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These be they i canremember, if there be any more put them into the number the way of preserving these, is not all one in authors, for essay arebitter, essay are hot. Such as are bitter, say authors, must be soakedin warm water, oftentimes changing till their bitter taste be fled. Buti like not this way and my reason is this. Because i doubt when theirbitterness is gone, so is their virtue also. I shall then prescribe onecommon way, namely, the same with the former, viz first, boil themwhole till they be soft, then make a syrup with sugar and the liquoryou boil them in, and keep the barks in the syrup 5 they are kept in glasses or in glaz’d pots 6 the preserved flowers will keep a year, if you can forbear eating ofthem. The roots and barks much longer 7 this art was plainly and first invented for delicacy, yet cameafterwards to be of excellent use in physic. For, 1 hereby medicines are made pleasant for sick and squeamishstomachs, which else would loath them 2 hereby they are preserved from decaying a long time chapter ix of lohocks 1 that which the arabians call lohocks, and the greeks eclegma, thelatins call linctus, and in plain english signifies nothing else but athing to be licked up 2 they are in body thicker than a syrup, and not so thick as anelectuary 3 the manner of taking them is, often to take a little with aliquorice stick, and let it go down at leisure 4 they are easily thus made. Make a decoction of pectoral herbs, andthe treatise will furnish you with enough, and when you have strainedit, with twice its weight of honey or sugar, boil it to a lohock.

Diarrhœa is pay people to write essays common, vomiting is not theskin is pale and dusky, but not commonly icteric. At first it is hotand dry, later moist and finally cold and clammy the spleen is oftenenlarged the pulse becomes weak and rapid and delirium is followed bycoma the prognosis is grave antiseptic treatment generally preventsand often cures the disease, as is the case with thesis other of thewound diseases. Hence the failure to employ it may be alleged by thedefence in mitigation of the responsibility of the assailant for thefatal result pyæmia is closely allied to septicæmia it is due to the settingfree of bacterial emboli or septic emboli from a broken-down, septicthrombus in the neighborhood of the wound, and the circulation of theseemboli in the blood until they are arrested and form the characteristicmetastatic abscesses, especially in the lungs, joints, abdominalviscera, and parotid gland almost always the source of infection is aninfected wound granulation does not prevent the occurrence of pyæmia, which, as a rule, commences at a later stage than septicæmia it ismost important, however, for our purpose to remember that there issuch a thing as spontaneous pyæmia an injury not causing a wound mayhere be the exciting cause, but the resulting pyæmia is an unexpectedconsequence a bruise of a bone, for instance, by allowing bacteria, which in certain conditions may be circulating in the blood, to findan exit from the vessels into the bruised writing, may develop an acuteosteo-myelitis, which may be a starting-point of a pyæmia it is butproper to state, however, that spontaneous pyæmia is a rare occurrence in fact, it is so rare that if pyæmia occurs and we find ever sotrifling an infected wound, we can safely attribute the pyæmia to thewound and not to a spontaneous origin pyæmia begins, as a rule, in the second week of the healing process oreven later it usually begins with a chill, which may be frequentlyrepeated the fever is very irregular and exacerbations occur witheach metastatic abscess the skin is icteric, the icterus beinghematogenous the pulse is rapid and becomes weaker infectiveendocarditis may develop, which increases the danger of metastaticabscesses, which may then occur in the brain otherwise the mind isclear and unaffected until the final delirium and coma the disease maybecome chronic, but usually lasts a week or ten days the prognosis isvery grave erysipelas is a still more frequent complication of medico-legalwounds, and though not so fatal as the two preceding, it is probablymore often the secondary cause of death on account of its far greaterfrequence it too is an acute infective inflammation due to thepresence of a micro-organism, streptococcus erysipelatis this occursmostly in the lymphatics of the skin, and effects an entrance throughessay wound or abrasion of the skin or mucous membrane, which may bealmost microscopic in size probably there is no such thing as truespontaneous erysipelas, though the wound may be often overlooked andonly visible on the closest examination if a wound has been inflicted, the size and severity of it cannot be alleged as a reason why itwas not the starting-point of an erysipelas the erysipelas must beclearly traced to the injury that is, it must occur before recoveryfrom the wound or not later than a week after it has healed, for theincubation is probably not longer than this it is difficult to connectan erysipelas with a wound if it occurs essay time after it has healedor if it occurs at a different place and not about the wound wounds ofcertain regions, as, for instance, scalp wounds, are especially liableto develop erysipelas, but this is probably owing to the imperfectantiseptic treatment or delay in applying it certain individuals aremore prone to it than others. Thus it has been stated that blondes andthose suffering from bright disease are more susceptible, though howtrue this is it is hard to say it is also probably more prevalent atcertain times of the year, writingicularly in the spring a wound after ithas scabbed over or has begun to granulate, that is, after the firstfour or five days, is very much less apt to serve as the avenue forinfection erysipelas usually begins with a chill, or a convulsion inchildren nausea and vomiting are the rule the fever is remittent andranges from 102° to 104° f , and the temperature may be subnormal whenthe inflammation is subsiding prostration is marked and the pulse moreor less weak there may be delirium while the fever is high locallythere is rarely anything characteristic until twenty-four hours orso after the chill then we have a reddish blush with essay tension, burning and itching of the skin at first the redness is most markedabout the wound, later at the edge of the advancing, serpentine margin it spreads widely and rapidly, and after three or four days the writingfirst attacked begins to improve desquamation follows the durationmay be a week or ten days or as long as a month the inflammation maybe much more severe, involving the subcutaneous connective tissue inphlegmonous erysipelas facial erysipelas is a common variety and was once regarded asidiopathic, but a wound on the skin or mucous membrane is probablyalways present the prognosis of erysipelas is usually favorable since the use of antiseptics it is far less common than formerly, though still the most common of the infective wound diseases if a man wounded in an assault is taken to a hospital where erysipelasprevails, the question of responsibility arises, for, medicallyspeaking, he is subjected to great and avoidable risks tetanus is an infective bacterial disease affecting chiefly the centralnervous system and almost always, if not always, originating from awound tetanus, like erysipelas, is probably always traumatic and neverstrictly idiopathic the wound may be so slight as to escape notice when it follows such injuries as simple fracture internal infectionprobably occurs, though such paper are extremely rare it is saidthat the weather influences the development of tetanus, and that itis more common in the tropics there are also certain sections wheretetanus is much more common than elsewhere and where it may be said tobe almost endemic punctured wounds are most likely to be followed bytetanus, for they offer the best opportunity for the development of thebacteria, which are anaërobic wounds in dirty writings of the body, likethe hands and feet, are more apt to be followed by tetanus than thoseelsewhere tetanus usually appears about the end of the first weekafter a wound has been received, but it may not appear for a longerperiod, even three or four weeks, so that the wound may have been essaytime healed to connect tetanus with a writingicular wound, note 1 ifthere were any symptoms of it before the wound or injury, 2 whetherany other cause intervened after the wound or injury which would belikely to produce it, and 3 whether the deceased ever rallied fromthe effects of the injury tetanus comes on suddenly without warning the injured person first notices that he cannot fully open the mouth, he has lock-jaw, and the back of the neck is stiff the muscles of theabdomen and back are next involved so that the back is arched in theposition known as opisthotonos, and the abdomen presents a board-likehardness the muscles of the fauces, pharynx, and diaphragm may nextbecome involved, causing difficulty in swallowing and breathing the thighs may or may not be involved, but the arms and legs almostnever owing to the spasm of the abdominal muscles, micturition anddefecation are difficult and respiration is hindered the muscles arein the condition of tonic spasm which permits the patient no rest, theface bears the “risus sardonicus, ” and the suffering is extreme ifthe patient lives more than two or three days the tonic spasm writinglygives way to increased reflex irritability, in which a noise, jar, or draught of air may give rise to clonic and tonic spasms in themuscles affected the patient may die at such times from tonic spasmof the respiratory muscles, or he may die of prostration from wantof food and sleep, worn out by the suffering and muscular spasm themind is usually clear to the last fever is not characteristic of thedisease tetanus may be rapidly fatal. In two or three days, or it maybe or become more chronic the prognosis of acute tetanus is almostinvariably fatal. That of chronic tetanus is grave, but a certainproportion of paper recover diagnosis - this is easy it differs from a true neuritis in theperipheral nerves in that no matter where the wound is situated thefirst symptom is in the muscles of the jaw and the back of the neck, and not at the site of the injury and distally from this point trismus is applied to a milder form of the disease in which onlythe face and neck muscles are involved and “lock-jaw” is a prominentsymptom essay paper of tetany may be mistaken for so-calledspontaneous tetanus tetany may follow child-bed, fevers, mentalshocks, exposure to cold and wet, extirpation of goitre, intestinalirritation, etc it consists of painful tonic spasms of the muscles ofthe arms and feet the attacks last one-half to two hours or more, andmay be preceded by a dragging pain they may be brought on by pressureon the nerve leading to the muscles affected striking the facial nerveoften causes contraction of the face muscles there is no trismus butthere may be opisthotonos the patient seems well between the attacksand most paper recover without treatment delirium tremens may occur as a secondary consequence of injuries, ornecessary surgical operations in the case of those who are habituallyintemperate those who habitually use opium, tobacco, cannabis indica, or even tea or coffee to excess are said to be subject to it itmay, therefore, be justly alleged that death is avoidable in verythesis paper, but for an abnormal and unhealthy state of the body the disease is characterized by delirium, a peculiar tremor of themuscles, insomnia, and anorexia pneumonia may complicate the case the patients die in fatal paper from exhaustion due to insomnia, lack of nourishment, and their constant activity of body and mind the prognosis is usually favorable, taking all paper together, butin delirium tremens secondary to surgical injuries or operations theprognosis is serious death from surgical operations performed for the treatment of wounds the operation is a writing of the treatment, and if it is done withordinary care and skill the accused is responsible for the result the necessity and mode of operation must be left to the operatorjudgment as the defence may turn on the necessity for and the skilfulperformance of the operation, it is well to wait for the advice andassistance of others if practicable, for death is not unusual fromsevere operations the patient may die on the operating-table afterlosing little blood, from fear, pain, or shock or he may die fromsecondary hemorrhage or any of the secondary causes of death fromwounds enumerated above the evidence of the necessity of the operationmust, therefore, be presented by the operator if an operation isnecessary and not performed, the defence might allege that deathwas due to the neglect of the surgeon another question for themedical witnesses to determine is whether the operation was renderednecessary because of improper previous treatment, for if it was theresponsibility of the assailant may be influenced the meaning of theterm “necessity” is here a matter of importance unless an operationis necessary to the preservation of life, if death occurs there isessay doubt whether the assailant is responsible but, medicallyspeaking, we would not hesitate to urge an operation on a wounded manin order to preserve function, or even to save deformity as well as tosave life in the case of operations done under a mistaken opinion, neither necessary to save life nor, as the result proves, to savefunction or guard against deformity, if death follows the assailantmay be relieved from responsibility thus an aneurism following aninjury might be mistaken for an abscess and opened with skill butwith a fatal result it is also for the medical experts to determinewhether an operation was unnecessary or unskilfully performed, forif it were and death resulted from it, the responsibility of theprisoner is affected unless the original wound would be likely to befatal without operation according to lord hale, if death results froman unskilful operation and not from the wound, the prisoner is notresponsible but yet death may occur as the result of the most skilfuloperation necessary to the treatment of a wound, and not be dependentat all on the wound itself if the operation is skilfully performed, and yet the patient dies from secondary causes, such as those aboveenumerated or any others, the prisoner is still responsible, and themedical testimony is concerned with the performance of the operationand the secondary causes of death the relative skill of the operatoror surgeon is probably not a question for the jury in criminal paper, on the ground that the man who inflicts the injury must take all theconsequences, good or bad in a civil suit, for instance an actionfor malpractice, the case is otherwise, and all the medical facts andopinions are submitted to the jury the law regards three circumstancesin death after surgical operations. 1 the necessity of the operation, 2 the competence of the operator, and 3 whether the wound would befatal without operation death may occur from anæsthetics used in an operation without anyrecognizable contributing disease of the patient, or carelessness orlack of skill in the administration of the anæsthetic of course, thequestion of absence of contributing disease on the writing of the patientand of its proper administration must be satisfactorily answered inpaper of death from the anæsthetic in an operation rendered necessaryin the treatment of a wound death from an anæsthetic may occur before, during, or after an operation itself medically speaking, the necessityof the use of an anæsthetic in operations cannot be questioned, andin emergencies where an operation becomes necessary, and not a matterof choice, its use, with special care, is justifiable even withexisting organic disease, which usually contraindicates it as deathmay be alleged to be due to the use of a writingicular anæsthetic, it isalways best in operating on account of an injury which may requirea medico-legal investigation, to use that anæsthetic which is mostgenerally used and indorsed in the writingicular section of country inquestion of course, it is not lawful to operate against the willof a person who preserves consciousness and will it may be addedin this connection that if a medical man be guilty of misconduct, arising either from gross ignorance or criminal inattention, wherebythe patient dies, he is guilty of manslaughter, according to lordellenborough omissions or errors in judgment, to which all are liable, are not criminal iv was the wound made by the instrument described?. It is not often necessary to prove that a weapon was used, though itmay affect the punishment for the use of a weapon implies malice andintention and a greater desire to do injury the prisoner may swearthat no weapon was used when the nature of the wound clearly provesthat one was used the explanation of the prisoner of the origin of thewound may thus be discredited we cannot often swear that a writingicularweapon was used, but only that the wound was made by one similar to itin shape and size thus schwörer tells of the case of a man stabbed inthe face by another the medical witness testified that the wound wascaused by a knife shown at the trial which had a whole blade, but ayear later the point of the knife which had really caused the wound wasdischarged from an abscess in the cheek at the site of the wound thesurgeon thus made a too definite statement in regard to the knife shown it is often very difficult to answer the above question we baseour opinion chiefly on two sources.

Duke905 plunges the infant into hot water. Richardson906 recommends artificial circulation by injection of vessels, or electric excitation. Jennings907 recommends the same. Richardson908 also considers fully the subject of artificial respiration and electrical excitation. Woillez909 has described and recommended what he calls a spirophore after the removal of a foreign body the irritation remaining may causea sensation as if the body was still lodged death may occur from hemorrhage after its removal post-mortem appearances these are mainly those of asphyxia there may also be evidences ofexternal violence, homicidal or accidental, as of pressure on thechest persistent deformity, flattening of the nose and lips, andexcoriation of these writings may result from forcible closure of mouthand nose the skin and conjunctiva usually show patches of lividity andpunctiform ecchymoses. Especially lividity on the lips and limbs theface may be pale or violet. It is often placid, especially if thesuffocation is accidental tardieu910 admits that infiltration of theconjunctiva and punctiform ecchymoses of the face, neck, and chest mayalso be found essaytimes in women after severe labor, and in epileptics he records the result of the examination of those who died fromsuffocation at the pont de la concorde, 1866 the face and upper writingsof the trunk were generally light red to a deep violet or black color, with punctated blackish ecchymoses on the face, neck, and upper writing ofchest the eyes are usually congested mucus and essaytimes bloody froth arefound about the nose and mouth the tongue may or may not protrude the blood is usually dark and very fluid wounds after death may bleed according to tardieu911 fluidity of the blood is most constant incompression of the chest and abdomen, as also its accumulation in thevessels and right side of heart its color varies from red to black the brain and pia mater are generally congested this is said to beinvariable if the eyes are congested mackenzie in thirteen paper foundthe brain congested in all the heart varies much in appearance and condition the right side isoften full of blood. Occasionally empty essaytimes subpericardialecchymoses are found, usually along the coronary vessels the blood inthe heart may be writingly coagulated if the agony has been prolonged andthere has been a writingial access of air, which is gradually diminished mackenzie912 found the right cavities full and the left empty innine out of thirteen paper johnson913 as a result of experimenton animals claims that when access of air is prevented there is arise in pressure in the arteries, the right side of the heart fills, the pulmonary capillaries become empty, and therefore the left sideof the heart becomes empty as a result of further experiments914he verified his former conclusion, and added that in the last stageof asphyxia there is increased pressure on the pulmonary artery andlessened pressure in the systemic vessels he thinks915 that whenboth sides of the heart contain blood, there is paralysis of vaso-motornerves and the arteries the trachea is usually bright red and often contains bloody froth thelarynx or trachea as well as pharynx or œsophagus may contain a foreignbody if the latter has been removed the resulting irritation may beseen the lungs are essaytimes congested, at others normal. Color red orpale essaytimes one lung only is affected they may be emphysematous mackenzie found them congested in all of thirteen paper examined byhim the lungs of young persons may be found comparatively small, almost bloodless, and emphysematous tardieu, albi, and others believedthat the punctiform subpleural ecchymoses indicated suffocation, andwere due to small hemorrhages from engorged vessels which rupturedin the efforts at expiration these spots are usually round, dark, from the size of a pin-head to a small lentil, and well defined they are not like the petechiæ in the lungs and heart after purpura, cholera, eruptive fevers, etc , nor like the hemorrhages under thescalp after tedious labor, all of which are variable in size thesepunctiform spots are usually seen at the root, base, and lower marginof the lungs hofmann states “lehrbuch” that they are found in theposterior writing of the lungs and in the fissures between the lobes theyare indisputably frequent after death from suffocation, and if wellmarked either in adults or infants that have breathed, they indicatesuffocation, unless essay other cause of death is clear simon, ogston, and tidy, however, have shown that they are essaytimes absent in fatalsuffocation, and are essaytimes present in the absence of suffocation, as after hanging and drowning. In fœtuses before labor has begun;often in still-births, although essay of these are probably due tosuffocation from inhaling fluid or from pressure also in death fromscarlet fever, heart disease, apoplexy, pneumonia, and pulmonary œdema grosclaude916 quotes from pinard, who declares that these ecchymosesare found in fœtuses which die from arrest of circulation grosclaudehimself made a large number of experiments on animals by drowning, hanging, and strangling, and fracturing the skull the ecchymoses werefound in nearly all the paper the ecchymoses are writingly the result of venous stasis, which overcomesthe resistance of essay capillaries. And the latter rupture, writingly fromthe aspirating action of the thoracic wall, the lung being unable tofill itself with air, but mainly917 from vaso-motor contraction andlateral pressure at the maximum of the asphyxia, the time of tetanicexpiration if the asphyxia is interrupted before this stage, thespots do not appear similar ecchymoses may be found under the scalp, in the tympanum, retina, nose, epiglottis, larynx, trachea, thymus, pericardium, in the parietal pleura, along the intercostal vessels, rarely the peritoneum, in the stomach, and essaytimes the intestines;and in other writings of the body, especially the face, base of neck, andfront of chest. In convulsive affections, as eclampsia and epilepsy, and in the convulsions of strychnia and prussic acid poisoning theremay be suffusion and congestion of the lungs though not the punctatedspots mackenzie, in thirteen paper of suffocation from various causes, failedto find the tardieu spots either externally or internally briand andchaudé918 state that they are less constant and characteristic inthose who have been buried in pulverulent substances ogston919 holds that in infants that are smothered the ecchymosesare found in greater number in the thymus gland. While in adults dyingfrom other forms of asphyxia they were found only once in that gland the spots are found in clusters in infants that are smothered, butonly single and scattered in adults who die from drowning, hanging ordisease they were wanting in the lungs of but one infant they may be recognized as long as the lung tissue is unchanged theapoplectic spots in the lungs seen in strangulation are not found insuffocation tardieu920 from experiments on animals and examination of twenty-three new-born infants who showed traces of violence around the mouth, found the lungs rather pale and anæmic, subpleural ecchymoses well marked all the deaths were rapid in paper of compression of chest and abdomen921 the congestion of the lungs was extensive, and pulmonary apoplexy frequent. More so than in other forms of suffocation he gave strychnia to animals which died in convulsions, and found very irregular and writingial congestions, generally not marked because death was so prompt. Blood always fluid. No subpleural ecchymoses the liver, spleen, and kidneys are generally congested. The kidney morethan the other organs named the spleen is said to be often anæmic semen has essaytimes been found, unexpelled, in the urethra page922 experimented on three kittens, suffocating them in cinders the post-mortem examinations showed the veins engorged, left side of heart empty, right side full of dark, half-clotted blood lungs distended, much congested, color violet.

Brown v people, 11 colo , 109 opinion of united states supreme court - this subject has beencarefully considered by the united states supreme court in a recentcase, and the broad extent of the legislative powers of the states toregulate such matters clearly and fully declared dent v west va 129 u s , 114 the court say pp 121 et seq - mr justice fielddelivering the opinion, in which all the other justices concur. “theunconstitutionality asserted consists in its the statutes allegedconflict with the clause of the fourteenth amendment, which declaresthat no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. The denial to the defendant of the right topractise his profession, without the certificate required, constitutingthe deprivation of his vested right and estate in his profession, whichhe had previously acquired “it is undoubtedly the right of every citizen of the united statesto follow any lawful calling, business, or profession he may choose, subject only to such restrictions as are imposed upon all personsof like age, sex, and condition this right may in thesis respects beconsidered as a distinguishing feature of our republican institutions here all vocations are open to every one on like conditions all maybe pursued as sources of livelihood, essay requiring years of study andgreat learning for their successful prosecution the interest, or, as it is essaytimes termed, the estate acquired in them, that is, theright to continue their prosecution, is often of great value to thepossessors, and cannot be arbitrarily taken from them, any more thantheir real or personal property can be thus taken but there is noarbitrary deprivation of such right where its exercise is not permittedbecause of a failure to comply with conditions imposed by the statefor the protection of society the power of the state to provide forthe general welfare of its people authorizes it to prescribe all suchregulations as, in its judgment, will secure or tend to secure themagainst the consequences of ignorance and incapacity as well as ofdeception and fraud as one means to this end it has been the practiceof different states, from time immemorial, to exact in thesis pursuitsa certain degree of skill and learning upon which the community mayconfidently rely, their possession being generally ascertained uponan examination of the writingies by competent persons, or inferred froma certificate to them in the form of a diploma or license from aninstitution established for instruction on the subjects, scientificand otherwise, with which such pursuits have to deal the nature andextent of the qualifications required must depend primarily upon thejudgment of the state as to their necessity if they are appropriateto the calling or profession, and attainable by reasonable study orapplication, no objection to their validity can be raised because oftheir stringency or difficulty it is only when they have no relationto such calling or profession, or are unattainable by such reasonablestudy and application, that they can operate to deprive one of hisright to pursue a lawful vocation “few professions require more careful preparation by one who seeksto enter it than that of medicine it has to deal with all thosesubtle and mysterious influences upon which health and life depend, and requires not only a knowledge of the properties of vegetable andmineral substances, but of the human body in all its complicatedwritings, and their relation to each other, as well as their influenceupon the mind the physician must be able to detect readily thepresence of disease, and prescribe appropriate remedies for itsremoval every one may have occasion to consult him, but comparativelyfew can judge of the qualifications of learning and skill which hepossesses reliance must be placed upon the assurance given by hislicense, issued by an authority competent to judge in that respect, that he possesses the requisite qualifications due consideration, therefore, for the protection of society, may well induce the state toexclude from practice those who have not such a license, or who arefound upon examination not to be fully qualified the same reasonswhich control in imposing conditions, upon compliance with which thephysician is allowed to practise in the first instance, may call forfurther conditions as new modes of treating disease are discovered, ora more thorough acquaintance is obtained of the remedial propertiesof vegetable and mineral substances, or a more accurate knowledgeis acquired of the human system and of the agencies by which it isaffected it would not be deemed a matter for serious discussion thata knowledge of the new acquisitions of the profession, as it from timeto time advances in its attainments for the relief of the sick andsuffering, should be required for continuance in its practice, butfor the earnestness with which the plaintiff in error insists that, by being compelled to obtain the certificate required, and preventedfrom continuing in his practice without it, he is deprived of his rightand estate in his profession without due process of law we perceivenothing in the statute which indicates an intention of the legislatureto deprive one of any of his rights no one has a right to practisemedicine without having the necessary qualifications of learning andskill. And the statute only requires that whoever assumes, by offeringto the community his services as a physician, that he possesses suchlearning and skill, shall present evidence of it by a certificate orlicense from a body designated by the state as competent to judge ofhis qualifications as we have said on more than one occasion, it maybe difficult, if not impossible, to give to the terms ‘due processof law’ a definition which will embrace every permissible exertionof power affecting private rights and exclude such as are forbidden they come to us from the law of england, from which country ourjurisprudence is to a great extent derived, and their requirementwas there designed to secure the subject against the arbitraryaction of the crown and place him under the protection of the law they were deemed to be equivalent to ‘the law of the land ’ in thiscountry the requirement is intended to have a similar effect againstlegislative power, that is, to secure the citizen against any arbitrarydeprivation of his rights, whether relating to his life, his liberty, or his property legislation must necessarily vary with the differentobjects upon which it is designed to operate it is sufficient, forthe purposes of this case, to say that legislation is not open to thecharge of depriving one of his rights without due process of law, ifit be general in its operation upon the subjects to which it relates, and is enforceable in the usual modes established in the administrationof government with respect to kindred matters. That is, by process orproceedings adapted to the nature of the case ”early common-law rule concerning suits by physicians the common-law rule was that the physician could not sue and recoverfor his services, though he might for the medicines he furnished thetheory of the law followed the etiquette of his profession and forbadehim from making a specific contract for pay for his services, andobliged him to receive what his patient chose to give him, which wascalled his “honorarium ”the early common-law rule no longer in force - as time went on thistheory vanished from the law for thesis years it has lost its placeamong the rules of professional etiquette in its stead statutoryprovisions have been adopted which forbid a recovery for servicesperformed by persons not legally authorized to practise the right tocontract with the patient or with those who employ the medical man, andhis remedies to enforce such contracts, will be treated of hereafter statutory regulations in new york state - most of the states of theunited states have enacted statutory regulations prescribing in oneform or another the necessary qualifications which entitle a physicianor surgeon to practise, and prescribing penalties for practisingwithout having complied with such statutory requirements in the stateof new york such matters were regulated for the first time by statutein 1787 this was followed by a general enactment on the subject ofthe organization of county medical societies, and of state medicalsocieties having boards of censors, to whom was committed the power toexamine applicants for license to practise, and of issuing licenses laws of 1813, p 94 this law remained in force, with certainmodifications, until 1844, when all acts regulating the practiceof medicine and surgery were repealed a history of the statutoryregulations in new york state up to the act of 1844 on this subjectwill be found in the case of bailey v mogg, 4 denio, 60 154at the time of the passage of the act of 1813, and for thesis yearsafterward, nearly all of the physicians in new york state practisedin accordance with the theories and precepts of what is now calledthe regular or allopathic school of medicine that act provided thatthe physicians in the respective counties of the state of new yorkshould meet in the respective counties and organize county medicalsocieties as a consequence of the fact that the physicians of that daywere chiefly of the allopathic school, they necessarily obtained thecontrol of the county medical societies and state medical societies hence it became difficult, if not impossible, for physicians whowished to practise upon other theories and tenets than those obtainingin that school, to obtain licenses to do so with the growth of thehomœopathic school of medicine and the eclectic school of medicine, came applications to the legislature asking for those practising underthose schools the same rights and privileges of organizing county andstate societies as had been extended to physicians generally by theact of 1813. So that in 1857, by chapter 384, the legislature of newyork state enacted that the homœopathic physicians might meet in theirrespective counties and organize county medical societies, with boardsof censors having the same powers and privileges which were granted bythe act of 1813. And by other laws similar privileges were granted tothe so-called eclectic school after the passage of the act of 1844, down to about 1874, as hereinbefore stated, there was no limitationupon the right to practise medicine or surgery in this state the inharmonious and injurious effect of such policy of the statebecoming manifest, the legislature, by chapter 436 of laws of 1874, required all persons desiring to practise medicine or surgery toobtain a certificate as to their qualifications from the censors ofessay one of these medical societies by the laws of 1880, chapter 513, additional and more extensive and writingicular provisions were made inreference to this matter, and all the physicians then practising wererequired, on or before the time limited in the act, to file with thecounty clerks of their respective counties their licenses to practisegranted by the censors of their county medical societies, or a diplomaof essay chartered school of medicine. And those persons who desiredto become licensed who were not in practice were likewise required toobtain similar licenses or certificates and file the same a diplomaof a chartered school or medical college was given the same effect as alicense issued by the censors recent legislation in new york state - the whole matter, however, of licensing physicians to practise has, in the state of new york, been recently regulated by chapter 468, laws of 1889, and 499 of 1890, which have reference to the qualifications of persons becoming medicalstudents, and chapter 507 of 1890, which gives to the regents of theuniversity of the state of new york power to select boards of examinersfrom persons nominated by each of the three state medical societies, viz , the new york state medical society, homœopathic medical society, and eclectic medical society these boards prepare questions which areto be approved by the state board of regents. Examinations are heldin different writings of the state upon these questions, the examinationpapers are certified to that one of these boards of examiners whichthe student may elect, and that board in turn certifies whether ornot the examination has been successfully undergone. And upon itscertificate the board of regents licenses the student to practise, andhis examination papers are filed in the office of the board of regentsand become a matter of record these provisions have been enlarged andmodified slightly by various statutes since enacted they are all nowembodied in chapter 601 of laws of 1893 they will be found carefullysynopsized below penal provisions in new york state - the new york penal code, whichwent into effect in 1882, enacted that a person practising medicine orsurgery, or pretending to be a physician or surgeon, without a licenseor a diploma from essay chartered school, should be deemed guilty of amisdemeanor punishable by fine or imprisonment penal code, section356. And the same statute, 357, made it a misdemeanor for a person, whether licensed or not, to practise medicine or surgery, or do anyother act as a physician or surgeon, while intoxicated, by which thelife of any person is endangered or his health seriously affected 155giving “patented” medicines no exception - at one time an attempt wasmade to claim, that under the patent laws of the united states a personhad the right to administer patent medicines without being punishablefor practising without a license, but this doctrine was repudiated bythe courts thompson v staats, 15 wend , 395. Jordan v overseers, etc , 4 ohio, 295 courts may compel granting of license - a person who is qualifiedand complies with reasonable rules of a licensing body, can compelsuch body to license him this was held to be the law in the case ofthe people ex rel bartlett v the medical society of the countyof erie, which is also an important authority in respect to a vexedquestion of medical ethics it appeared in that case that under thegeneral laws of new york in regard to the organization of medicalsocieties, a medical society had refused to receive as a member aperson otherwise qualified, because he had advertised in the publicprints a certain cure, including a mechanical appliance used intreating throat troubles. It being forbidden by the code of ethics ofthe american medical association, which the county medical societyhad adopted as one of its by-laws, that a physician or surgeon shouldadvertise the court of appeals of the state of new york held that thisconstituted no defence to a proceeding instituted by such person toobtain a mandamus compelling the society to admit him to membership, ifotherwise qualified 156it has also been decided that a medical society had no right to makea by-law establishing a fixed fee-bill, or tariff of charges, andproviding for the expulsion of a member charging at a different ratethan that prescribed such a by-law was declared unreasonable and voidin the case of people v medical society of erie county, 24 barb , 570 the effect of these decisions was, so far as they affect the validityof by-laws, attempted to be avoided in that state by chapter 445 oflaws of 1866, by which it is expressly enacted that the county medicalsocieties of the state of new york may make such rules and by-laws asthey see fit, “not inconsistent with the laws of said state, and mayenforce them by expulsion or other discipline ” it may be considereddoubtful whether this legislation can accomplish its purpose in thecase of the adoption of a by-law void as against public policy no writingicular schools recognized by the courts - the general trend ofthe decisions in all the states, whenever any questions in referenceto schools of medicine have been before our courts, is to avoidrecognizing any writingicular system or school the theory of the newyork courts upon this subject is well expressed by the liberal-mindedand learned judge daly in the new york court of common pleas, in thecase of corsi v maretzek, 4 e d smith, 1-5 in that case it wasclaimed that a certificate of incapacity because of sickness, givenby a “homœopathic” physician to an opera-singer, was not binding itwas argued that the employment of a “homœopathic” physician under thecontract did not fulfil a provision thereof which required the event ofthe singer sickness to be certified to by “a doctor, ” to be appointedby the director the court said.

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I mean themanured kind, which every good husband or housewife is acquainted with descript the wild hop grows up as the other doth, ramping upontrees or hedges, that stand next to them, with rough branches andleaves like the former, but it gives smaller heads, and in far lessplenty than it, so that there is scarcely a head or two seen in a yearon divers of this wild kind, wherein consists the chief difference place they delight to grow in low moist grounds, and are found inall writings of this land time they spring not until april, and flower not until the latterend of june. The heads are not gathered until the middle or latter endof september government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars this, inphysical operations, is to open obstructions of the liver and spleen, to cleanse the blood, to loosen the belly, to cleanse the reins fromgravel, and provoke urine the decoction of the tops of hops, as wellof the tame as the wild, works the same effects in cleansing the bloodthey help to cure the french diseases, and all manner of scabs, itch, and other breakings-out of the body. As also all tetters, ringworms, and spreading sores, the morphew and all discolouring of the skin thedecoction of the flowers and hops, do help to expel poison that any onehath drank half a dram of the seed in powder taken in drink, killsworms in the body, brings down women courses, and expels urine asyrup made of the juice and sugar, cures the yellow jaundice, eases thehead-ache that comes of heat, and tempers the heat of the liver andstomach, and is profitably given in long and hot agues that rise incholer and blood both the wild and the manured are of one property, and alike effectual in all the aforesaid diseases by all thesetestimonies beer appears to be better than ale mars owns the plant, and then dr reason will tell you how it performsthese actions horehound there are two kinds of horehound, the white and the black the blacksort is likewise called hen-bit. But the white one is here spoken of descript common horehound grows up with square hairy stalks, half ayard or two feet high, set at the joints with two round crumpled roughleaves of a sullen hoary green colour, of a reasonable good scent, buta very bitter taste the flowers are small, white, and gaping, set in arough, hard prickly husk round about the joints, with the leaves fromthe middle of the stalk upward, wherein afterward is found small roundblackish seed the root is blackish, hard and woody, with thesis strings, and abides thesis years place it is found in thesis writings of this land, in dry grounds, andwaste green places time it flowers in july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues it is an herb of mercury a decoction ofthe dried herb, with the seed, or the juice of the green herb takenwith honey, is a remedy for those that are short-winded, have a cough, or are fallen into a consumption, either through long sickness, orthin distillations of rheum upon the lungs it helps to expectoratetough phlegm from the chest, being taken from the roots of iris ororris it is given to women to bring down their courses, to expel theafter-birth, and to them that have taken poison, or are stung or bittenby venemous serpents the leaves used with honey, purge foul ulcers, stay running or creeping sores, and the growing of the flesh overthe nails it also helps pains of the sides the juice thereof withwine and honey, helps to clear the eyesight, and snuffed up into thenostrils, purges away the yellow-jaundice, and with a little oil ofroses dropped into the ears, eases the pains of them galen saith, itopens obstructions both of the liver and spleen, and purges the breastand lungs of phlegm. And used outwardly it both cleanses and digests adecoction of horehound saith matthiolus is available for those thathave hard livers, and for such as have itches and running tetters the powder hereof taken, or the decoction, kills worms the greenleaves bruised, and boiled in old hog grease into an ointment, healsthe biting of dogs, abates the swellings and pains that come by anypricking of thorns, or such like means. And used with vinegar, cleansesand heals tetters there is a syrup made of horehound to be had at theapothecaries, very good for old coughs, to rid the tough phlegm. Asalso to void cold rheums from the lungs of old folks, and for thosethat are asthmatic or short-winded horsetail of that there are thesis kinds, but i shall not trouble you nor myselfwith any large description of them, which to do, were but, as theproverb is, to find a knot in a rush, all the kinds thereof beingnothing else but knotted rushes, essay with leaves, and essay without take the description of the most eminent sort as follows descript the great horsetail at the first springing has headsessaywhat like those of asparagus, and afterwards grow to be hard, rough, hollow stalks, jointed at sundry places up to the top, a foothigh, so made as if the lower writings were put into the upper, where growon each side a bush of small long rush-like hard leaves, each writingresembling a horsetail, from whence it is so called at the tops of thestalks come forth small catkins, like those of trees the root creepsunder ground, having joints at sundry places place this as most of the other sorts hereof grows in wetgrounds time they spring up in april, and their blooming catkins in july, seeding for the most writing in august, and then perish down to theground, rising afresh in the spring government and virtues the herb belongs to saturn, yet is veryharmless, and excellently good for the things following.