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“sal hepatica is composed solely of harmless salts, being absolutely free from acetanilid, phenacetin, caffein, calomel, opium or coal tar derivatives ”since neither the names nor the amounts of the “harmless salts” arementioned, the composition of sal hepatica is secret it is a trickof the nostrum exploiter, old but ever popular, to mention numerousdrugs which his preparation does not contain. It helps to distractattention from the fact that he does not tell what the preparationdoes contain!. In the old-time medical journal advertisements, one reads, “salhepatica is the most powerful solvent of uric acid known ” the sameadvertisement as it appeared in those days in the journal showsthat claim toned down to, “sal hepatica is a powerful solvent ofuric acid ” in those easy going days, the bristol-myers companydeclared that “diabetes is treated with decided advantage by meansof sal hepatica it possesses the property of arresting thesecretion of sugar in the liver ” in the old days, too, sal hepaticawas recommended in the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver, brightdisease, gravel, phthisis, etc the present advertising circular recommends sal hepatica as aneliminant, laxative or cathartic in gout, autointoxication, “biliousattacks, ” rheumatism, acute indigestion, catarrhal conditions ofthe stomach, pyorrhea, headache, dizziness, heart burn, “summercomplaints, ” “derangements of the stomach and liver, ” skin diseases, colic, alcoholic excesses, and as a “preventive of seasickness ”in 1914 the council on pharmacy and chemistry published256 a reporton sal hepatica declaring it secret in composition and sold underexaggerated and unwarranted claims 256 j a m a , feb 7, 1914, p 472 in view of the inquiries which the journal continues to receive itseemed worth while to make a chemical examination of the present-dayproduct accordingly specimens were purchased and analyzed in thea m a chemical laboratory the report that follows was submitted bythe chemists:“sal hepatica is a white, granular, odorless powder it effervesces onthe addition of water in which it eventually dissolves the aqueoussolution, after boiling to remove carbon dioxid, has an acid reactionto litmus “since a great thesis medicinal substances are sold in effervescent form, and since practically no information is given by the manufacturerconcerning the composition of sal hepatica, it became necessary totest for a considerable number of therapeutic agents the absence ofacetanilid, acetphenetidin, alkaloids, ammonium salts, benzoates, caffein, citrates, heavy metals, hexamethylenamin, magnesium, potassium, salicylates and sugars was demonstrated by appropriatetests the presence of a carbonate probably in the form of abicarbonate, a phosphate, a sulphate, a chlorid, tartaric acid, sodiumand traces of lithium was shown by qualitative tests “quantitative analysis indicated that the composition of the specimensexamined was essentially as follows. Sodium phosphate, anhydrous 4 4 per cent sodium sulphate, anhydrous 26 5 per cent sodium tartrate, anhydrous 12 7 per cent sodium bicarbonate 19 5 per cent tartaric acid, free 20 8 per cent sodium chlorid 8 9 per cent lithium phosphate trace water of hydration by difference 7 2 per cent “from the results of the analysis, it appears probable that thecomposition of the mixture before ‘granulation’ was approximately asfollows. Sodium phosphate 4 per cent sodium sulphate 25 per cent sodium bicarbonate 30 per cent tartaric acid 30 per cent sodium chlorid 8 per cent lithium phosphate trace water of hydration by difference 3 per cent “sal hepatica, therefore, is essentially an effervescing mixture ofdried sodium sulphate glauber salt and sodium tartrate with alittle dried sodium phosphate and table salt added it is similar tothe effervescent artificial carlsbad salt described in the nationalformulary “in 1909 the druggists circular published the following analysis ofsal hepatica. Sodium phosphate 29 80 writings sodium sulphate glauber salt 26 27 writings sodium bicarbonate baking soda 18 00 writings sodium chlorid salt 13 05 writings lithium phosphate 0 04 writings citric and tartaric acids to make 100 12 84 writings“a comparison of the recent analysis with the earlier one would seem toindicate that considerable changes have been made in the formula sincethe first examination the proportions of sodium phosphate have beengreatly reduced, while the sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid havebeen increased and the citric acid entirely eliminated ”sal hepatica, then, is a simple effervescent saline laxative, essentially secret in composition and sold under claims that would belaughed at were the full formula of the product a matter of publicknowledge -- from the journal a m a , oct 29, 1921 salicon“salicon” is marketed by the k a hughes company, boston, as “animproved aspirin ” in a circular sent out to the public a little over ayear ago the following claims were made for it.

2012 dec 30 1916 animal experiments carried out in the u s hygienic laboratory byvoegtlin and smith143 show that pay for someone to write your paper mon-arsone is devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action thus the “therapeutic ratio” the ratio of theminimal effective dose to the lethal dose was about 1, that is, itwas effective therapeutically only in approximately fatal doses. Thetherapeutic ratio for arsphenamine in similar conditions was 17, andthat of neoarsphenamine, 28 143 voegtlin, carl, and smith, h w. J pharmacol and exper therap 16.

Outwardly inpultisses, it assuages swellings in the privities and elsewhere mellissa balm hot and dry. Outwardly mixed with salt and applied tothe neck, helps the king-evil, bitings of mad dogs, venomous beasts, and such as cannot hold their neck as they should do. Inwardly it isan excellent remedy for a cold and moist stomach, cheers the heart, refreshes the mind, takes away griefs, sorrow, and care, instead ofwhich it produces joy and mirth see the syrup galen, avicenna mentha sativa garden mints, spear mints are hot and dry in thethird degree, provoke hunger, are wholeessay for the stomach, stayvomiting, stop the menses, help sore heads in children, strengthen thestomach, cause digestion.

But indeed all parsley iscalled by the name of apium, of which this is one kind it is essaythinghotter and dryer than parsley, and more efficacious. It opens stoppingsof the liver, and spleen, cleanses the blood, provokes the menses, helps a cold stomach to digest its meat, and is good against the yellowjaundice both smallage and clevers, may be well used in pottage in themorning instead of herbs aparine goose-grass, or clevers. They are meanly hot and dry, cleansing, help the bitings of venomous beasts, keep men bodies fromgrowing too fat, help the yellow jaundice, stay bleeding, fluxes, andhelp green wounds dioscorides, pliny, galen, tragus aspergula odorata wood-roof. Cheers the heart, makes men merry, helps melancholy, and opens the stoppings of the liver aquilegia columbines. Help sore throats, are of a drying, bindingquality argentina silver-weed, or wild tansy.

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It can give only an unbiasedjudgment on the available evidence criticisms and corrections ofthe descriptions which may aid in the revision of the matter will beappreciated the council judges an article entirely by the facts inevidence at the time of its admission previous noncompliance with therules short of intentional fraud does not prevent the favorableconsideration of an article which is in accord with existing rules infringements of the rules after acceptance of an pay for someone to write your paper article for new andnonofficial remedies, or the discovery that the council informationwas incorrect, will cause the acceptance to be reconsidered an articleis accepted for new and nonofficial remedies, and will continue to beincluded in the book, with the understanding that serious violations ofthe rules, after acceptance, will be followed by the omission of thearticle and publication of the reasons for such omission the councildesires physicians to understand that the admission of an article doesnot imply a recommendation acceptance simply means that no conflictwith the rules has been found by the council duration of acceptance -- unless an agreement to the contrary is madeat the time of acceptance, articles admitted to new and nonofficialremedies will be retained for a period of three years, provided thatduring that period they comply with the rules and regulations whichwere in force at the time of their acceptance at the end of thisperiod all articles will be carefully reexamined for compliance withexisting rules writingicular weight will be given to the question as towhether recent evidence has substantiated claims as to the therapeuticvalue of any preparation, this evidence to consist writingly of recentstatements in the literature and writingly of the general esteem in whichthe preparation is held by clinical consultants of the council thereacceptance of articles after such reexamination shall be for threeyears unless a shorter period is specified any amendments to therules, by specific requirements or by interpretation, which may be madeafter the acceptance of an article, shall not apply to such articleuntil the period of acceptance has elapsed at the end of this periodthe article, if it is not eligible under the amended rules, will beomitted the scope of new and nonofficial remedies and appendix -- to aidphysicians and manufacturers in deciding what articles come withinthe scope of this book, or, in other words, to enable physiciansto recognize whether an article which is not described in new andnonofficial remedies has been omitted because it does not needadmission or because it has been rejected, the council furnishes thefollowing more detailed definitions:official articles -- articles official in the u s p or n f do notrequire consideration by the council if they are marketed under theofficial name and if no unestablished therapeutic claims are made forthem these do not require consideration by the council, since standards forthem are provided in these books, and enforced under the provisionsof the federal food and drugs act, except that they may be mentionedfor information consideration by the council becomes necessary if au s p or n f product is offered for sale under a name other thanthat, or the synonyms, under which the product is described in one ofthese books of standards, or if the proprietors or their agents advanceclaims that the product possesses therapeutic properties other thanthose commonly accredited to it modifications of u s p and n f products -- a pharmacopeial ornational formulary product which is marketed under the official titleor synonym, but with well-founded claims that its purity, permanence, palatability or other physical properties excel the official standard, may, if no extraordinary therapeutic properties are asserted, beconsidered as an official article and held not to be within the scopeof new and nonofficial remedies when such products are marketed underthe claim that they possess therapeutic properties other than thosecommonly accredited to the u s p or n f products of which theyare modifications, they shall be subject to the consideration of thecouncil specifically exempted preparations -- foods, in general, unless marketedwith the claim that they possess therapeutic properties shall not, atthe present time, be considered by the council mechanical appliances, at the present time, shall not be considered by the council mineralwaters natural, at the present time, shall not be considered by thecouncil with these exceptions, products which in the judgment of thecouncil are manufactured and marketed in conformity to the principlesunderlying the rules of the council may be accepted for n n r products which are manufactured and marketed in a manner which does notconform to the principles underlying the rules of the council shall notbe accepted for n n r the burden of proof in establishing claimsfor therapeutic properties of products considered by the council shalllie with the proprietor or, when a foreign made product, with theagent who markets the product in the united states to avoid confusionwith nonofficial substances marketed under similar names, the councilrecommends that official substances be prescribed by their officialtitles, followed by the abbreviation “u s p ” or “n f ”. Thus:tinctura nucis vomicae, u s p. Elixir gentianae, n f substances described in new and nonofficial remedies -- in the body ofthe book will be described simple proprietary substances and theirpreparations. Proprietary mixtures if they have originality or otherimportant qualities which, in the judgment of the council, entitle themto such place, and important, nonproprietary, unofficial articles the council recommends that when the latter are prescribed, theybe indicated by the abbreviation, “n n r , ” thus insuring to theprescriber the quality of these articles laid down in the book proprietary mixtures -- a mixture will be considered as proprietary, and therefore requiring consideration by the council for admissionto the book or appendix, if it contains any proprietary article. Ifit is marketed under a name which is in any way protected, or ifits manufacturer claims for it any unusual therapeutic qualities proprietary mixtures which are marketed in conformity with therules are listed in the appendix of the book under the names of therespective manufacturers such proprietary mixtures are not admittedto the body of the book, save in the exceptional paper cited in thepreceding paragraph nonproprietary mixtures of official substances -- since the ingredientsof such mixtures do not require consideration by the council, andsince the mixtures are not open to the proprietary abuses which callfor the work of the council, it is not necessary that they should beinvestigated by the council the physician must judge whether suchmixtures should be directed to be prepared by the pharmacist, orwhether he is justified in ordering a ready-made preparation if hedecides to use a ready-made, nonproprietary preparation, he must judgefor himself whether it is marketed in accordance with the rules itshould, however, be remembered that the application of a trade name toany substance makes it proprietary explanation of rule 1. Compositionsecrecy objectionable -- it is not only the right but also the duty ofthe physician to know the essential composition of what he prescribes;the council cannot compromise on this proposition vehicles and preservatives -- in the case of mixtures, not only thepotent ingredient, but also the general character of the vehicle, thepresence of alcohol, and the identity of preservatives, or of any othersubstance, whether added or present as an impurity, must be stated ifthese can under any circumstances affect the therapeutic action ofthe article this, as a rule, does not mean the publication of tradesecrets, such as flavors or the details of the working formula trade secrets -- furthermore, trade secrets will not be received asconfidential by the council, since it accepts information only withthe distinct understanding that this may be freely published, at itsdiscretion inspection of factories -- the council does not accept invitations toinspect factories. Its concern is with the finished products on the other hand, the council requires that the information becomplete and accurate as to medicinal ingredients unofficial constituents -- unofficial constituents of proprietarymixtures must be presented by the manufacturer in the regular way andmust be acted on by the council before the preparations containing themcan be accepted fraud -- when it appears that a manufacturer has made a deliberatelyfalse statement concerning a product, he is asked to furnish anexplanation. And if this is not satisfactory, the product will not beaccepted, even if the false statement is subsequently corrected oromitted testimonials -- the foregoing paragraph applies not only to statementsmade to the council, but also to statements furnished to physicians bythe manufacturer or his agents, even when these statements are in theguise of testimonials explanation of rule 2.