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But rather refer you to costmary for satisfaction the medlar descript the tree grows near the bigness of the quince tree, spreading branches reasonably large, with longer and narrower leavesthan either the apple or quince, and not dented about the edges atthe end of the sprigs stand the flowers, made of five white, great, broad-pointed leaves, nicked in the middle with essay white threadsalso. After which comes the fruit, of a brownish green colour, beingripe, bearing a crown as it were on the top, which were the five greenleaves. And being rubbed off, or fallen away, the head of the fruitis seen to be essaywhat hollow the fruit is very harsh before it ismellowed, and has usually five hard kernels within it there is anotherkind hereof nothing differing from the former, but that it hath essaythorns on it in several places, which the other hath not. And usuallythe fruit is small, and not so pleasant time and place they grow in this land, and flower in may for themost writing, and bear fruit in september and october government and virtues the fruit is old saturn, and sure a bettermedicine he hardly hath to strengthen the retentive faculty. Thereforeit stays women longings. The good old man cannot endure womenminds should run a gadding also a plaister made of the fruit driedbefore they are rotten, and other convenient things, and applied tothe reins of the back, stops miscarriage in women with child they arepowerful to stay any fluxes of blood or humours in men or women. Theleaves also have this quality the decoction of them is good to gargleand wash the mouth, throat and teeth, when there is any defluxions ofblood to stay it, or of humours, which causes the pains and swellings it is a good bath for women, that have their courses flow too abundant:or for the piles when they bleed too much if a poultice or plaister bemade with dried medlars, beaten and mixed with the juice of red roses, whereunto a few cloves and nutmegs may be added, and a little red coralalso, and applied to the stomach that is given to casting or loathingof meat, it effectually helps the dried leaves in powder strewed onfresh bleeding wounds restrains the blood, and heals up the woundquickly the medlar-stones made into powder, and drank in wine, whereinessay parsley-roots have lain infused all night, or a little boiled, dobreak the stone in the kidneys, helping to expel it mellilot, or king claver descript this hath thesis green stalks, two or three feet high, rising from a tough, long, white root, which dies not every year, setround about at the joints with small and essaywhat long, well-smellingleaves, set three together, unevently dented about the edges theflowers are yellow, and well-smelling also, made like other trefoil, but small, standing in long spikes one above another, for an handbreadth long or better, which afterwards turn into long crooked pods, wherein is contained flat seed, essaywhat brown place it grows plentifully in thesis places of this land, as in theedge of suffolk and in essex, as also in huntingdonshire, and in otherplaces, but most usually in corn fields, in corners of meadows time it flowers in june and july, and is ripe quickly after government and virtues melilot, boiled in wine, and applied, mollifies all hard tumours and inflammations that happen in the eyes, or other writings of the body, and essaytimes the yolk of a roasted egg, orfine flour, or poppy seed, or endive, is added unto it it helps thespreading ulcers in the head, it being washed with a lye made thereof it helps the pains of the stomach, being applied fresh, or boiledwith any of the aforenamed things. Also, the pains of the ears, beingdropped into them. And steeped in vinegar, or rose water, it mitigatesthe head-ache the flowers of mellilot or camomile are much used tobe put together in clysters to expel wind, and ease pains. And alsoin poultices for the same purpose, and to assuage swelling tumours inthe spleen or other writings, and helps inflammations in any writing of thebody the juice dropped into the eyes, is a singularly good medicine totake away the film or skin that clouds or dimns the eye-sight the headoften washed with the distilled water of the herb and flower, or a lyemade therewith, is effectual for those that suddenly lose their senses;as also to strengthen the memory, to comfort the head and brain, and topreserve them from pain, and the apoplexy french and dog mercury descript this rises up with a square green stalk full of joints, two feet high, or thereabouts, with two leaves at every joint, and thebranches likewise from both sides of the stalk, set with fresh greenleaves, essaywhat broad and long, about the bigness of the leaves ofbazil, finely dented about the edges.

And toregister in the books of the college the name, age, place of residenceand birth of every member of the profession practising in the province, the date of his license and the place where he obtained it art 3, 982 the provincial medical board, among other powers, has the power tomake regulations personal essay help respecting the tariffs or rates to be charged intowns and counties for medical, obstetrical, or surgical advice, orfor attendance or for the performance of any operation or for anymedicines prescribed or supplied the tariff must be approved by thelieutenant-governor in council, and can only come into force six monthsafter its publication once in the quebec official gazette, and thatof the order in council approving the same the tariff does not, incase of suit, obviate the necessity of proof of giving the advice, care, prescriptions, medicines, and other things therein mentioned art 3, 983 the said board has power to fix the fees for license and registration art 3, 984 qualifications of candidate - the qualifications of a candidate for alicense are:1 that he holds a certificate of study from a licensed physician forthe period intervening between the courses of lectures which he hasfollowed 2 that he has reached the age of twenty-one years 3 that he has followed his studies during a period of not less thanfour years, commencing from the date of his admission by the board tostudy medicine 4 that during said four years he attended at essay university, college, or incorporated school of medicine within her majesty possessions notless than two six-months’ courses of general or descriptive anatomy, of practical anatomy, of surgery, of the practice of medicine, ofmidwifery, of chemistry, of materia medica and general therapeutics, ofthe institutions of medicine or physiology and general pathology, ofclinical medicine, and of clinical surgery. One six-months’ course ortwo three-months’ courses of medical jurisprudence, one three-months’course of botany, one three-months’ course of hygiene, and a courseof not less than twenty-five demonstrations upon microscopic anatomy, physiology, and pathology 5 that he attended the general practice of a hospital in which arecontained not less than fifty beds under the charge of not less thantwo physicians or surgeons, for not less than one and one-half years orthree periods of not less than six months each 6 that he has attended six paper of labor and compounded medicines forsix months each six-months’ course shall have consisted of one hundred and twentylectures except in the case of clinical medicine, clinical surgery, andmedical jurisprudence of four years’ study required by this section, three six-months’sessions, at least, must be passed in attending upon lectures at auniversity, college, or incorporated school of medicine recognized bythe board the first of such courses must have been attended during the sessionimmediately succeeding the preliminary examination, and the lastduring the fourth year of study, and the candidates must undergo anexamination on the final subjects of the curriculum at the end of thesession in the fourth year of study art 3, 985 members of college - all persons obtaining a license to practise fromthe college of physicians and surgeons of the province are members ofthe college, but are not eligible for governors within four years fromthe date of their admission as members art 3, 986 women - the provincial medical board has power to make regulationsrespecting the admission of women to the study and practice ofmidwifery women who were legally qualified on the 31st of october, 1879, to practise as midwives in the province, while required toconform to the rules of said college, retain their right nothing inthe act or the regulations shall prevent women in the country frompractising midwifery or assisting at accouchements without beingadmitted to the study or practice of midwifery. But they must obtain acertificate from a duly licensed physician certifying that they havethe necessary knowledge art 3, 987 register - the medical board is required to cause to be kept by theregistrar a register of persons duly licensed and registered, andwho have complied with the law and the regulations of the board, andthose persons only whose names are inscribed therein are deemed to bequalified and licensed art 3, 988 the registrar is required from time to time to make the necessaryalterations in the register art 3, 989 evidence - the registrar, under the direction of the board ofgovernors, causes to be printed, published, and distributed to themembers, from time to time, a copy, called the quebec medicalregister, of the register, containing names, surnames, residences, medical titles, diplomas, and qualifications conferred by a collegeor other medical body, with the dates of the same a printed copy, certified under the hand of the registrar as such, is prima facieevidence that the persons named and entered have been registered inaccordance with this law the absence of the name of any person fromsuch copy is prima facie proof that such person has not been lawfullyregistered. Provided always in case a person name does not appearon such printed copy, a copy or extract from the register certifiedby the registrar of the college of the entry of such person name onthe register is proof that such person is duly registered art 3, 990 a certificate under the hand of the registrar of the payment of theannual contribution of members of the college is prima facie evidencethat such payments have been made art 3, 991 neglect to register - a person entitled to register who neglects toregister is not entitled to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, or to claim any of the rights and privileges conferred, and is liablefor all penalties imposed for practising without registration, savingthe right of certain members holding a license from the college ofphysicians and surgeons of lower canada art 3, 992 established practitioner - a person who has attended medical lecturesduring three sessions of a medical school in the british possessions, and who has actually been engaged in the practice of medicine forover thirty years in the province, may, on proof of these facts tothe satisfaction of the provincial medical board, and producing acertificate signed by two resident medical practitioners in theneighborhood where he has practised that he has succeeded in hisprofession, and is entitled to the consideration of the board, beentitled to a license and to registration without an examination art 3, 993 unregistered persons - no person unless otherwise authorized isentitled to recover any charge for medical or surgical advice, orprofessional service, or for the performance of any operation, or forany medicines prescribed or supplied, nor is he entitled to any of therights or privileges conferred, unless he has registered accordingto law and paid his annual contribution to the college art 3, 994 no certificate required from any physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer is registered art 3, 995 persons guilty of felony - any registered member of the medicalprofession convicted of felony forfeits his right to registration, and the medical board causes his name to be erased from the register art 3, 996 if a person known to have been convicted of felony presents himselffor registration, the registrar is required to refuse him registration art 3, 997 offences and penalties - a person not entitled to register convicted ofhaving practised in contravention of this law, for reward or the hopeof reward, is liable to a penalty of $50 a like penalty is incurred by every person assuming the title ofdoctor, physician, or surgeon, or any other name implying that he islegally authorized to practise, if unable to establish the fact bylegal proof, and by every person who in an advertisement in a newspaperor in a written or printed circular, or on business cards or on signs, assumes a designation so as to lead the public to believe that he isduly registered or qualified. And by every person who offers or giveshis services as a physician, surgeon, or accoucheur for gain or hope ofreward, if he be not duly authorized and registered burden of proof - in every prosecution, proof of registration isincumbent on the writingy prosecuted witnesses - members of the college are not incompetent witnesses byreason of their membership costs - the court imposing a penalty adds costs, and, in default ofpayment within a delay which it fixes, condemns the defendant toimprisonment in a common jail of the district for sixty days art 3, 998 evidence - in paper where proof of registration is required, theproduction of a printed or other copy or extract from the register, certified under the hand of the registrar of the college, is sufficientevidence that all persons named therein are registered practitionersand any certificate upon such proof, or other copy of the register orextract from such register, purporting to be signed by any person inhis capacity of registrar of the college, is prima facie evidencethat such person is registrar without proof of the signature or of hisbeing in fact such registrar art 3, 999 homœopathists - the rights of homœopathists are not affected by theforegoing sections art 4, 002 the homœopathic physicians and surgeons of the province form acorporation under the name of the montreal homœopathic association art 4, 003 the corporation has power to appoint three medical graduates of abritish or provincial university or medical licentiates of a britishor provincial college or board legally incorporated to be a board ofexaminers, to examine all persons who may desire to obtain a license topractise homœopathic medicine art 4, 008 a person desiring to be examined touching his qualifications topractise according to the doctrines and teaching of homœopathy shallgive notice in writing of at least one month to the secretary ortreasurer of the association, and show that he is not less thantwenty-one years of age. Has followed medical studies for notless than four years under the care of one or more duly qualifiedmedical practitioners. Has attended at essay recognized university orincorporated school of medicine not less than two six-months’ coursesof anatomy, physiology, surgery, theory and practice of medicine, midwifery, chemistry, materia medica, and therapeutics respectively, and not less than one six-months’ course of clinical medicine andmedical jurisprudence respectively, or their equivalents in time;and shall have complied with the regulations of such university orincorporated school of medicine with regard to such courses, andshall have followed such other course or courses as may hereafter beconsidered by the board of examiners requisite for the advancement of amedical education all such persons shall, at a regularly appointed time and place, beexamined on all the aforesaid branches by the board of examiners art 4, 009 if the board be satisfied by examination that a person is dulyqualified to practise either or all of said branches of medicine, astaught and practised by homœopathists, they shall certify the sameunder the hands and seals of two or all of such board the lieutenant-governor, on receipt of such certificate, may, ifsatisfied of the loyalty, integrity, and good morals of the applicant, grant to him a license to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery, oreither of them, conformably to the certificate, and all such licenseesare entitled to all the privileges enjoyed by licentiates of medicine art 4, 010 the corporation appoints a secretary who keeps a register of names ofall persons duly licensed to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery, or either of them, according to the doctrines and teachings ofhomœopathy only those whose names are inscribed in said register are qualifiedand licensed to practise according to the doctrines and teachings ofhomœopathy art 4, 015 the said secretary is required to make the necessary alterations inthe addresses or qualifications of the persons registered art 4, 016 offences and penalties - a person practising according to thehomœopathic doctrines for reward in contravention of this act, orassuming a title implying that a person is legally authorized topractise according to homœopathic doctrines, if unable legally toestablish such authorization. Or by advertisement published in anewspaper or in a written or printed circular, or on business cards orsigns, assuming a designation to lead the public to believe that he isduly registered and qualified to practise according to the doctrines ofhomœopathy. Or offering or giving his services as physician, surgeon, or accoucheur for gain or hope of reward, if not duly authorized orregistered, is punishable with a penalty of $50 burden of proof - in every prosecution, the proof of registration isincumbent on the writingy prosecuted costs - the court may condemn the defendant to pay $50 in addition tocosts within a delay which it determines, and to imprisonment of sixtydays in a common jail of the district on default of payment within thedelay art 4, 017 witnesses - a member of the corporation is not an incompetent witnesson account of his membership art 4, 018 fees - the provincial board of medical examiners may establishexamination fees art 3, 981 members of the college of physicians and surgeons of the province ofquebec are required to pay an annual fee of $2 art 3, 986 forensic medicine thanatological the legal status of the dead body. The disposal and obligation to dispose of the same. How and by whom it may be exhumed or removed. Autopsies, by whom ordered. The rights of relatives and accused persons including an appendix containing a synopsis of the statutes of the different united states and territories concerning same by tracy c becker, a b , ll b , etc , counsellor at law, etc. Professor of civil law and medical jurisprudence, law dewritingment, university of buffalo legal status of the dead body disposal and obligations to dispose of the same - there is no rightof property, in the ordinary sense of the word, in a dead human body;but for the health and protection of society it is a rule of the commonlaw, and which has been confirmed by statutes in civilized statesand countries, that public duties are imposed upon public officers, and private duties upon the husband or wife and the next of kin ofthe deceased, to protect the body from violation and see that it isproperly interred, and to protect it after it is interred a parent isbound to provide christian burial for a deceased child, if he has themeans, but if he has not the means, though the body remains unburiedso long as to become a nuisance, he is not indictable for the nuisancealthough he could obtain money for the burial expenses by borrowing itof the poor-law authorities of the parish, for he is not bound to incura debt reg v vann, 2 div c c , 325.

An ointment of it is held to be good inwounds and ulcers. It consumes cankers, and that flesh growing in thenostrils, which they call polypus. Also the distilled water beingdropped into the eyes, takes away spots there, or the pin and web, andmends the dimness of sight. It is excellently good against pestilenceand poison pliny and dioscorides affirm, that no serpent will meddlewith him that carries this herb about him the elder tree i hold it needless to write any description of this, since every boythat plays with a pop-gun will not mistake another tree instead ofelder. I shall therefore in this place only describe the dwarf-elder, called also dead-wort, and wall-wort the dwarf-elder descript this is but an herb every year, dying with his stalks tothe ground, and rising afresh every spring, and is like unto the elderboth in form and quality, rising up with square, rough, hairy stalks, four feet high, or more essaytimes the winged leaves are essaywhatnarrower than the elder, but else like them the flowers are white witha dash of purple, standing in umbels, very like the elder also, butmore sweet is scent.

All mouth-waters ought to be cooling and drying, buthoney suckles are cleansing, consuming and digesting, and thereforefit for inflammations. Thus dr reason again if you please, we willleave dr reason a while, and come to dr experience, a learnedgentleman, and his brother take a leaf and chew it in your mouth, andyou will quickly find it likelier to cause a sore mouth and throatthan to cure it well then, if it be not good for this, what is itgood for?. it is good for essaything, for god and nature made nothing invain it is an herb of mercury, and appropriated to the lungs. Crabclaims dominion over it. Neither is it a foe to the lion. If the lungsbe afflicted by jupiter, this is your cure. It is fitting a conservemade of the flowers of it were kept in every gentlewoman house. Iknow no better cure for an asthma than this. Besides, it takes awaythe evil of the spleen, provokes urine, procures speedy deliveryof women in travail, helps cramps, convulsions, and palsies, andwhatsoever griefs come of cold or stopping. If you please to make useof it as an ointment, it will clear your skin of morphew, freckles, and sun-burnings, or whatsoever else discolours it, and then the maidswill love it authors say, the flowers are of more effect than theleaves, and that is true.

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Althoughspermatozoids have been observed at ninety-four years the structureof the spermatic cord at different periods of life from the lastof intra-uterine to the first of extra-uterine life, in puberty, and in old age, is accompanied by characteristic modifications ofdevelopment and regression, which are of interest on the question ofmedico-forensic diagnosis of identity, as shown by dr pellacani 586congenital deformity of the genital writings, as epispadias orhypospadias. Marks of circumcision, useful in india to identifymussulmans above eleven years. Traces of disease that may have leftextensive cicatrices, as phagadenic chancre, suppurating buboes, etc , may also furnish characteristics of evidential value entire cadaver dead but a short time in the case of a body that has been dead a short time only, recognitionfrom the features, even by the nearest relatives, is often a matterof the greatest difficulty the change produced in the color and formof the body, especially after drowning, is a formidable obstacle toidentification by likeness and general type of face pages could befilled with the mere mention of the multiplied instances of mistakenidentity of the living, thesis of whom have been punished because theyhad the misfortune to resemble essay one else how much more careful, then, should be the medical examination of the remains in the progressof decay, with the distortion and discoloration of the features, andthe consequent change or destruction of the peculiar expression ofthe countenance by which human features are usually distinguished andidentified among the innumerable instances of mistaken personal identity and paperof resemblance mentioned in history and fable, from the time of ulyssesdown to the days of rip van winkle dog schneider, it appears thatthis animal is credited with more sagacity than man in the matter ofrecognizing his master even after years of absence indeed, recognitionby animals may be considered a proof of identity thesis persons canrecall instances of the kind, though perhaps not so dramatic as the oneof the dog in the odyssey, who recognized his master after twenty yearsof absence and died immediately thereafter as a matter of fact, time and circumstances will so alter resemblanceas to account for essay of these most striking proofs of the fallibilityof human testimony that we see illustrated in chapters on mistakenidentity we easily forget the true image of persons and things, and time promptly modifies them the evidence of the senses may beso little trusted in this regard that father, mother, husband, andnurse may attest a false identity in the case of their own children a nurse has been known to testify to the identity of the severed headof a woman whom thirteen other persons were sure they recognized fromcharacteristic signs, when the supposed victim put in an appearance andthus attested her own existence the head of the unrecognized victim ofthis strange controversy is preserved in the museum of the strassburgfaculty in another case of historical notoriety in france, forty witnesses oneach side swore to the personality. While in the celebrated tichbournetrial no less than eighty-five witnesses maintained positively, underthe most rigid and scrutinizing cross-examination, that a certainperson was sir roger charles doughty tichbourne, a baronet. At the sametime a corresponding number were equally unshaken in their convictionthat he was a wapping butcher, arthur orton resemblances often bring about remarkable coincidences a case is saidto have occurred in covington, ky , where two men met, each the doubleof the other in form, stature, and feature, each having lost a rightleg, amputated at the knee, and each being blind in the left eye fromaccident puzzle and perplexity are not confined to remarkable paper and judicialerrors. For so thesis people are unskilled in correct observation thatit is a matter of common occurrence for two individuals to be mistakenthe one for the other the writer for essay years has frequently beenmistaken for a certain naval officer he is said to resemble, while theofficer in question has become so accustomed to being called “doctor”that he answers to the title without protest a case that has of late been much quoted in the journals is that oftiggs what was supposed to be his mangled body was identified byhis wife, and further identification was forthcoming from one of hischildren and the employer of the deceased the coroner had granteda certificate for burial, and as the hearse neared the door, to thesurprise of all writingies the real tiggs entered the house and gave asatisfactory account of his absence most mistakes of this kind are the result of existing imperfectionsin the average human mind or in its use so few people are skilled inminute observation that lord mansfield dictum regarding the “likenessas an argument of a child being the son of a parent” should be receivedwith a certain degree of reserve, especially in the question ofidentity from likeness after death in ogston “medical jurisprudence”a case is related of a father who could not recognize the body of hisson drowned at sea ten days previously the mother, however, identifiedher boy from the existence of two pimple-looking projections on thefront of the chest, which proved to be supplementary mammæ as a rule, the changes in the face and countenance two weeks afterdeath are such that it is well-nigh impossible to establish identityfrom the features alone yet in exceptional paper the external resultsof putrefactive decomposition have been so delayed or modified asto produce very small changes in the features even after thesis yearsof burial bodies have been known to retain a remarkable state ofpreservation for long periods in such circumstances as burial in apeat bog, in the sand of the desert, and in the frozen ground of coldcountries even photography in the matter of identity is not to be trusted though an important accessory to other evidence, it is often, and veryproperly, objected to by lawyers on the ground of being incompetent, irrelevant, and immaterial the picture presented for comparison maynot be an original one or it may have been taken years previously thedifficulty in recognizing one own most intimate friends from picturestaken only a few years back is a matter of common knowledge besides, the negative from which the picture was taken may have been retouchedor altered, consequently it would not be the same as produced by thecamera, and is, therefore, valueless as evidence it is held to beincompetent to prove a photograph by merely asking a witness whether ornot he recognizes the picture in question as that of a certain person in all paper where photographic pictures are required in a court oflaw the authorities are that the artist who took the picture must beproduced and show that he took the picture, and that it is a correctrepresentation of the original of which it claims to be a picture ifpossible the negatives themselves should be called for and reproduced dr tidy states that he has known a volume of smoke appear in a printas issuing from a chimney, and used as evidence of the existence of anuisance, when no smoke existed in the original negative only slightfamiliarity with the method of taking photographic pictures and thechemistry involved in the process suffices to show that thesis littledetails of sensitizing, exposing, developing, and printing greatlychange the general appearance of the face essay of the tricks that maybe played with photography, illustrating its comparative incompetencyas evidence in the matter of personal identification, i have seen in aseries of pictures at the dewritingment of justice in washington all werephotographs of the same person taken in such varying circumstances thatno two are alike or recognizable as the same person, until scrutinyis brought to bear on the profile of the nose 587 in consideringphotography in its bearing on this branch of medicine, it must also beborne in mind that a certain degree of imperfection arises from wantof uniformity in the lenses of cameras i have already mentioned thewant of precision in photographing the skull, the common defect beingcentral not orthogonal projection such as anthropometry requires surface signs of identity examination of the surface of the skin and of its appendages may incertain paper take decisive importance valuable medical proof is oftenfurnished by scars, nævi, growths on the skin, pock-marks, traces ofskin disease or of scrofula, and by the so-called professional stigmatawhich would suggest the trade, character of work, or occupation ofthe deceased thus cigarette-stains on the fingers of smokers, orsilver-stains on the hands of photographers, the horny palm of thelaborer, or the soft, delicate hand of one not accustomed to work, would be indicative the alterations in the hand make it, so tospeak, the seat of election. For in the majority of trades that maybe mentioned it is the hand alone that bears the principal marks ofdaily work that indicate the calling a case is recorded of a personwho previously to his assassination was lame and walked with a crutch although the body was cut into fragments, an examination revealed inthe palm of the hands characteristic callosities, showing prolonged useof support of this kind in another instance of criminal mutilation atattoo-mark found on the arm proved an overwhelming charge against theassassin and drew forth his confession an accused was also convictedof murder after establishing the only missing link, the question ofidentity, which turned on the finding of cupping-marks and a tattooon the body of the murdered man personal identity of the bodies ofinfants has, moreover, been proved by means of a small blister. By apatch of downy hair. By the similarity existing between two piecesof thread used to tie the umbilical cord. And by the severed end ofthat writing of the funis attached to the infant fitting precisely to thecorresponding portion attached to the after-birth in addition to thesea methodical examination may put in evidence other facts that may bederived from diverse influences that leave characteristic traces signs furnished by marks, scars, stains, etc , on the skin but of all the surface signs, whether congenital or acquired, thatmay throw light on the antecedents of the decedent, birth-marks, freckles, cicatrices, tattooes, and the professional signs furnish thebest indications birth-marks nævi materni, from their supposedindelibility, have given rise to discussion at thesis celebratedtrials as a rule, these marks are permanent and seldom lose theirdistinctness, though in exceptional paper they may undergo atrophyin the first years of life hence testimony as to the existence ofbirth-marks may often be uncertain when it has reference to a period along way back in a recorded case of supposed recognition of a personhaving a mark of this kind on her face, the alleged victim turned upand established her identity as well as the fact that she did not havethe birth-mark attributed to her before the introduction of the electrolytic method it was customaryto resort to cauterization, excision, vaccination, and tattooing thepigmentary spot in order to modify or remove these congenital marks such proceedings usually left more or less of an indelible scar whichoccasion might utilize in the matter of medico-legal diagnosis thetraces of nævi may, however, be entirely removed by electrolysis ihave recently seen a nævus of large dimension on the face of a youngwoman so completely destroyed as to leave no trace of the operation the possibility of the disappearance of a scar in such circumstancesdepends here, as it does in other instances, on the depth of the wound a cicatrix being the result of a solution of continuity in the derma, the question arises whether a wound that has divided the derma withoutloss of substance and healed by first intention leaves any perceptiblescar essay are of the opinion that a cicatricial line persists, butgrows fainter with time histological examination in a question ofthis kind might prove conclusive by showing the structure of thefibrocellular tissue that constitutes the cicatrix in the case of verysuperficial burns or wounds, the scar may completely disappear if theepidermis alone or the superficial writing of the derma is attacked. Onthe other hand, if there has been long suppuration or loss of substancefrom ulcers, chancres, or buboes, especially on the neck, groins, legs, or genital writings, traces of their lesion will be found it may, therefore, be asserted as a general rule that all scars resulting fromwounds and from skin diseases which involve any loss of substance areindelible a scar on the face is one of the points at issue in thecelebrated hillmon case already mentioned as the matter of cicatrices is treated in the section on wounds, further mention here would be superfluous tattooing of all the scars that speak, none in judiciary medicine affords bettersigns of identity by their permanency and durable character and thedifficulty of causing their disappearance than those furnished bytattoo-marks the custom of tattooing having existed from the earliest historicalepochs is of interest not only from an ethnological but from a medicaland pathological point of view, while it is of great importance inits relation to medical jurisprudence in paper of contested personalidentification which may be either established or refuted by thissign so trustworthy is it in thesis instances as to become a veritableideograph that may indicate the personal antecedents, vocation, socialstate, certain events of one life, and even their date without going into the history of a subject mentioned by hippocrates, plato, cæsar, and cicero, it may be pertinent to say that tattooing isprohibited by the bible leviticus xix , 28 and is condemned by thefathers of the church, tertullian among others, who gives the followingrather singular reason for interdicting its use among women. “certumsumus spiritum sanctum magis masculis tale aliquid subscribere potuissesi feminis subscripsisset ” de virginibus velandis lutetiæparisorum, 1675, fº, p 178 in addition to much that has been written by french, german, 588 anditalian authors, who have put tattooing in an important place in legalmedicine, the matter of tattoo-marks a few years since claimed theattention of the law courts of england, the chief justice, cockburn, inthe tichbourne case, having described this species of evidence as of“vital importance, ” and in itself final and conclusive this celebratedtrial has brought to light about all the knowledge that can be used inthe investigation of this sign as a mark of identity absence of thetattoo-marks in this case justified the jury in their finding that thedefendant was not and could not be roger tichbourne, whereupon thealleged claimant was proved to be an impostor, found guilty of perjury, and sentenced to penal servitude 589the practice of tattooing is found pretty much over the world, notablyin the polynesian islands and in essay writings of japan it is, however, not found in russia, being contrary to the superstitions of the people, who regard a mark of this kind as an alliance or contract with evilspirits its use appears to be penal only, and is limited to siberianconvicts the degrading habit, confined to a low order of development, exists at the present time as a survival of a superstitious practice ofpaganism, probably owing to perversion of the sexual instinct, and isstill common among school-boys, sailors, soldiers, criminals, and thelowest order of prostitutes living in so-called civilized communities indeed, unanimity of opinion among medical and anthropological writersassigns erotic passion as the most frequent cause of tattooing, andshows the constant connection between tattoo-marks and crime penalstatistics show the greater number of tattooed criminals among thelowest order, as those who have committed crimes against the person;while the fewest are found among swindlers and forgers, the mostintelligent class of criminals even amid intellectual advancementand æsthetic sensibility far in advance of the primitive man, such asexists in london and new york, for instance, are to be found personswho make good incomes by catering to this depraved taste for savageornamentation persons who have been to jerusalem may remember thetattooers, who try to induce travellers to have a cross tattooed on thearm as a souvenir of the pilgrimage if a writer in the revue des deuxmondes, 15th june, 1881, is to be believed, it appears that the princeof wales on his journey to the holy land had a jerusalem cross tattooedon his arm, april 2d, 1862 the “cruise of the bacchante” also tellshow the duke of york was tattooed while in japan the process is now rapidly done, an edison electric pen being utilizedfor the purpose, and essay of the wretched martyrs have the hardihoodto be tattooed from head to foot with grotesque designs in severalcolors i know of several instances.