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As an actual fact, one is entitled to say only that such tumors undergo central necrosis, in all probably owing to defective circulatory supply the process isexactly similar to the coagulation necrosis described in the case oftubercles by weigert if autolysis occurs, it is only secondary to thepreceding necrosis this explanation, however, is confronted by the fact that the internaltumors produced by keysser showed no tendency to effect a localizationof the dyes, and correspondingly no tendency to be affected by thetherapeutic agents one might be permitted to inquire whether theseinternal tumors had undergone any necrosis keysser unfortunately makesno mention of this matter it is certainly true that the infiltrativemode of growth of the internal tumors, which is entirely differentfrom that of the subcutaneous implantations, is associated with amuch better blood supply and a lessened tendency to undergo necrosis that such tumors can undergo necrosis, however, is evidenced bycertain illustrations given by carl lewin in his paper on internaltumors but such changes usually occur only in advanced stages tojudge from his plates, keysser worked with relatively small tumors, an assumption which is rendered even more likely by the fact that hisinjections were undertaken in a fairly early stage of their growth inthis connection i may quote certain experiments of my own on internaltumors 279 the implantations made in my experiments were produced byintravenous injections of a tumor suspension into the jugular vein ofrats such injections resulted almost invariably in the production ofa large number of tumors in the lungs, which, as is well shown in thefigures accompanying the original article, differed very markedly insize the smaller of these tumors are composed throughout of activelygrowing cells, while the large tumors present an area of centralnecrosis exactly as do the subcutaneous tumors if such an animal begiven an intravenous injection of a dye such as congo red, it will befound that the larger tumors present an area of central discolorationcorresponding to the area of previous necrosis, while the smallertumors, like normal tissues, are not colored thus, it is clear thatthe internal tumors implanted in animals are subject to the same lawsconcerning the distribution of dyes and, of course, other substances asare the subcutaneous tumors as i have stated previously, an exactlyanalogous observation has been made in a human breast tumor in theabsence of any contradictory evidence, therefore, i think that it isperfectly justifiable to assume that keysser failed to achieve a resultin the internal growths simply owing to the fact that those growthspresented practically no areas of necrosis at the time of his injection 279 j m research, 1913, p 497 another theoretical question which bears closely on the recenttherapeutic investigations in human beings concerns the rôle ofcolloids, as such, in the procedure it is quite clear from what hasalready been said that all experiments with animal tumors have beenlargely influenced by the belief that metals in the colloidal formexercise a peculiar and characteristic influence on the destructionof tumors even when the therapeutic agents have been introducedin crystalline form, as by neuberg and caspari, the authors findthemselves compelled to assume that the metals are reduced to colloidalform within the tumors for the latter assumption there is absolutelyno evidence. It is due simply to the influence of the colloidal theory if one critically examines the data on which this theory is based, oneis forced to the conclusion that it has practically no establishedclaim to validity if we grant that colloidal metals have been shown tostimulate autolysis in the test tube, the same fact must be admitted ofmetals in noncolloidal solution the experiments, however, are very farfrom establishing either of these facts satisfactorily but even werethis the case, it is an unjustifiable inference that living tumor cellswould be influenced in anything like the same manner as are the deadcells observed in test tube experiments as an actual fact, we knowfrom the work of evans and schulemann that only the “scavenger cells”of the body take up foreign colloids, and to this class the tumor cellsdo not belong moreover, the form in which metals are introducedinto the circulation is not necessarily or even probably the form inwhich they act on the tissues colloidal solutions of the metals arecertainly subject to precipitation and other changes on entering theblood this fact i have shown experimentally in a previous study oncolloidal copper 280 in the same way it is probable, as has beenpointed out by wells, that metals when introduced in crystalloid formmay rapidly be altered so that they are carried throughout the body incolloidal form all of these considerations indicate how unjustifiableis the assumption that colloidal metals exercise a peculiar action ongrowing tumors it is hardly surprising that their empiric use hasfailed to measure up to expectations based on so slim a foundation offact 280 weil, richard. The effects of colloidal copper with an analysisof the therapeutic criteria in human cancer, j a m a 61:1034 sept 27 1913 clinical observationclinicians have not been slow in following the lead suggested by thetherapeutic experiments in animals it is perfectly proper that thisshould be the case in dealing with a disease of the character ofcancer, in thesis instances entirely beyond our power to influence, noone can question the advisability of trying any and every agent whichholds out the slightest promise unfortunately, a closer analysis ofthe animal experiments fails to vindicate even that degree of faith when one considers the facts which have been analyzed in the precedingdiscussion, it would appear not only futile but actually dangerous toattempt to benefit cancer sufferers by means of any of the agencieswhich have been employed in animal experimentation nevertheless, thefact remains that a variety of preparations have been used in the humanclinic the various types of preparations may be satisfactorily groupedunder four classes, namely:1 the crystalline salts of selenium 2 selenium in colloidal solution 3 other metals in colloidal solution 4 compounds of metals with organic radicals these substances have been administered by injection or by the mouth in the case of injection, the injections have been made either into thesubcutaneous tissues, intramuscularly, or intravenously, or finally, directly into the tumors before passing to a further considerationof this subject in detail, it may be well to recall the fact that inthe experimental tumors of animals, no matter what preparation hasbeen used, it has been possible to accomplish therapeutic effects onlyby the use of relatively enormous doses of the medicament, of doses, in fact, which were scarcely lower than the lethal dose certainexperimenters have noted that smaller doses actually stimulated thegrowth of the tumors in the second place, it has almost invariablybeen found necessary to administer the treatment intravenously, inasmuch as the other modes of administration failed of therapeuticeffect it is quite apparent that a procedure in human beings in anydegree analogous to that pursued in animals is entirely impossible thedoses used, with one notable exception to be subsequently mentioned, have invariably been relatively small hence it is apparent at theoutset that at least one fundamental condition of success in thetreatment of animal tumors has been necessarily excluded in theclinical application the salt used by wassermann is not stated in his original publication wolff281 speaks of it as a sodium salt, whereas keysser says that itwas a combination with potassium cyanid in only one instance, as faras i am aware, has the sodium salt been used therapeutically in humanbeings delbet282 states that he employed this salt intravenouslyin one case, and that its use was shortly followed by death unquestionably the salts of selenium are very much too toxic to be usedin this way 281 wolff. Die lehre von der krebs krankheit 3:1913 282 delbet, p. Bull de l’assn franç pour l’étude du cancer5:121, 1912. Ibid 6:85, 1913 the majority of those who have worked with selenium have used it incolloidal form, either preparing it themselves or employing one of thepreparations put on the market by the pharmaceutic firms of the latterthe best known are the electro-selenium of clin, and the seleniol ofcouturieux of those who have made use of selenium in these formsmay be mentioned cade and girard, 283 bougeaut and galliot, 284blumenthal, 285 thiroloix and lancien, 286 delbet, laurent andbohec, 287 and most extensively of all, m touche 288 all of theseauthors have described paper of malignant new growths of the mostvaried character which were treated by these preparations 283 cade and girard. Bull soc méd d hôp de lyon 11:397, 1912 284 bougeaut and galliot. Clinique, paris 7:501, 1912 285 blumenthal, a. Jour méd de bruxelles, 1912, 17:325. Presseméd belge 65:919, 1913 286 thiroloix and lancien, a.

Hemorrhage insurrounding tissues lungs and heart as usual in suffocation pay to write a research paper 14 cullingworth. Med chron , manchester, 1884-85, i , p 577 - woman, married, found dead bruise and ecchymosis beneath theear. Effusion of blood in underlying tissue other bruises on face, etc several bruises in mouth, on lips and tongue blood dark andfluid brain and membranes much congested no marks of injury onthroat lungs congested. Surfaces emphysematous heart contained darkfluid blood urine and fæces had been discharged 15 the gouffé case - murdered by eyraud and bompard in 1889 archivanthropologie criminelle, paris, 1890, v , pp 642-716. Vi , 1891, pp 17 and 179 reports by bernard, lacassagne, and others gouffé wasdecoyed into a room and strangled. Afterward his body was tied up, placed in a trunk, and taken essay distance away the murderers fledto america. But eventually bompard returned to france and eyraud wascaptured. Both confessed when found, the body was well advanced inputrefaction. After a very careful examination was identified he wasstrangled by the pressure of fingers.

Or if a more accurate test of thedegree of insufficiency is desired, the valvular orifices should bemeasured normally, the aortic orifice is one inch pay to write a research paper across. The mitral, one and eight-tenths inches. Pulmonary, one and two-tenths inches. Andthe tricuspid about two inches we open first the cavity of the right ventricle by making an incisionover its anterior border close to the septum prolonging the incisiondownward to the apex and upward through the pulmonary artery, thecavity of the ventricle will be fully exposed the left ventricle issimilarly opened by an incision through its anterior wall which isprolonged upward through the aortic valve the cavities of the auricleand ventricle, especially those of the right side, will often containblood-clots these clots are usually post-mortem clots formed duringthe last hours of life or after death it may essaytimes be necessary todistinguish these post-mortem clots from what are known as ante-mortemclots the latter are usually of firm consistency, dry, of a whitishcolor, and closely entangled in the trabeculæ, while the former aresucculent, moist, of a reddish-yellow color, and are easily detachedfrom the walls of the heart cavities ante-mortem clots are rarelyseen, and the medical examiner should be careful not to attribute thecause of death to the post-mortem clots which are so often seen afterthe heart is opened we can with more care and greater accuracy examinethe condition of the valves and recognize the extent of valvularlesions the condition of the endocardium should now be examined and anyabnormality noted often it will be seen stained a deep red color this is not due to disease, but is caused by the absorption of thecoloring matter of the blood which has been set free by decomposition the size of the heart cavity and the thickness of the heart wallsshould be noted, as also their consistency and color it should beremembered that the heart walls may appear unusually flabby as theresult of decomposition, or apparently thickened when death occurs inextreme systole the interior of the heart can be further examined bypassing the enterotome into each auricle, carrying the incision throughthe mitral and tricuspid valves to join at the apex with the previousincision, which has been prolonged through the ventricles to the apex thus the auriculo-ventricular valves are completely exposed having removed the blood from the heart it is next weighed the averagenormal weight of the human heart is about twelve ounces in the male, and a little less in the female. Its size roughly corresponding to theclosed hand of the individual normally, the thickness of the walls ofthe left ventricle about its middle is five-eighths to two-thirds of aninch, and of the right ventricle one-eighth to one-quarter of an inch note the condition of the aorta above the heart, whether it is dilated, atheromatous, or shows calcareous deposits examine the coronaryarteries by opening them with a blunt-pointed scissors disease ofthese vessels with thrombosis is one of the causes of sudden deathwhich is often overlooked the lungs - the lungs are removed by lifting them from the pleuralcavity and cutting through the vessels and bronchi at their base ifa lung is very adherent it is essaytimes better to remove the organwith the costal pleura attached so as not to tear the lung substance examine the external surface of the lung as to its shape, color, andconsistency next open the large bronchi with a blunt-pointed scissors, and prolong the incision into the pulmonary substance along the minutebronchi observe the contents of the bronchial tubes, the appearance ofthe mucous membrane, and their relative thickness remember that it isvery difficult to tell the condition in which the mucous membrane wasduring life on account of the early post-mortem changes which affectit, and also because the contents of the stomach may have been forcedafter death up the œsophagus and down the bronchi, giving the tubes apeculiar reddish and gangrenous appearance having examined the bronchi, the lung is turned over and its basegrasped firmly in the left hand an incision is made from apex to base, which will expose at a single cut the greatest extent of pulmonarysurface note the color of the lung substance, and whether the alveolicontain blood, serum, or inflammatory products blood and serum caneasily be forced from the lungs by pressure between the fingers, whileinflammatory exudations cannot examine carefully for the presence ofmiliary tubercles if a question should arise whether a portion of a lung is consolidated, this writing can be removed, placed in water, and if the air cells areconsolidated the portion will sink. If there is only congestion it willfloat by squeezing the lung between the fingers an inflammation of thesmaller bronchi bronchitis can be recognized by the purulent fluidwhich will exude at different points it should be remembered that innormal condition the lower lobes and posterior aspect of the lungs willapparently be very much congested as a result of gravity neck, larynx, and œsophagus - throw the head well backward, andplace a block beneath the neck make an incision from the chin tothe upper writing of the sternum dissect the soft writings away on eachside from the larynx and thyroid body, then cut along the internalsurface of the lower jaw from the symphisis to its angle through thisincision introduce the fingers into the mouth, and grasp and drawdown the tongue by dividing the posterior wall of the pharynx andpulling downward these writings, the trachea and œsophagus can readily beremoved together, a ligature having been first placed around the lowerportion of the œsophagus open now the pharynx and œsophagus alongtheir posterior border examine the mucous membrane carefully for theevidences of inflammation, caustic poison, tumors, foreign bodies, or strictures with an enterotome open the larynx and trachea alongtheir posterior wall observe if there is any evidence of œdema ofthe glottis, and note the condition of the mucous membrane rememberthat redness of the larynx is very commonly the result of post-mortemchanges and is also seen in bodies which have been kept cold dissectoff and examine the thyroid gland abdomen having completed the examination of the organs of the thorax, we nextproceed to examine those contained in the abdominal cavity we firstraise and, dissect off the omentum, noting if it is abnormally adherent the first organs to be removed are:the kidneys - drawing the intestines aside we cut through theperitoneum over the kidneys, and introducing our left hand we graspthe organs with their suprarenal capsules attached raising first onekidney and then the other, we easily divide the vessels and the uretersas close to the bladder as possible the kidneys are often foundimbedded in a mass of fat which must first be removed their surface isessaytimes of a greenish color owing to the beginning of putrefaction we note the size of the organ, its color and weight a normal kidneyweighs from four and one-half to five ounces grasping the kidneyfirmly in the left hand, we make an incision in its capsule along itsconvex border, and with a forceps strip off the capsule and note itsdegree of adherence and the condition of the surface of the organ;whether it is smooth or granular prolonging our incision alreadymade through the cortex of the organ, inward toward the pelvis, wedivide the organ into two halves and now closely examine the internalstructure the average thickness of the cortex, which should be aboutone-third of an inch, is noted. As also its degree of congestion, andwhether the normal light tubes and reddish vessels and tufts linesare seen running through it if these alternate light and dark markingsare lost and the organ has not undergone decomposition, the presenceof essay of the forms of bright disease may be suspected if the cutsurface of the organ presents a waxy appearance, the amyloid testshould be applied by first washing the cut surface of the organ anddropping upon it a few drops of lugol solution of iodine, when theamyloid areas will appear as dark mahogany spots on a yellow background the pelvis of the kidneys should be examined for calculi and theevidence of inflammatory lesions the suprarenal capsules readilydecompose, but if the autopsy is not made too late hypertrophy, tuberculosis, tumors, and degeneration in them may be recognized the spleen - this organ will be found in an oblique position at theleft side of the stomach grasping it firmly in the left hand anddrawing it forward, it can easily be detached normally in the adultit is about five inches in length by three inches in breadth by oneinch in thickness, and weighs about seven ounces the size, color, and consistency of the organ should be noted, as well as abnormalthickenings of its capsule and the presence of any tubercles or tumorsin its substance the spleen softens very early as the result ofdecomposition, and this decomposition should not be mistaken for apathological condition the intestines - in paper of suspected poisoning the greatest careshould be taken in the removal of the intestines and the stomach double ligatures should be placed in the following situations so asto preserve the contents of the organs intact. 1 at the end of theduodenum. 2 at the end of the ilium.

I knew those various affectionsin man, in respect of sickness and health, were caused naturally though god may have other ends best known to himself by the variousoperations of the microcosm. And i could not be ignorant, that as thecause is, so must the cure be. And therefore he that would know thereason of the operation of the herbs, must look up as high as thestars, astrologically i always found the disease vary according to thevarious motions of the stars. And this is enough, one would think, toteach a man by the effect where the cause lies then to find out thereason of the operation of herbs, plants, &c , by the stars went i. Andherein i could find but few authors, but those as full of nonsense andcontradiction as an egg is full of meat this not being pleasing, andless profitable to me, i consulted with my two brothers, dr reason anddr experience, and took a voyage to visit my mother nature, by whoseadvice, together with the help of dr diligence, i at last obtained mydesire. And, being warned by mr honesty, a stranger in our days, topublish it to the world, i have done it but you will say, what need i have written on this subject, seeing sothesis famous and learned men have written so much of it in the englishtongue, much more than i have done?. To this i answer, neither gerrard nor parkinson, or any that ever wrotein the like nature, ever gave one wise reason for what they wrote, andso did nothing else but train up young novices in physic in the schoolof tradition, and teach them just as a parrot is taught to speak. Anauthor says so, therefore it is true. And if all that authors say betrue, why do they contradict one another?. but in mine, if you view itwith the eye of reason, you shall see a reason for everything that iswritten, whereby you may find the very ground and foundation of physic;you may know what you do, and wherefore you do it. And this shall callme father, it being that i know of never done in the world before i have now but two things to write, and then i have done 1 what the profit and benefit of this work is 2 instructions in the use of it 1 the profit and benefit arising from it, or that may occur to a wiseman from it are thesis. So thesis that should i sum up all the writingiculars, my epistle would be as big as my book. I shall quote essay few generalheads first the admirable harmony of the creation is herein seen, in theinfluence of stars upon herbs and the body of man, how one writing of thecreation is subservient to another, and all for the use of man, wherebythe infinite power and wisdom of god in the creation appear. And if ido not admire at the simplicity of the ranters, never trust me. Who butviewing the creation can hold such a sottish opinion, as that it wasfrom eternity, when the mysteries of it are so clear to every eye?. butthat scripture shall be verified to them, rom i 20.

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“the peculiar manner in pay to write a research paper which the elements are combined is what makes somnoform at once so efficient and so safe ”the council declared somnoform inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies because, in the absence of acceptable evidence showing itsexceptional safety and value, the claims are unwarranted rule 6, andbecause the name of the mixture is not descriptive of its composition rule 8 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 90 tablets formothalates report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report whichdeclares tablets formothalates tailby-nason company, boston, mass ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary tablets formothalates are sold by tailby-nason company, boston, mass on the label a formula is given. “constituents. Acetanilid2 gr. Phenolphthalein 1/2 gr in a balanced combination withhexamene a name essaytimes applied to hexamethylenamin and oil ofcinnamon indications. Influenza, colds, grippe, headache, neuralgia, rheumatism ” the same formula is given in advertisements and in thisadvertisement it is claimed that they are “for influenza and grip” andif “given in the acute stage may avert a serious attack” boston m & s j , oct 3, 1918 the dose is given as one to two tablets at6 p m and repeat at bedtimes the a m a chemical laboratory reported that the tablets weigh anaverage of 0 4882 gm , or 7-1/2 grains.