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“superior to ordinary salicylates can be taken continuously and indefinitely without gastric irritation, insuring maximum efficiency ” “reports show surprisingly good results, even where the sodium salt fails ”as there is no evidence to show that strontium salicylate, calciumsalicylate or a mixture of the two salts has any advantage oversodium salicylate, these claims cannot be accepted the name and thestatement of composition are objectionable in that they do not revealthe identity of the drugs in “calcylates” and in suggesting that thispreparation possesses radical advantages over salicylates in otherforms the papers help drug products company was told that the facts just mentionedrendered “pulvoids calcylates” ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies the company in its reply objected to the councilconclusions, and in support of its position submitted testimonials froma number of physicians the reply of the company embodied no facts orarguments which had not been considered by the council referee, andthe testimonials from physicians contained no evidence to show that thecombination has any real advantage over sodium salicylate the council therefore declared “pulvoids calcylates” ineligible fornew and nonofficial remedies for the following reasons. Unwarrantedtherapeutic claims are made for the mixture rule 6. The name does notdescribe the composition rule 8, and the mixture is an unessentialmodification of an established remedy sodium salicylate rule10 -- from the journal a m a , sept 9, 1916 sulfuryl monal report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrysulfuryl monal is said to be manufactured by monal frères, manufacturing chemists of nancy, france it is sold in the unitedstates by george j wallau, inc , new york city according to the label. {contains. Sulfuryl combined polysulphurets { 0 35 centigr ” “each pastille { {liberates. Nascent sulphurretted hydrogen { 2 cub cent ”the chemical laboratory of the american medical association wasrequested to check the amount of available hydrogen sulphid anoriginal bottle of sulfuryl monal was used. This contained tabletshaving the taste of licorice extract and an odor of hydrogen sulphid the tablets were found to liberate about 6 c c hydrogen sulphid toeach tablet among the claims made for the preparation are. “dissolved by the saliva, sulfuryl monal reaches the stomach where, under the influence of the gastric juice, it generates nascent sulphuretted hydrogen professor albert robin remarkable researches have proven that it is in the nascent state that drugs produce the greatest effect with the smallest dose being thus eliminated by the entire respiratory tract. The lungs, bronchi and the throat, the sulphurretted hydrogen passes from the interior to the exterior, that is to say, goes right through these organs which are, as a consequence, thoroughly cleansed, antisepticized and freed of the pathogenic micro-organisms then, again, writing of the sulphuretted hydrogen, liberated in the stomach, is eliminated by the mouth and acts as an antiseptic and disinfectant of the mucous membranes of the throat and mouth hence sulfuryl monal is a perfect protective agent against contagious diseases numerous clinical tests have demonstrated its real efficacy in diseases of the throat and of the respiratory tract. Laryngitis, pharyngitis, hoarseness, granulations, tonsillitis, colds, bronchitis, pulmonary catarrh, asthma, emphysema, grippe, whooping cough, simple and infectious pneumonia, and in the first stage of pulmonary tuberculosis ”the sulphids are practically ignored in modern textbooks there is arather extensive clinical literature on the subject, writingicularly inconnection with sulphur waters.

Congestion of larynx and trachea, etc no conclusion can be drawn from the papers help presence or absence of any singleappearance a cord may be found near a body or even around its neck. There may evenbe a mark around the neck these may be attempts at deception marks much like those of violence may be made by tight collars andhandkerchiefs remaining until the body is cold paper are reported of bodies having been first strangled and thenburnt or hung to cover the crime. And of writingial suffocation by gags, followed by or coincident with strangulation see paper 18, 20, 24 in apoplectics with short and full neck we may find at the borders ofthe folds of skin in the neck one or more depressions, red or livid, that bear essay resemblance to the marks of a ligature.

Hewas instructed in astrology by his teacher, the subsequent pope, hadrian vi the court of denmark was the center of astrologicalteachings under frederick ii , as no less a personage than tycho debrahe was active there but not only rulers favored astrology, it metwith implicit belief from highly enlightened scholars, statesmen, andnaturalists thus, melanchthon was so convinced an adherent of allastrological doctrines that he was incessantly active in their favor bymouth and by pen and when fatal disease had finally seized upon him, he was soon satisfied as to the issue, in that mars and saturn happenedto be in conjunction möhsen, vol ii , page 416 however, men were not wanting who courageously took up the battleagainst astrological delusions thus, for instance, the friend oflorenzo of medici, the learned count pico of mirandola 1463-1494;also girolamo fracastori 1483-1553, who is known by his didactic poemon syphilis, opposed astrology if we now ask how it was possible that a superstition like astrologycould for centuries dominate occidental medicine, and was even ableto influence the best minds in its favor, an answer to this questionwill not be as difficult as might appear at first glance the verybest and the most enlightened minds are always writingicularly affectedby what is enigmatical and mysterious in the phenomena of life theyperceive the narrow limits set to our cognition of nature much moreacutely and deeply than the average mind this consciousness of theinsufficiency of our own knowledge, joined with an ardent desire aftera broadening of our understanding, tends to turn the mind in strangedirections the result of clearer self-knowledge in this modern epochof ours is an adverseness to any form of romantic fancy, and is likelyto end in a sad resignation that may result in pessimism but themiddle ages, with their exuberant confidence and faith, their belief inwonders, and their romantic ideas, did not suffer to any great extentfrom scientific apathy a sharply defined, mystic tendency helped toovercome what was inadequate in the cognition of nature and for thisreason do we find this mystic tendency prominent, especially in thoserepresentatives of that period who, owing to their mental capacity, were bound to perceive their defective insight into the manifestationsof life much more intensely than this papers help was felt by the average personsof narrower intellect the conditions thus described, as well as the diagnostico-theoreticalprinciples on which medicine and natural sciences were based inantiquity and in the middle ages, until late in the eighteenth centuryled thesis mentally gifted men to consider astrology rather a refuge fromthe current defective conception of natural phenomena than a falsedoctrine viinfluence exerted upon the development of superstition by medicineitselfas ancient, medieval, and essay more modern theories of medicine havetraveled over the same diagnostico-theoretical roads as did the naturalscience of those periods, they were naturally subject to the sameerrors and aberrations but the consequences of their errors differedmaterially whereas natural science, in the early and middle ages, with its faulty diagnostico-theoretical method, too frequently hadrecourse to supernatural factors to explain terrestrial phenomena, andthus created superstition instead of elucidation, the pathology ofancient as well as of medieval medicine avoided as much as possibleany recourse to miraculous agencies in explaining the pathologicalphenomena of the body this it was forced to do for the sake ofself-preservation for what would have become of the physicians withtheir art, which was of a purely material kind, working as it did withdrug and knife, if they themselves had traced disease to supernaturalcauses?. no one, under such conditions, would have had any dealingswith mundane medical science it is true, there have been times whensuch a state of things actually existed the physician, with hisearthly appliances, was always led astray as soon as metaphysical ideashad victoriously entered pathology history affords numerous examplesof this the cult of relics, the belief in astrology during half of themiddle ages, show plainly to what a degrading position the physicianwas reduced as soon as a pathology reckoning with earthly factors wasreplaced by a metaphysical theory of disease then the physician waseither completely thrust aside ἀλλ’ ὠθεῖται μὲν ἒξω νοσοῦντος ὁἰατρός, as says plutarch “superstition, ” vol i , page 412 or hewas forced to submit to a disgraceful interference all schools ofmedicine, therefore, from the humoral pathology of the followers ofhippocrates to the so-called parasitism of the nineteenth century, have avoided as much as possible the acknowledgment that supernaturalinfluences were active as pathological factors various as theprinciples of the countless medical schools may have been, they wereall united in assuming as the starting-point of their speculations essaymaterial process of the body itself, in accordance with which theyapplied their therapeutic agencies essaytimes, it is true, it would seem as tho medicine, under essaycircumstances, had recourse to supernatural factors in explainingvarious phenomena of physiological as well as pathological conditions;as, for instance, in the primeval pneuma-doctrine, or in thoseconceptions which attribute to a mental or psychical principle afar-reaching influence upon the performance of all bodily functions upon closer investigation, however, we shall find that the pneuma, or spirit, the soul, or whatever else the mysterious mainspringof all phenomena of life may be called, was by no means conceivedof by medicine as immaterial or supernatural on the contrary!. Medicine, as often as it required a spiritual essaything to explainthe manifestations of the body, has always regarded this unknownquantity as thoroughly substantial it has not, indeed, been possibleto determine more precisely the material nature of this great unknown, altho such attempts are by no means wanting in democritus, galen, andothers. Still it was always considered a corporeal thing supernaturalqualities were ascribed to it only after death, but so long as the soulanimated the body, united with the latter, it was a terrestrial being, and as such obeyed the laws of terrestrial substance it was possiblefor medical science, therefore, to reckon with it in the explanationof pathological processes without necessarily expecting a reproach thatsupernatural agencies were called in for assistance medicine, therefore, altho it has traveled the samediagnostico-theoretical road as natural science, has not, like thelatter, directly produced superstition it is true, it has calledforth innumerable erroneous hypotheses but a wrong hypothesis, althoit may be nonsensical to the utmost and give rise to the most seriouspractical consequences, is by no means superstition. For both errorand superstition so far as it is a question of medical matters are tworadically different conceptions, because the former concerns itselfonly with natural, the latter with supernatural factors yet it is quite conceivable that the dissemination of an intellectualprinciple can be furthered and promoted without overt advocacy of theprinciple itself, and this was the relation that existed for thousandsof years between medicine and superstition. For we learn from thisinvestigation that the representatives of medicine were too often readyto admit all kinds of superstitious views into medicine wheneverreligion, philosophy, and natural science have seriously attempted toinfluence medicine in a manner promoting superstition, medical scienceyielded to these attempts, and this is the only reproach which can bejustly laid at the door of our science however, this reproach is mitigated if we consider that medicine didnot accord a home to superstition of its own free will, or even froma predilection for the heresies of other disciples, but it did sounder compulsion. For the religious, the philosophical, the physicalviews which forced the entrance of superstition into medical sciencewere almost always the views of a formidable writingy it is a factsufficiently demonstrated by history that powerful and far-reachingpredilections of the popular mind resistlessly hurry along whatever isin their path such mental currents are the products of their period;they are the immediate result of the general sentiment and feelingof their time, and for this very reason they successfully overcomeresistance the opinion of a single individual may raise a protestagainst the spirit of the age, but this resistance is always bound tobe in vain the opinion of a single individual, even if it actuallyrepresents the truth, is absolutely powerless to resist the spirit ofthe age which, with elemental force, compels obedience therefore, thecourageous, truth-seeking resistance which was offered to the heresiesof medicina astrologica by pico of mirandola and girolamo fracastoriwas bound to be futile, because astrology was a genuine child of itstime, and therefore held irresistible sway over thought and sentiment if religion and philosophy so often interfered with the development ofmedicine, this was only possible because the general tendency of thecontemporary mind was thoroughly absorbed in this or that religious orphilosophical idea for each domain of human activity must needs be amere reflection of the tendency which guides the mind of its period this is a law which, with iron force, dominates the development ofculture superstition in medicine, therefore, was bound to flourish andthrive whenever it harmonized with the spirit of the age this law, tho it may have checked the development of our science, nevertheless holds out the certain promise of a period, theintellectual power of which will thoroughly clear away all relics ofsuperstition, which, still persisting in the minds of the thesis, drivesthem to the faith-curist and to the quack viimedical superstition and insanitythe history of medicine is conjoined with the evolution of theologyto an extent which makes them almost inseparable, and this maybest be seen from a study of the management of the insane, whichis a continuous record of cruelty based upon medico-theologicalsuperstition perhaps the most heartrending chapter of unphilosophicaltheology teems with the narration of thousands of unfortunatebeings murdered, tortured, and mishandled by the finesse in theinterpretation of biblical texts the greatest triumph of modernmedicine has consisted in unfettering the views of effete centuries, born of superstition and misconception, and in placing the treatmentof the insane upon a humane, often even a curative, plane as otherafflictions of humanity were attributed to the agency of evil spirits, this was writingicularly the case with insanity. For if the evil one foundit an easy task to control the corporeal acts of humanity, his powerover the mental functions of the person afflicted was even greater hence, it was not the person who acted, but the evil spirit in him thus, the devil and his minions were the specific pathogenic agents this conception was not universal, for history shows us that clearthinkers, far in advance of their times, had an almost correct viewof the nature of insanity namely, that it was due to an affection ofthe mind among such men were hippocrates, aretæus, soranus, galen, aurelianus, etc , and essay of the mohammedan physicians these apostlesof science taught that insanity was a disease of the brain, and themost efficient remedy, mild, palliative treatment the belief which had flourished in most of the oriental religions fromremote antiquity, that the power of evil demons was the active causeof disease, writingicularly that lunacy was due to diabolic possession, became rooted in the early christian church and flourished for eighteencenturies, each leaf of this malignant plant representing countlessunfortunates sacrificed to superstition later it was thought that themoon had a direct influence upon perturbation of the mind. Hence, theterm “lunacy” developed these doctrines gained special credence in the first centuries afterchrist by the dissemination under the church fathers of the storyof the miracles which they claimed had been performed by jesus ofnazareth did not the savior cast out devils?. did he not cure madness?. The very word “epilepsy” shows by its derivation, ἐπίληψις to seizeupon, that possession was the presumable nature of the malady the noble work accomplished by the “pagan” pioneer alienists wasdiscredited or forgotten, and the church originated a process by whichthe possessed were to be treated this method of treatment was derivedpurely from theologic sources, tempered with sufficient dogma at firstthe treatment was gentle, in accordance with the spirit of the greatphysicians of antiquity, and if the afflicted one was not violent hewas permitted to attend public worship sacred salves and holy water, the breath or the spittle of the officiating priest, the touching ofrelics, or a visit to holy places, were the principal therapeuticagents employed these methods, even if they did no good essaytimesmerely the consolation of a kind word from the priest had a beneficialeffect, certainly did no harm, even tho such practises were factors inthe spread of superstition this mild form of treatment did not, however, long continue soonmeasures were directed toward driving out the evil spirit from thepossessed this was attempted in various ways. First, by exorcism, inthe period of justin martyr, and continued up to almost recent times see lecky, “history of european morals” “from the time of justinmartyr for about two centuries, there is, i believe, not a singlechristian writer who does not solemnly and explicitly assert thereality and frequent employment of this power ”one of the chief attributes of the devil was pride, therefore attemptswere made by exorcism to pierce this vulnerable point in the armor ofthe evil one, and the foulest, vilest epithets were used to attain thisend it is impossible to-day to print these expressions, even in a workof scientific character, and it is better, perhaps, to refer such asare especially interested in them to the manuale benedictionum, bythe bishop of passau, published in 1849, and similar works adjuvantsto this form of treatment consisted in “frightening” the devil bylong words, difficult to pronounce, commonly derived from orientallanguages, by the administration of malodorous and filthy “drugs, ” andsimilar practises it was claimed that thesis devils were thus driven out, and the annals ofthe church contain numerous records of persons cured in this manner “the jesuit fathers at vienna, in 1583, glorified in the fact thatin such a contest they had cast out twelve thousand, six hundred andfifty-two living devils” white the prevalence of these ideas tosuch a degree in the minds of the people may be noted from the factthat, in the churches themselves, such scenes are carved in stone anddepicted on canvas medieval drama teemed with similar conceptions, and this condition of affairs prevailed for over one thousand years, unfortunately not in this harmless manner, but supplemented by greatcruelty, which forms, perhaps, the most terrible chapter in the historyof medical superstition the subtleties of theologic interpretation soon evolved a morecomprehensive method of dealing with the “possessor” and the possessed as an appeal to pride was ineffectual and noxious drugs unavailing, it was found necessary to whip the devil out, or the unfortunateindividuals were imprisoned, and as a refinement of this treatment theywere even tortured thus the jailer for a long time played the writingof a specialist in lunacy, with the clergy in consultation places inwhich the insane were confined were known as “fool towers” and “witchtowers ”this state of things was not altered with the dawn of the reformation the writings of luther conclusively show his ideas in regard topossession and witchcraft, and these views under calvin reachedenormous development even cotton mather, in thesis respects far inadvance of his times, and who himself had known persecution, was notemancipated from these delusions, and salem has thesis a story to tell ofpossession and witch-baiting it is true we may quite properly considerthese views as the thought of the times, but, in thesis other respects, luther, calvin, and mather were in advance of their period, and, therefore, a justification for their actions is not quite apparent marcus aurelius also was much superior to his age, yet was grateful tohis teachers that they taught him to disregard superstition in all itsvarious forms it is not unlikely that conditions of this kind frequently led toepidemics if not of actual insanity, at least to hysteria which notrarely developed in cities, nunneries, and monasteries. Thus theepidemics in erfurt in 1237, in the rhine countries in 1374, and thesisothers see hirsch it is rather remarkable that while such views and practises prevailedin the christian church, the followers of mohammed not only helddifferent views, but adopted a mode of treatment of the insane whichlaid the foundation of modern therapeutics in diseases of the mind in the twelfth century, in bagdad, a palace called the “home of mercy”was built, in which the insane were confined, examined every month, andreleased as soon as they had recovered an asylum in cairo was foundedin 1304, while the first christian asylum expressly for the mad isnoted in 1409 lecky but science fought its way through the barriers of ignorance, misdirected zeal, and superstition altho there were physicians and“magicians, ” who conformed to the views of the church, the seed sown bythe earlier schools of medicine slowly but surely began to put forthshoots, and the result was a tree of knowledge, the fruit of whichmay be observed in every modern insane asylum of the world, wherethe unfortunate sufferer is treated with kindness and skill, which, fortunately, often results in cure scientific reason frequently rebelled against the “insanesuperstition, ” at first mildly, but constantly increasing in strength, until an effectual protest was finally raised by john weir, of cleves, who was soon followed by michel de montaigne and now a battle royalwas waged between the adherents of theology and the disciples of the“resurrected” truth, and once more in the history of the world wasdemonstrated the correctness of the saying, that “truth crushed toearth shall rise again ” all over the world the warfare was carried, and at the end of the eighteenth century new champions arose jeanbaptiste pinel in france, and william tuke in england their followersare legion, and in the book of life, in letters of gold, thesis a namehas been written of those who trod in the footsteps of these pioneers theology no longer interferes in the treatment of the insane. In fact, it would be manifestly unjust not to mention that thesis christiantheologians subsequently joined in the noble work of lunacy reform, andaided progress greatly how great this progress in the treatment of the insane can best beappreciated by essay of the older physicians in practise to-day whodoes not remember the chains, the strait-jacket, the dark locked cellsof the insane asylum?. these conditions existed not very thesis years ago, and altho the novels of charles reade are no doubt greatly exaggeratedin regard to the conditions he portrayed in insane asylums, yet morethan a grain of truth is probably contained in them the books didmuch to bring about reforms in england and elsewhere modern alienists have wrought wonders. Their successful operationsare not published in the daily press, but any visitor who knows whatan insane asylum was fifty years ago, and who spends a few hours ina modern hospital for the treatment of lunatics, will observe whatappears but little short of the miraculous imagine two thousandor more insane persons dining in a large hall, upon the table atablecloth, and the insane using knife and fork in a decorous manner, and when the visitor is told that the “violent ward” is also present, and is asked to single these out from among the thesis, and fails ashe invariably does, the results attained by science, above all othermeasures, are strikingly apparent bibliography ælius swritingianus de vita hadriani caracalla in peter. Scriptores historiæ augustæ lipsiæ, 1884 alexander von tralles original text und uebersetzung von puschmann wien, 1878-79 almansoris astrologiæ propositiones ad saracenorum regem basileæ, 1551 aristophanis comoediæ ed bergh lipsiæ, 1878-78 aureli augustini de divinatione daemomum corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum ed zycha vindobonæ, 1900 bartisch, ὀφθαλμοδουλεῖα das ist augendienst dresden, 1583 baur apollonius von tyana und christus tübingen, 1832 bernoulli die heiligen der merowinger tübingen, 1900 berthelot la chemie des anciens et du moyen ge paris, 1889 bethem centiloquium basileæ, 1551 bouché-leclercq l’astrologie grecque paris, 1899 cæsarius heisterbacensis dialogus miraculorum ed strange cöln, 1851 campbell, thompson the reports of the magicians and astrologers of nineveh and babylon in the british museum london, 1900 delitzsch babel und bibel leipzig, 1903 batavi jahrbücher für klassische philologie 16 supplementband leipzig, 1888 erastus, thomas de astrologia divinatrice epistolæ basileæ, 1580 ermerius anecdota medica graeca lugd batovorum, 1840 eunapius sardianus de vitis philosophorum et sophistorum ed hieronymus cammelin coloniæ allobrogum, 1616 fühner lithotherapie berlin, 1902 galeni opera omnia ed gottlieb kühn leipzig, 1821-33 gregorii turonici historiæ francorum libri decem paris, 1561 gregorovius geschichte der stadt rom im mittelalter stuttgart, 1886-96 gregorovius der kaiser hadrian 3 aufl stuttgart, 1884 häser lehrbuch der geschichte der medicin und der epidemischen krankheiten 3 bearbeitung jena, 1875-82 hansen zauberwahn, inquisition und hexenprocess im mittelalter historische bibliothek band xii münchen und leipzig, 1900 harnack medicinisches aus der ältesten kirchengeschichte leipzig, 1892 hermetis centum aphorismorum liber basileæ, 1551 hippocrates sämmtliche werke in deutsche übersetzt von fuchs münchen, 1895, 1900 hoffmann de potentia diaboli in corpore halæ, 1703 hoffmann medicus politicus halæ, 1746 deutsch von ansbach leipzig, 1753 jacobi forliviensis egregia et subtilis expositio cum quæstionibus supra aureum capitulum de generatione embrionis venedig, 1502 josephi flavii opera ed destinon et niese band vi berlin, 1894 klenke wie müssen dämonenglauben, besessensein und kerner-eschenmayerche gespenstererscheinungen nach dem heutigen standpunkt der physiologie und psychologie erklärt werden?.

“b oleum papers help iodine. Iodine soluble in mineral oil 5 and 10% for nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, bronchial, rectal, etc , and all meucoid affections and abnormal conditions of the mucous membrane ”a sample of b oleum iodine was submitted by the manufacturer andexamined the label on the bottle states that it is 5 per cent b oleum iodine in mineral oil this sample has the characteristics ofa solution of iodin in liquid petrolatum it is oily and has thecharacteristic violet color ammonia. B oleum iodine, since it is presumed to be a solution of b iodine, was examined for ammonium compounds a small quantity was mixedwith an equal volume of strong sodium hydroxid solution and heated noammonia was evolved a few crystals of ammonium chlorid were added toa little of b oleum iodine and treated as above ammonia was readilydetected iodine. 5 255 gm b oleum iodine was dissolved in chloroform andplaced in a separator a solution of potassium iodid was added and theiodin titrated with a tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate solution itrequired 3 5 c c indicating 0 85 per cent iodin the conclusion is that b oleum iodine is a simple solution of iodin inliquid petrolatum to the extent of 0 85 per cent and not 5 per cent as claimed furthermore, it is not a solution of b iodine since noammonium compound is present the preceding report was sent to the b iodine chemical company thefollowing reply was received. Your letter of the 21st inst , received and contents noted and cannot quite agree with your report reasons why. Nh₄i, a nitro hydrate iodide. Nh₄i₂, a nitro hydrate iodate. And nh₄i₂i₂, per iodide, a molecular compound, which i claim, they all being of a nh group, so what can be the objection of nitrogen hydrate of iodine?. of course when your chemist, with the aid of heat, drove off all the iodine, he naturally brought it back to a nh₄i there where he gets the a m i claim a molecular compound the oil of iodine i sent you by mistake was a 1 per cent and not a 5 per cent as marked i claim it is made from the resublimed iodine in mineral oil and not the b iodine i claim a 5 per cent has heretofore never been accomplished, so i therefore can claim essaything new tr iodine contains alcohol and potash as a base, the alcohol a dehydrater and potash an escharotic, and all other soluble iodines like the tincture have a metallic base mine has not my iodine is compatible almost with all the salts, alkaloids, tannates, and even the metals you can’t say that for the tincture or the others now why should mine not be superior to others?. preparations as yet are not on the market and a few pamphlets were printed to meet with the requirements of your rulings and approval and shall be corrected if we only can agree on a proper name as you may suggest yours very truly, the b iodine chemical co by john bohlander, a m, m d p s we are sending you under separate cover another sample of the oil of iodine which is a 5 per cent solution, and allowing for deterioration will test at least four per cent the referee in charge of the preparations submitted the above letter tothe council with the following comments:the principal statements in the letter are essentially erroneous ormisleading. Mixtures or double salts of ammonium iodid and iodin werenot discovered by dr bohlander, and are nothing new watery solutionsof iodin by means of an iodid have long been known and used in the formof lugol solution there is no evidence that ammonium iodid is less irritating thanpotassium iodid on the contrary, ammonium salts are generally moreirritating than the corresponding potassium salts b iodine is notcompatible with alkaloids, but behaves essentially like lugolsolution the a m a chemical laboratory reports that the new sampleof b oleum iodine contains only 1 2 per cent of free iodin, insteadof the claimed amount it is therefore essaywhat weaker than the iodinpetrolatum prepared by the a m a chemical laboratory reportscouncil pharm and chem , 1917, p 88 however good dr bohlander intentions may be, the statements that hemakes about his products are misleading or erroneous, and the productsare ineligible for n n r -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1918, p 44 antithyroid preparations antithyroidin-moebius and thyreoidectin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of antithyroid preparations antithyroidin-moebius andthyreoidectin has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, contains a discussionof “antithyroid” preparation and describes two of these:antithyroidin-moebius e merck, darmstadt, gerthesis and thyreoidectin parke, davis & company, detroit, mich the referee reported that these “antithyroid preparations” evidentlyhave not realized the expectations of their promoters, and are viewedwith skepticism by practically all critical clinicians consequently, notwithstanding the cautiously worded statements ofclaims made by the manufacturers of thyreoidectin, the council approvedthe recommendation that this preparation thyreoidectin be omittedfrom new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rule 6 unwarrantedtherapeutic claims and rule 10 unscientific and useless articles antithyroidin-moebius had already been omitted because it was offthe market the council further directed that the general article“antithyroid preparations” be also omitted the council having adopted the recommendation of the referee, thyreoidectin is omitted from n n r , while the general articleappears below, as a matter of record:antithyroid preparations are obtained from the blood or milk ofanimals, after the removal of the thyroid glands the use of these preparations is based on the theory that the thyroidgland secretes products which are toxic, but which neutralize and areneutralized by, other toxic substances produced elsewhere in the body removal of the thyroid glands would then lead to the accumulation ofthese second toxic substances as evidenced by the phenomena of cachexiastrumipriva and myxedema on the other hand, the blood or milk ofsuch animals is claimed to be capable of preventing the effects ofhypersecretion of thyroid substance, such as is supposed to occurin hyperthyroidism basedow or graves’ disease-- generally calledexophthalmic goiter these views are largely hypothetical. Attempts to give to them arational experimental basis have failed, but essay clinical observersreport distinctly beneficial results in the milder forms of thediseases, and in obscure nervous disorders which are supposedlyconnected with thyroid hypersecretion from the administration ofthe milk from thyroidectomized goats and also from the use of theproprietary blood preparations listed below the value of thesepreparations is very doubtful the reported improvements may only bepsychical or due to associated measures, as is often seen in thisdisease other measures of treatment should not be neglected improvement is said to occur in two or three weeks and to be indicatedby an amelioration of the nervous symptoms, tremor, palpitation, insomnia and excitability the administration must be long continued oral and hypodermicadministration are said to be equally effective, but the former isusually preferred these preparations are not known to be toxic, evenwhen very large doses are used -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 50 cephaelin and syrup cephaelin-lilly omitted from n n r and syrup emetic-lilly not accepted report of council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report, whichexplains the omission of cephaelin and syrup cephaelin-lilly from newand nonofficial remedies and the non-acceptance of syrup emetic-lilly w a puckner, secretary new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, describes cephaelin an alkaloidobtained from ipecacuanha root and lists syrup cephaelin-lilly containing 0 088 gm cephaelin hydrochlorid per 100 cc as apharmaceutical preparation of it the period of acceptance for syrup cephaelin-lilly having expired, eli lilly & company were asked to send the current advertising andlabels so that the council might determine if the acceptance of thispreparation might be continued in reply the firm wrote. “we have changed the name syrup cephaeline to syrup emetic but the product remains the same as before we have no circulars describing syrup emetic and can only send copies of the label ”the new name “syrup emetic” conflicts with the rules of the councilin that it does not indicate the potent ingredient of this simplepharmaceutical preparation and in that it is therapeuticallysuggestive emetics are powerful agents, and physicians should be givenevery opportunity of knowing what they prescribe for the purpose the name being in conflict with rule 8, the council voted to omit syrupcephaelin-lilly and not to accept syrup emetic-lilly as the cephaelin syrup was the only preparation of cephaelin admittedto new and nonofficial remedies, and as the alkaloid appears to have noimportant therapeutic field, the council directed that the descriptionof cephaelin also be omitted -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 52 colalin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of colalin has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary colalin is a bile salt preparation claimed to consist essentially ofhyoglycocholic and hyotaurocholic acids it is manufactured by rufuscrowell and company, essayrville, mass , and marketed by schieffelin andcompany, new york an examination of the current advertising by the referee of the councilin charge of bile salt preparations having revealed that claims weremade for colalin which were not in harmony with the known action ofbile preparations, schieffelin and company were informed that in theopinion of the referee the colalin circular matter required radicalrevision in this communication the referee objections to the claimswere set forth in detail no reply to this letter was received, and hence a copy of the letterwas sent to schieffelin and company and also to rufus crowell andcompany with the explanation that unless the statements in the colalinadvertising which the referee had questioned were substantiated bysatisfactory evidence, were suitably revised, or else the advertisingmatter withdrawn pending revision, the referee would be obligedto recommend to the council that colalin be omitted from new andnonofficial remedies in reply, schieffelin and company wrote that they were not “engagedactively in the introduction of colalin, ” and agreed to the omission ofcolalin from n n r in view of the failure to substantiate the claims objected to or anagreement to discontinue them, the council directed that colalin andcolalin tablets be omitted from new and nonofficial remedies forconflict with rule 6 unwarranted therapeutic claims the following are the claims which the referee questioned. “colalin embodies the physiological function of the bile in the intestinal canal and also possesses properties of its own which are intimately connected with the function of the liver ”the quotation implies that colalin has properties essentially differentfrom those of bile salts, a claim which requires substantiation “in the liver its action seems to be that of a general stimulant of all the hepatic functions ”this is a claim which requires substantiation “by the introduction of colalin it has therefore become possible to actually utilize the bile for therapeutic purposes ”this is an unwarranted claim, for bile was used therapeutically beforecolalin was introduced “as gall-stones are chiefly composed of cholesterin, experiments were made to determine whether colalin would dissolve these concretions outside of the body these were completely successful and were then followed by an extensive series of clinical investigations on persons suffering with cholelithiasis, which demonstrated that by the administration of colalin in thesis instances gall-stones were evacuated by the natural passages and their further formation prevented without resort to surgical intervention ”this is misleading in that the context shows that “without surgicalintervention” is meant to imply a connection between the experimentsshowing the solvent power of colalin and the passage of concretions “ colalin not only acts as a solvent of cholesterin calculi, but prevents their further formation by removing the causes upon which their development depends ”this conveys the impression that such solvent action is exerted inthe body, that is, that such concretions in the gallbladder may bedissolved and evacuated by the use of colalin for this claim there isno evidence “to understand the value of colalin in intestinal disorders it is necessary to bear in mind the important functions of the bile in the intestinal canal, namely, its writingicipation in the digestion of fats, its antitoxic action, and its influence upon the peristalsis ” “ through its antiseptic influence inhibits the production of toxins in the intestines ”the referee believes that there is no satisfactory evidence that bileor bile salts can inhibit the production of toxins in that writing of theintestine-- the colon-- in which they are commonly produced -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 52 foral report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on foral, a depilatory preparation, has beenauthorized for publication by the council w a puckner, secretary foral is sold by the foral products company, pittsburgh, pa , as an“antiseptic depilatory” with the special claim for its use for theremoval of hair prior to surgical operation or the dressing of wounds in addition to claims made for its hair dissolving action, it isasserted that, in removing the hair from an open wound, foral acts as“an antiseptic, which guarantees against any infection ” it is alsoclaimed that, though hair will return after its use, “by proper useit will diminish the growth of hair and cause the hair to grow muchslower, and unlike the razor, the hair will not return coarser andthicker ”we are informed by the foral products company that their preparation isused in thesis hospitals and that “ one and all are well pleased and agreat satisfaction to do away with the old style razor ”foral is stated to be made according to the following formula. To manufacture seventy-five pounds of foral starch 35 pounds barium-sulphide 20 pounds zinc-oxide 10 pounds calcium-carbonated-precip 10 pounds potassium-permanganate 10 grams menthol-crystallized 10 grams carbolic-acid 1/2 ounce lilac or citronel oil 3 ounces the four above chemicals are going to a heating process before mixing or sifting in consideration of the preceding, the council declared foralinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with itsrules, thus:1 foral is an unessential and irrational modification of anestablished article while its manufacturer states that foral has been on the market foreighteen years, the following depilatory formula appears in a bookpublished thirty-five years ago a practical treatise on diseases ofthe skin, louis a duhring, ed 3, 1883 and is to be found in mostbooks on dermatology. Barium sulphid 2 drams zinc oxid 3 drams starch 3 dramspermanganates and sulphids mutually destroy each other, and thereforethe addition of the small amount of potassium permanganate cannotserve any useful purpose the amounts of phenol, menthol and “lilac orcitronel oil” are too small to exercise any effect other than that ofa flavor and must be considered unessential additions 2 foral is a pharmaceutical mixture marketed under a non-informingname whereas it is in the interest of rational medicine that physiciansshould know the composition of the preparations which they use, thename of this pharmaceutical mixture fails to indicate that it containsthe well-known and by no means always harmless barium sulphid 3 foral is sold under exaggerated and unwarranted claims in view of the small amount of phenol present and the method of usingthe preparation, the claim that the use of foral which, when operatingon open wounds, “guarantees against any infection, ” is evidentlyunwarranted there is no evidence for the claim that the use of depilatories suchas foral retards the growth of hair or renders hair less coarse onthe contrary, the commonly prevailing opinion is that depilation, likeshaving, makes the hair coarser to determine if “one and all” of those who had used foral were stillusing the preparation, four of the testimonials, appearing in anadvertising pamphlet, were investigated the pharmacist of thehospital from which the first of these testimonials was stated to haveemanated replied that the person whose name appeared in connection withit had left the hospital about ten years ago and that no depilatorypreparation has been used in this hospital for essay time so far ashe knew, depilatories were not now in use in the surgical wards ofthe hospital in regard to the second testimonial, the pharmacist ofthis hospital wrote that the hospital had not bought the preparation, but that essay of it had been obtained for an elderly deaconness, who had personal use for a depilatory the physician signing thethird testimonial replied that the preparation was effectual for theremoval of hair from the scalp, but that “ we have gotten out ofthe habit of using it ” in the case of the fourth testimonial, itsasserted author wrote “ if it is applied in too large a quantityor too concentrated, or permitted to remain on too long, it willvesicate it was for this reason chiefly that i discontinued its use it is a very bad smelling mixture and patients complain of it verybitterly ”-- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 55 granular effervescent bromide and acetanilid compound-mulford report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new andnonofficial remedies of granular effervescent bromide and acetanilidcompound-mulford has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary the council holds that complex mixtures of remedial agents are fromevery point of view inimical to therapeutic progress and thereforeto the public welfare they are especially objectionable because itis impossible accurately to determine the effects which follow thesimultaneous administration of a number of drugs having dissimilaractions, and because the practice of prescribing such mixtures tends todiscourage careful consideration of the special needs of the individualpatients without which there can be no drug therapy on the contrary, with the use of such mixtures, therapeutic treatment becomes haphazardand mere guesswork the council, appreciating that long established customs cannot bechanged at once, has applied rule 10, concerning the recognition ofmixtures, with the greatest leniency compatible with consistency whenthere has been a reasonable doubt concerning the value of a mixture, ithas frequently directed that rule 10 should not apply, pending furtherclinical trial of such mixture in no instance has subsequent experience shown that a strictinterpretation of the rule would have worked hardship or injustice the council feels that there is no longer warrant for the admission ofcomplex mixtures to new and nonofficial remedies, or for the retentionof any that have been admitted, unless definite evidence of thetherapeutic value of such combinations is available in accordance withthis decision, several mixtures now described in new and nonofficialremedies will be omitted at the expiration of the three year period forwhich articles are accepted granular effervescent bromide and acetanilid compound-mulford islisted in the appendix to new and nonofficial remedies each 100 gm of the mixture contains sodium bromide, 5 gm , and acetanilid, 1 5 gm according to the label, an amount containing acetanilid, 6 5 grains, and sodium bromide, 22 grains, is to be taken at a dose, to be repeatedin half an hour if necessary for “children, ” half this dose isadvised the council has considered the available evidence for mixtures of thissort, and has reached the conclusion that they are inimical to rationalmedicine and the public, and therefore in conflict with rule 10 itholds that the use of mixtures of acetanilid and sodium bromide infixed proportion is irrational and prone to induce their indiscriminateuse by the public despite the perfectly frank declaration of thecomposition of this mixture that is made by the mulford company, the“directions” will be followed blindly and the preparation will be givento “children” and “repeated in half an hour, if necessary” in paper inwhich it would be held unwarranted to administer a dose of 3 grains ofacetanilid to a child the period of acceptance having expired for granular effervescentbromide and acetanilid compound-mulford, the council directed itsomission from new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rule10 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 58 holadin and bile salt mixturesholadin and bile salts-fairchild.

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i shall add, red roses are under jupiter, damask under venus, white under the moon, and provence under the kingof france the white and red roses are cooling and drying, and yet thewhite is taken to exceed the red in both the properties, but is seldomused inwardly in any medicine. The bitterness in the roses when theyare fresh, especially the juice, purges choler, and watery humours. Butbeing dried, and that heat which caused the bitterness being consumed, they have then a binding and astringent quality. Those also that arenot full blown, do both cool and bind more than those that are fullblown, and the white rose more than the red the decoction of redroses made with wine and used, is very good for the head-ache, andpains in the eyes, ears, throat, and gums. As also for the fundament, the lower writing of the belly and the matrix, being bathed or put intothem the same decoction with the roses remaining in it, is profitablyapplied to the region of the heart to ease the inflammation therein;as also st anthony fire, and other diseases of the stomach beingdried and beaten to powder, and taken in steeled wine or water, ithelps to stay women courses the yellow threads in the middle ofthe roses which are erroneously called the rose seed being powderedand drank in the distilled water of quinces, stays the overflowing ofwomen courses, and doth wonderfully stay the defluctions of rheumupon the gums and teeth, preserving them from corruption, and fasteningthem if they be loose, being washed and gargled therewith, and essayvinegar of squills added thereto the heads with the seed being usedin powder, or in a decoction, stays the lask and spitting of blood red roses do strengthen the heart, the stomach and the liver, and theretentive faculty. They mitigate the pains that arise from heat, assuage inflammations, procure rest and sleep, stay both whites andreds in women, the gonorrhea, or running of the reins, and fluxes ofthe belly.