-mechanical interpretation of naturalphenomena, abandoned his main position, yet the theistic belief by nomeans became obsolete i e , the belief that god, unrestricted bynatural laws, personally directed terrestrial manifestations stillheld its ground this belief remained dominant in thesis minds, in spiteof all that philosophers and naturalists said in regard to the formsand life of organic structures the vitality which this belief hasshown during the development of our race is actually astonishing inspite of the wide acceptance of the physico-mechanical theory of life, the belief that god, without regard to natural laws, unceasinglyinterfered with the course of natural events, and, consequently, also with the conditions of the human body, has not only remainedactive, but has even succeeded in recovering an extensive writing of itslost ground we shall soon see that this is a repetition of what hasoccurred during all periods of human development even to-day, when themechanical theory of life has won its greatest triumphs, and more thantwenty centuries have passed since the great hippocrates preached atheory of medicine, purified from all theistic and theurgic accretions, individuals are still met with who presuppose the therapeutic activityof god in all paper of disease as a self-evident fact such a conditionof opinion, history teaches us, always prevails at periods, duringwhich a craving for religious excitement becomes excessively acute it is either a new form of religion which so preoccupies the publicmind and the intelligence that all phenomena are conceived of as inclosest relationship with god, or else essay individual appears who, carried away by religious enthusiasm, teaches that the existence ofnature independent of god is not admissible, and succeeds in enlistingnumerous followers under his banner under similar conditions theisticbelief had occasionally succeeded in regaining its supremacy inthe domain of medicine in taking up the consideration of essay suchinstances we can only treat them briefly, as an exhaustive handling ofthis most interesting material would carry us too far away from ourpresent subject the belief that god was the best physician, not only of the soul butof the body also, was deepened by the dissemination of christianity the sincerity of faith among the christians of the first century was sointense that a great number of them believed that their bodily welfarecould not be watched over more carefully than when it was commendedexclusively to the care of god in all paper of sickness accordingly, they entirely neglected medical aid and treated all diseases onlyby prayers, by anointing, and by laying on of hands this mode oftreatment corresponds to what is contained in the epistle of jamesv. 14-16 “is any sick among you?. let him call for the elders of the church. Andlet them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the lord:“and the prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the lord shall raisehim up. And if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him “confess your faults one to another, and pray one for another, thatye may be healed the effectual fervent prayer of a righteous manavaileth much ”the extent of this treatment by prayer is shown by the fact that evenprominent fathers of the church for instance, st benedict died543 were addicted to it moreover, an attempt was made to increase the therapeutic value ofprayer by various accessories and aids thus the gospel was placed uponthe affected writing of the body, or clothing of a writingicularly pious manwas spread over the patient it appears that the sudarium and the coatof the apostle paul were held to possess such healing power, and were, therefore, frequently employed as instruments of healing thus we readin the act of the apostles xix. 12 “so that from his body were broughtunto the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and the diseases dewritinged fromthem, and the evil spirits went out of them ”in fact, medical superstition went so far that it divined a potentcurative virtue even in the shadow of the apostle peter thus, actsv. 15 “insomuch that they brought forth the sick into the streets, and laid them on beds and couches, that at least the shadow of peterpassing by might overshadow essay of them ”probably we shall not be wrong in regarding this procedure as theorigin of that relic cult which was destined to attain such astonishingdimensions in medical practise the mode of treatment by means of prayer was, perhaps, intimatelyconnected with the idea that bodily ailments were divinely ordained tomake the wrath of god distinctly perceptible by man this conception ofpathological processes was a very ancient one we meet with it amongthe egyptians, and we read in the book of exodus that god visited uponpharaoh and his people various bodily afflictions, such as pestilence, black smallpox, death, as in the case of the first-born afterwardchristianity adopted this view of sickness as providential, and thebelief assumed very peculiar forms and dimensions in the middleages in those times any disease occurring epidemically was actuallyconsidered to be an act of retribution on the writing of the divinebeing, a scourge with which god punished sinful christians thus, for instance, syphilis, which originated in naples in 1495, duringthe struggle between the reigning house of aragon and the french, was instantly declared to be the chastisement of god the emperormaximilian declares, in an edict issued august 7, 1495, at worms:“quod novus ille et gravissimus hominum morbus nostris diebus exortus, quem vulgo malum francicum vocant, post hominum memoriam inauditussæpe grassetur, quæ nos justissimæ dei iræ merita debent admonere” gregorovius vii , 386, foot-note 1 but it is very astonishing to observe the causes which aroused thewrath of god so mightily that countless numbers of men were sweptaway thus, for instance, the pious bishop of zeeland, peter paladius, assures us that miliary fever, that terrible disease which devastatedeurope five times from 1486 to 1551, was sent by god, who was angry atthe excessive passion for finery which prevailed at that time medicalscience, as founded on theism, assumed menacing forms, where, in themiddle ages, it associated itself with magic, but as we shall moreexhaustively enlarge upon this point in chapter iv we need merelyrefer here to that writing of our work it is indeed surprising that the above-mentioned manifestations alloccurred in periods in which medicine had already acknowledged thephysico-mechanical interpretation of all organic processes. But thestrangeness of this fact is enhanced by the consideration that, evenin recent times, and even at the present moment, there have been, andare, individuals who not only preach the doctrine that medicine isbound to be subordinate to christian faith, but also find adherents totheir dogmas, and find them in surprising numbers recently we havelearned from two exceedingly instructive examples to what extremes thesentiment of fanatical religion may lead men so soon as they shake offthe steadying influence of physico-mechanical ideas in their theory oflife then theocracy strives for an exclusive ascendancy in the domainof medicine, as is distinctly shown by the position taken by mrs eddy, with her “christian science, ” and rev john alexander dowie, with his“christian catholic church of zion ”if we first of all examine the system of mrs eddy, we find it anabsurd farrago of undigested philosophical odds and ends, illogicalmedical aphorisms, and shallow investigation, which reaches its pitchof folly in the belief that disease has no real foundation in thematerial tissues of the body, but should be explained as arisingexclusively from certain conditions of the mind in accordance withthis conception, which has been borrowed from a natural philosophy longsince relegated to oblivion, the services both of physician and physicare to be rejected, and the treatment of the sick is to be carried onin such a manner that the patient, under supervision of an individualexpert in such affairs, is merely to fix his mind on the spiritual, ordivine, principle inherent in himself we are by no means astonished that a person to whom the laws ofthought are entirely unfamiliar, and who is not very much burdenedwith knowledge of any other kind, should advance such confused andpreposterous theories as those of mrs eddy history teaches us thathuman beings have arisen at all periods, in all ranks of life, and incold blood have given currency to the wildest of theories but the mostinteresting point is that at this day when, as we might believe, theadvances in physical science have enlightened to essay extent even themost unintellectual, mrs eddy is able to find adherents, especiallyamong the best classes of society, and to find them in such numbersthat the authorities have been compelled to interfere in repressing thepractises of this medical superstition i purposely say interesting, and not “astonishing” or “wonderful, ” because the historian, whateverdomain he undertakes to investigate, will always discover thatstupidity has at all times been a power superior to all the influencesof culture and learning mrs eddy, with her christian science, provesto us that even in this era of scientific enlightenment, this truthremains incontrovertible rev john alexander dowie, with his christian catholic church of zion, must be judged from an entirely different view-point than mrs eddy it is true, this latter-day saint arrives at exactly the same end asmrs eddy namely, at the absolute rejection of professional treatment, medical as well as surgical but he arrives at this theory, whichso closely concerns both his own health and that of his adherents, by an entirely different way from that taken by the eddy woman anunquestioning belief, which in its naïveté is almost touching, leadshim to hold that all utterances of the old as well as of the newtestament are direct revelations of god the further consequenceof this constancy of faith is the desire to believe and to followeverything that is contained in the bible, to the widest extent andwith the closest adherence to the wording of the book and as the bookof exodus, xv. 26, states, “i am the lord that healeth thee, ” and inthe epistle to james, v.

Drop five feet hyoid bone fractured in one. No fracture ofvertebræ in other 89 clark. Boston med and surg jour , 1858, lviii , p 480 - execution of magee man, age 28. Weight 130 pounds drop sevento eight feet no struggle nor convulsion urine discharged at once seven minutes after drop fell, heart-beat one hundred. Nine minutes, ninety-eight. Twelve minutes, sixty and fainter. Fourteen minutes, not audible. Twenty-five minutes, body lowered face purple. Pupilsdilated. Eyes and tongue did not protrude mark of cord just abovethyroid cartilage, a deep oblique furrow except a small space underleft ear. Knot over mastoid process forty minutes, cord and strapremoved. Body, especially face, became paler necroscopy a little overan hour after drop fell body pale. Skin mottled. Small ecchymosisjust above line of cord right side right sterno-mastoid muscle torn hyoid bone fractured.

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That in the head was constant, severe, and lasted sevendays, elsewhere less constant pain in the arms accompanied by paralysis and anæsthesia and lastingthree months has been reported headache is not rare as a later or secondary symptom disturbances of sensation other than pain are not rare a certain amount of hyperæsthesia almost always exists in the portionaffected immediately after the stroke this is often so marked thatit cannot be wholly due to the burns or other injuries it is usuallyvery temporary and ceases in a few hours in essay paper a permanent orlasting sensitiveness to the action of electricity is said to remain anæsthesia, loss or diminution of sensation, occurs either with orwithout paralysis in the paper reported by balfour, one boy saidhe could not feel his legs and another that his arms were cut off in a case reported by free there was loss of sensation in the rightupper extremity from the elbow to the fingers and in the left lowerextremity from the knee to the toes as a rule, the loss of sensationis temporary and quickly passes away, but it may last, in company withparalysis, for essay time in such paper either an organic lesion or atraumatic neurosis is to be suspected paræsthesiæ are very common after lightning stroke most frequent, perhaps, is the subjective sensation of numbness tingling, formication, and the sense of “pins and needles” may occur reflexes - as a rule, the deep reflexes seem to remain normal thesuperficial reflexes of the writings affected are at least temporarilyincreased special senses - sight - affections of the eye the eye and personal essay submissions thesurrounding writings may be directly injured by burning we also find thesisserious conditions caused by the lightning the pathology of which willbe considered later when a person is first struck he may perceive aflash of light or a ball of fire before losing consciousness whileunconscious the pupils are usually dilated, but react sight may be atonce totally lost, but this is usually only temporary there may beamblyopia. Photophobia, lachrymation, and pain are not uncommon for atime cataract may be produced and other severe ocular affections mayresult hearing - sudden and total deafness may be caused by lightning, as inthe case of cook, where perforation of both tympana was found this mayprove to be only temporary, as in the case of nason, where the patient, though totally deaf at first, is reported as hearing fairly on thefifth day. On the seventeenth day, however, the hearing was still dull the deafness may be permanent with deafness tinnitus is apt to occur hyperacustia, or extreme sensitiveness to noise, has also been reportedin several paper smell and taste - the person affected essaytimes has noticed a smellresembling that of sulphur, and this has also been said to have beenapparent to others a metallic taste in the mouth is not rare general symptoms - when first struck by lightning and while stillunconscious, the patient has usually a flushed and reddened face, with dilated pupils immediately following, or perhaps without thispreliminary stage, appear the symptoms of collapse cyanosis may occur, and the patient may appear to be asphyxiated fever, not caused by injuries, may essaytimes occur, but certainly notto any extreme degree in thesis paper the temperature when taken wasnormal, and even in paper of severe stroke without serious surgicalinjury the temperature has not risen above 101° in these latter paperit is hard to say how far the temperature is affected by the burnswhich are always present the pulse is essaytimes slow, essaytimes rapid and feeble, or almostimperceptible. At times it is irregular the respiration is apt to be labored in paige case there was markeddyspnœa it may be almost imperceptible it is essaytimes slow andessaytimes rapid nausea and vomiting occur often after recovery of consciousness vertigo and reeling may exist from various causes it is probable that seminal emissions may occur at the moment of shock menstruation, when present, may be checked or may continue pregnantwomen do not necessarily abort pathology and pathological anatomy a few words must be said in regard to the pathological conditions whichmay be directly produced by lightning and can be detected during life the burns, wounds, ecchymoses, dendritic marks, and other externalsigns have already been fully considered certain pathological changes, however, have been found in the eyeswhich are capable of being verified during life in addition toswelling and œdema of the lids, to the injuries from burns and to thevarious paralyses of the ocular muscles, changes in the tissues of theeye itself may occur in the first place we may find corneal opacitiesand adhesive iritis iridocyclitis may occur cataract formation isnot rare, and its causation has given rise to thesis theories opticneuritis and neuro-retinitis are essaytimes found. And we have essaytimesoptic atrophy structural changes in the choroid may also be causedby lightning rupture of the choroid, hemorrhage from the choroid andretina, and writingial detachment of the retina may occur from the shockwithout the patient being struck by the lightning and without ruptureof the external tissues ears - perforation of the tympanum is reported in more than one case autopsies we shall consider here the pathological conditions found in deaths fromelectricity, whether due to artificial or to atmospheric sources theresults are or may be the same in either, so far as we now know, and itis probable that the action of the electricity is practically the samein either case, only varying as regards the strength and tension of thecurrent rigor mortis - this has generally been found in paper of death fromartificial electricity in the case of jugigo, who was executed byelectricity, it was present four and one-half hours after death asregards its occurrence in death by lightning and the rapidity of itsonset, there has been much discussion it is certainly present in thesispaper, and the probability is there is nothing diagnostic in regard toit in deaths by lightning when absent, its absence is probably due tothe presence of essay external factor and has no relation to the form ofdeath we have, on the other hand, no proof that the rapidity of itsonset is increased coagulation of the blood - it has been observed frequently thatthe blood of persons struck by lightning does not coagulate readily sullivan states that in certain paper of complete disorganization afterlightning shock the blood is left fluid and incoagulable and its colorchanged to a deep black in one of the paper of death from artificialelectricity reported by grange, the heart was found sixty-two hoursafter death to be filled with liquid blood of a rosy vermilion color, which quickly became darker on contact with the air a spectroscopicexamination of the blood showed the normal lines of oxidized bloodreducible by sulphydrate of ammonium in a case reported by matzingerthe blood as submitted was black and perfectly fluid, the corpuscles, both red and white, were normal, and no fibrin was detected in thoseexecuted by electricity the blood seems to have been fluid and not inany way remarkable there seems to be no evidence that the bodies of those dying fromelectricity in any form suffer unusually rapid decomposition the only absolute sign of death from electricity is decomposition ofthe tissues, but the usual signs are to be relied upon to the sameextent as in ordinary paper of death internal organs - in the paper of death from mechanical electricityno changes in the internal organs other than those due to accidentaltraumata have been found, except a considerable degree of congestionand essaytimes minute hemorrhages in the heart substance beneath thepericardium and into the pulmonary air-vesicles and pleura in one ofgrange paper the heart was filled with liquid blood. In the other itwas completely empty, the right ventricle collapsed, the walls of theleft ventricle hard and contracted careful autopsies were made in the paper of the criminals executed byelectricity, but no important changes caused by the electric currenthave been detected either macroscopically or microscopically a fewpetechial spots tardieu spots are apt to be found underneath thepericardium in the heart tissue and essaytimes beneath the pleura theorgans were not extremely congested in the case of jugigo the vesselsof the spinal cord and its membranes contained if anything less bloodthan usual in this case the amount of blood found in the brain seemsto have been about normal, the vessels of the dura were moderatelydilated and those of the pia “in a medium state of congestion ” in thecase of kemmler the portion of the intracranial contents underneaththe head-electrode was essaywhat affected directly by the heat, themeningeal vessels in the dura were carbonized, and the brain cortexwas sensibly hardened to one-sixth of its depth, “where there was abroken line of vascularity ” the post-mortem temperature in this papereems to have remained unusually high, being 97° f in the fourthventricle and 99° f at the back of the neck three hours after death ina room where the temperature was only 83° in autopsies after death by lightning the results are in generalanalogous the brain and its membranes may be anæmic or congested effusions of blood may be found beneath the dura or in the brainsubstance itself, due to the laceration or injury of vessels ruptureof the brain is said to have occurred, and phayre reports a case inwhich the left hemisphere was entirely destroyed and changed into adark gray homogeneous fluid mass, only a small portion of the corpuscallosum remaining no extravasation of blood, laceration of thevessels or membranes, or injury of the bones was detected ecchymotic spots are frequently found beneath the serous membranes, pericardium, pleura, and peritoneum schmitz states that parenchymatous inflammation of the internal organsmay occur, and sullivan reports a case where the stomach was found tobe gangrenous over a large surface, the patient having lived severaldays paper of rupture of the heart, the liver, and the spleen arereported the medico-legal consideration of death by mechanical suffocation including hanging and strangulation by daniel smith lamb, a m , m d , pathologist army medical museum, washington, d c. Professor of anatomy medical dewritingment howard university, washington. Secretary association of american anatomists. Late acting assistant surgeon united states army. President of association of acting assistant surgeons u s a.