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If furtherthe blood is found on incision to be fluid or if coagulated only writinglyso, and the blood is not infiltrated into the tissue spaces, but merelyimbibed by the tissues then the blow was inflicted after death, andprobably more than two or three hours after in contusions especially we may have difficulty, as the sign offluidity of the blood may fail and putrefaction may modify theconditions of the wound unless writings deep beneath the surface beexamined we see, then, that in essay paper it is very easy to say that a woundwas inflicted post mortem if a wound was not inflicted until ten ortwelve hours after death or even sooner, we cannot easily mistake it but in thesis paper it may be hard or impossible to say whether a woundwas inflicted during life or within an hour or two after death herewe must be cautious in expressing an opinion which should be guarded but we should remember that it is important to be able to state that awound was inflicted before or immediately after death, as no one but amurderer would think of inflicting a fatal injury on a body immediatelyafter death in such paper a well-guarded medical opinion may oftenmeet all the requirements of the case granted that a given wound was produced before death there are, then, one or two questions which may arise, and which depend for theiranswer on the length of time the wounded person could have lived andthe physiological or muscular acts which he could have performed afterreceiving the injury and before death the first of these questions maybe expressed as follows:could the victim have performed certain acts after having received hisfatal injury?. the term “certain acts” here refers to almost any thingor things which would require time and strength in other words, thecontinuance of life with bodily and mental powers for a certain timeafter receiving a mortal injury this question may be raised in relation to an attempted alibi of theaccused, who may have been proved to be in the presence of the victima moment before death if after this moment the victim has movedfrom the spot or performed certain acts before death, the attemptedalibi may depend upon the answer to the question as to whether thegiven acts of the victim were compatible with the fatal character ofthe wound an alibi can aid in the acquittal of the accused only whenthe nature of the injury was such that death would be supposed to beimmediate or nearly so great care should be taken on the writing ofthe medical witness in answering this question, for after very gravewounds, proving speedily fatal, the victim essaytimes can do certainacts requiring more or less prolonged effort, as shown by numerousexamples wounds of the brain are especially noticeable in allowinga survival of several hours, days, or even weeks, during which timethe injured person may pursue his occupations where the survivalhas lasted days or weeks, the alibi has no importance, but not ifthe survival is of shorter duration the following case is cited byvibert1 and may be mentioned in this connection, though the woundwas caused by a bullet which traversed from behind forward the entireleft lobe of the brain after the injury the victim was seen byseveral witnesses to climb a ladder, though with difficulty, for hehad right-sided hemiplegia he was found insensible more than half amile away, and did not die until six or eight hours after the injury severe injury of important organs is essaytimes not incompatible withan unexpectedly long survival devergie cites two illustrations ofthis which are quoted by vibert 622 a man received several extensivefractures of the skull, with abundant subdural hemorrhage, and ruptureof the diaphragm with hernia of the stomach the stomach was ruptured, and nearly a litre of its contents was contained in the left pleuralcavity notwithstanding all this, he was able to walk about for an houror so and answer several questions he died only after several hours another man, crushed by a carriage, received a large rupture of thediaphragm, complete rupture of the jejunum, and rupture and crushing ofone kidney yet he walked nearly five miles, and did not die until thenext day more rarely wounds of the great vessels are not immediately fatal m tourdes is quoted by vibert623 as citing the case of a man whodescended a flight of stairs and took several steps after divisionof the carotid artery. Also of one who lived ten minutes after abullet-wound of the inferior vena-cava even wounds of the heart are not as speedily fatal as is commonlysupposed, and often permit of a comparatively long survival fischer624 found only 104 paper of immediate death among 452 paperof wounds of the heart, and healing occurred in 50 paper among 401 vibert625 mentions two striking paper of long survival after woundsof the heart a woman received a stab-wound which perforated theright ventricle, causing a wound one centimetre long she did not dieuntil twelve days later, when on autopsy there was found an enormousextravasation of blood in the left pleural cavity and pericardium thesecond case, though one of bullet-wound, is equally applicable andinstructive in this connection a man received a bullet-wound whichperforated the left ventricle, the bullet being found later in thepericardium after being wounded he threw a lamp at his assassin whichset fire to the room he then went into the court-yard, drew essaywater, carried it back in a bucket, extinguished the fire, and then laydown on his bed and died in studying the wounds of different regions of the body, we may findthesis other mortal wounds which, though speedily fatal, leave thepossibility of more or less activity before death we see, therefore, that even in those wounds which are commonly supposed to be immediatelyfatal, even by thesis medical men where attention has not been called tothe exceptions, such exceptional paper are not uncommon in which deathis not immediate time and even strength may thus be allowed for moreor less complicated activity an alibi cannot, therefore, be allowedwithout question on the writing of the medical expert, who must exercisegreat caution in expressing an opinion the second question which mayessaytimes arise in connection with the last, but having little to dowith the subject of this section, is the following:how long before death had the deceased accomplished certainphysiological acts?. for instance, how long after a meal did he die?. This is hard to answer with precision, as digestion varies with theindividual, and digestion begun during life may go on to a certainextent after death we may be able to say if digestion has justcommenced, is well advanced, or has terminated what was eaten at thelast meal may be learned by the naked eye, the microscope, the color ofstomach contents and their odor the state of the bladder and rectum isessaytimes called in question all the above facts have less bearing onthe case than those in relation to the former question the cause of death from wounds the cause of death should be certain and definite in reality, there isonly one real cause, though one or thesis circumstances may be accessorycauses in most paper of death from the class of wounds which we havebeen considering, there is no difficulty in determining the cause ofdeath so as to be able to state it definitely but if the deceased hadrecovered from the first effects of the wound and then died, or ifdeath seems as much due to disease as to injury, then the real causeof death may be obscure if the medical witness is in doubt as to whichof two causes was the primary cause of death the doubt should be statedat once, as it may weaken the testimony if brought out later wounds may be directly or indirectly fatal they are directly fatal ifthe victim dies at once or very soon after the wound, with no othercause internally in his body or externally from his environment woundsare indirectly or secondarily fatal if the injured person dies from awound disease or complication, the direct consequence of the wound, or from a surgical operation necessary in the treatment of the case wounds may also be necessarily fatal either directly or secondarily, or not necessarily fatal in the latter case death may be due asmuch, if not more, to other causes than the wound, and essaytimes notat all to the wound itself thus death may be due to natural causes, latent disease, an unhealthy state of the body, imprudence or neglectof treatment, or improper treatment, etc these various degrees ofresponsibility of a wound as the cause of death we will now considermore at length i was the wound the cause of death directly?.

“ combines the reconstructive action of protonuclein with the action of the vital principle of the spleen, making it a distinct product for use in all tubercular troubles, including phthisis, localized joint affections and scrofular conditions ”this product, according to the manufacturers, is based on the work of acertain dr bayle of cannes, france dr bayle said that he had treatedtuberculous patients with fresh ground up spleen of hogs 25-100 gramsper day, mixed with fruit preserve or bouillon. In paper in which thisbrought on gastro-intestinal disorders, extract of the spleen pulp wasadministered hypodermically bayle reported extraordinary improvementsin the physical and mental conditions of his patients even after a fewdays of this treatment. Over 90 per cent of his tuberculous patients, according to him, improved or were cured this applied to all typesand stages of tuberculosis in man “with the spleen pulp treatmenttuberculous glands disappear like syphilis lesions on administration ofmercury and iodids ”this “spleen specific” of bayle lacks scientific foundation. Bayleown paper were not adequately controlled, and no notice has been takenof bayle report by experts on tuberculosis hence it practicallylacks both confirmation and contradiction the spleen is invaded by tubercle bacilli quite as frequently as arethe kidneys and the liver. It has no special toxic action on thesebacilli nor is there any reason to believe that the end products ofgastric and intestinal digestion of spleen pulp, after absorption intothe blood, exert such toxic action it cannot be assumed that theseend products indirectly aid the healing processes through improvedmetabolism, for there is no evidence that they have any specificnutritive or stimulating action after such absorption altogether, whatwe know of the physiology and pathology of the spleen does not warrantus in looking for a “specific” against tuberculosis in this organ if, however, the known facts did justify any hope that the spleenmight furnish such a specific, manufacturers would not be warranted inexploiting or physicians in prescribing spleen products as a remedyfor tuberculosis until control experiments on animals had confirmedthe therapeutic value of these products in a chronic disease liketuberculosis, no conclusions that are scientifically valid can be drawnfrom clinical paper until thesis paper have been observed for yearsunder suitable conditions right here it may be said that the clinical“evidence” offered in favor of protonuclein beta is worthless theobservations which have been reported on this product are not such asto permit any valid final conclusions to be drawn with regard to itsvalue the rational method of proving the worth of an alleged new specificsuch as this is by animal experimentation so far as we know, neitherdr bayle nor the reed and carnrick company has performed any suchexperiments with “spleen pulp” or protonuclein beta.

Provided always such person is engaged in no medical practiceexcept as such resident physician or medical officer 22 vict , c 21, s 6 the following qualification was added by 23 and 24 vict , c 7, s 1:a diploma or license in surgery granted by any university in irelandlegally authorized to grant the same the act 39 and 40 vict , c 40, in sec 3, provides that all personswho have obtained from any university of the united kingdom legallyauthorized to confer the same, the degree of bachelor in surgery, shallbe permitted to register the same as a qualification under 21 and 22vict , c 90 the diploma of a member of the king and queen college of physiciansin ireland, and the degree of master in obstetrics of any university inthe united kingdom are added to the qualifications in schedule a of themedical act of 1858 49 and 50 vict , c 48, s 20 the change of name of any of the corporations named in 21 and 22 vict , c 90, is not to alter or affect the qualifications constituted by theact 23 and 24 vict , c 66, s 3 revocation of license - the society of apothecaries may strikeoff from the list of licentiates of said society paper writing services for college the name of anyperson who shall be convicted in england or ireland of any felony ormisdemeanor, or in scotland of any crime or offence, or who shall, after due inquiry, be judged by the general council to have beenguilty of infamous conduct in any professional respect, and the saidsociety shall forthwith signify to the general council the name of thelicentiate so stricken off 37 and 38 vict , c 34, s 4 women - the society of apothecaries is not relieved from any existingobligation, nor deprived of any right, to admit women to theexaminations required for certificates to practise as apothecaries, orto enter the lists of licentiates of said society, any women who shallhave satisfactorily passed such examinations, and fulfilled the othergeneral conditions imposed upon persons seeking to obtain from the saidsociety a qualification to be registered under 21 and 22 vict , c 905 the act 39 and 40 vict , c 41, extends the powers of every bodyentitled under 21 and 22 vict , c 90, to grant qualifications forregistration so that it may grant any qualification for registrationgranted by such body without distinction of sex but nothing in thisact is compulsory the medical act of 1886 49 and 50 vict , c 48 modified the foregoingacts as follows:examination - a person cannot lawfully be registered under the medicalacts in respect of any qualification referred to in any of those actsunless he has passed such qualifying examination in medicine, surgery, and midwifery as is in this act mentioned 49 and 50 vict , c 48, s 2 a qualifying examination shall be an examination in medicine, surgery, and midwifery held for the purpose of granting a diploma or diplomasconferring the right of registration under the medical acts, by any ofthe following bodies. A any university in the united kingdom, or any medical corporationlegally qualified at the time of the passage of this act to grant suchdiploma or diplomas in respect of medicine or surgery. Or b any combination of two or more medical corporations in the samewriting of the united kingdom, who may agree to hold a joint examinationin medicine, surgery, and midwifery, and of whom one at least iscapable of granting such diploma as aforesaid in respect of medicine, and one at least is capable of granting such diploma in respect ofsurgery. Or c any combination of any such university as aforesaid with anyother such university or universities, or of any such university oruniversities with a medical corporation or corporations.

The virtues be the same with scabious, andessay think the herbs too. Though i am of another opinion stœchas french lavender cassidony, is a great counterpoison, opensobstructions of the liver and spleen, cleanses the matrix and bladder, brings out corrupt humours, provokes urine succisa, marsus diaboli devil-bit hot and dry in the seconddegree. Inwardly taken, it eases the fits of the mother, and breakswind, takes away swellings in the mouth, and slimy flegm that stick tothe jaws, neither is there a more present remedy in the world for thosecold swellings in the neck which the vulgar call the almonds of theears, than this herb bruised and applied to them suchaha an egyptian thorn very hard, if not impossible to come byhere tanacetum tansy. Hot in the second degree and dry in the third. Thevery smell of it stays abortion, or miscarriages in women.

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And the absence of a name therefrom isprima facie evidence that such person is not so registered s 9 qualification - the members of the board form a body of medicalexaminers of diplomas and degrees, whose certificate shall be the onlylicense permitting the practice of medicine, surgery, or midwifery, except as hereinafter provided, provided the applicant for such licenseshall previously have obtained a medical diploma from a recognizedcollege or university, or as hereinafter provided 10 every person is entitled to have his name entered on the registeron satisfying the board that he holds a degree or diploma from essayregular university or school of medicine in good standing, and he shallthen receive from the board a license bearing its seal, on the paymentto the registrar of $5, and shall have his name entered on the register11 no such licensed practitioner shall be entitled to practise in any yearwithout taking out from the board, before the 1st of january in everyyear, a certificate of practice for which he shall pay $1 s 12 students - the act provides the requirements for entering on the studyof medicine, surgery, or midwifery in the colony 13, 14, 17 duties of board - the board is required to examine all degrees andother credentials produced or given in evidence under the act forthe purpose of enabling the owners to practise, and, if it be deemednecessary, to oblige the owner to attest on oath or affidavit that heis the person whose name is mentioned therein, and that he has becomepossessed of the same by lawful means 16 the board is required to cause every member of the professionpractising in newfoundland to enter his name, age, place of residence, date of license or diploma and where it was obtained, on the register18 neglect to register - a person entitled to be registered, who neglectsor omits to apply, is not entitled to any of the rights or privilegesconferred by the act so long as the neglect or omission continues25 additional qualification - a person registered who obtains a higherdegree or diploma is entitled to have it inserted in the register inaddition to or in substitution for those previously registered s 26 rights of registered persons - a person properly registered under theact is entitled to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery in anywriting of the colony, and to demand and recover reasonable charges forprofessional aid or advice with the cost of medicine or other medicaland surgical appliance supplied by him 27 unregistered persons - no person whose name is not registered under theact is entitled to recover any fees for any medical or surgical advice, or for any services whatsoever rendered in the capacity of a medicalman, nor to recover the payment of charges for any medicine or medicalor surgical appliance which may have been both prescribed and suppliedby him this clause is not intended to interfere with the practice ofmidwifery by competent females as hereinafter provided 28 offences and penalties - except as hereinafter provided, if a personnot registered or licensed under the act practises medicine, surgery, or midwifery for hire, gain, help sic or reward, or wilfully andfalsely pretends to be a physician, doctor of medicine, surgeon, orgeneral practitioner, or takes or uses any name, title, addition ordescription, implying or calculating sic to deceive or lead thepublic to infer that he is registered under this act, or who proposesby public advertisement, card, circular, or otherwise, to practisemedicine, surgery, or midwifery, or give advice therein, or in anywiselead people to infer that he is qualified to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, he shall forfeit $20 for each day that he sopractises or leads people to infer that he is a practitioner, or shallsuffer imprisonment not exceeding twelve months 29 persons violating the above regulations are subject to the penalties ofthe act, and in all paper the burden of proof as to qualification isupon the defendant or practitioner 30 expulsion of member - the newfoundland medical board may try and expelany member of the profession for acts of malpractice, misconduct, orimmoral habits, provided five-sevenths of the whole number record theirsignatures to such a measure 32 exceptions - the act does not prevent private persons from giving thenecessary medical or surgical aid in times of urgent need, providedsuch aid or attention is not given for gain or hire, nor the giving ofit made a business or a way of gaining a livelihood 34 every person residing in the colony and who shall have practisedmedicine, surgery, and midwifery for five years consecutively in onelocality previous to the passage of the act, on the proof of the same, shall have his name registered and receive a license to practise underthe act. Provided, the board may grant a license to any person who mayhave practised for a shorter period, on being satisfied by examination, or inquiry, that such person is reasonably competent and fit. Andfurther provided, that the board may, after examination and inquiry, license persons with a reasonable amount of competence to practisein specified localities, in which no qualified practitioners reside37 any person while employed in actual service in any naval or militaryservice as physician or surgeon may practise medicine, surgery, andmidwifery after having been registered 38 definition - the words “legally qualified medical practitioner” or“duly qualified medical practitioner, ” or any other words importing aperson recognized by law as a medical practitioner or a member of themedical profession, when used in any act of the legislature or legal orpublic document, mean a person registered under this chapter, unless asotherwise provided 39 medical appointments - no person shall be appointed as a medicalofficer, physician, or surgeon in any branch of the public service orany hospital or other charitable institution unless he be registeredunder the provisions of this chapter 40 theories of medicine or surgery - no person otherwise fully qualifiedshall be refused registration, or a license to practise, on account ofhis adopting or refusing to adopt the practice of any writingicular theoryof medicine or surgery in case of such refusal by the board, the writingyaggrieved may appeal to the governor in council, who, on due causeshown, shall issue an order to the board to register the name of suchperson and grant him a license 41 midwives - the act does not prevent competent females from practisingmidwifery 42 fees - to the registrar, for license, $5 11 to the board, each year, for a certificate of practice, $1 s 12 northwest territories college of physicians and surgeons - the members of the medicalprofession are a body corporate under the name of “the college ofphysicians and surgeons of the northwest territories” ord 5 of 1888, s 2 every person registered according to ordinance 11 of 1885 is a memberof the said college and shall be held to be registered under thisordinance from the date of its passage 3, as amended ord 9of 1891-92 every person registered under this law is a member of the college4 council - there is a council of said college elected by the membersfrom the members registered in pursuance of this ordinance s 5, 6, 7 the council appoints among other officers a registrar 26 register, qualification - persons registered under ordinance 11 of 1885are entitled to register under this ordinance 31 the council is required to cause the registrar to keep a register ofthe names of all persons who have complied with this ordinance, andthe rules and regulations of the council respecting the qualificationsrequired from practitioners of medicine or surgery only those personswhose names are inscribed in the register are deemed qualified andlicensed to practise medicine or surgery, except as hereinafterprovided 32 the registrar is required to keep his register correct and to make thenecessary alterations in the addresses or qualifications of personsregistered 33 the council is required to admit on the register. A any person possessing a diploma from any college in great britainand ireland having power to grant such diploma entitling him topractise medicine and surgery, and who shall produce such diploma andfurnish satisfactory evidence of identification. B any member of the college of physicians and surgeons of theprovinces of manitoba, ontario and quebec upon producing satisfactoryevidence of the same and of identification. C any person who shall produce from any college or school ofmedicine and surgery in the dominion of canada requiring a four-years’course of study and sic a diploma of qualification. Provided hefurnish to the council satisfactory evidence of identification, andpass if deemed necessary, before the members thereof, or such examinersas may be appointed for the purpose, a satisfactory examinationtouching his fitness and capacity to practise as a physician andsurgeon, upon payment to the registrar of fifty dollars 34, as substituted by ord 14, 1890, amended by ord 9, 1891-92 powers of council - the members of the council are required to makeorders, regulations, or by-laws for the regulation of the register andthe guidance of examiners, and may prescribe subjects and modes ofexamination, and may make all regulations in respect of examinations, not contrary to the ordinance, that they may deem expedient andnecessary 36 the council may by by-law delegate to the registrar power to admit topractice and to register any person having the necessary qualificationsentitling him to be registered by the council ord 24, 1892, s 4 the council may direct the name of any person improperly registeredto be erased from the register and such name shall be erased by theregistrar ord 24, 1892, s 5 forfeiture of rights - if a medical practitioner be convicted of anyfelony or misdemeanor or after due inquiry be judged by the council tohave been guilty of infamous conduct in any professional respect, thecouncil may, if it sees fit, direct the registrar to erase the name ofsuch practitioner from the register, and the name shall be erased ord 5, 1888, s 37, as substituted by ord 24, 1892, s 1 rights of registered persons - every person registered under theordinance is entitled to practise medicine and surgery, includingmidwifery, or any one of them, as the case may be, and to demand andrecover with costs his reasonable charges for professional aid, advice, and visits, and the cost of medical or surgical appliances rendered orsupplied by him to his patients 38 limitation - a period of one year after the term of professionalservice is established as a limitation to actions for negligence ormalpractice against members of the college 39 register, evidence - the registrar, under the direction of the council, is required to publish a register of the names and residences andthe medical titles, diplomas, and qualifications conferred by anycollege or body, of all persons appearing on the register on the dayof publication the register is called “northwest territories’ medicalregister, ” and a copy for the time being, purporting to be so printedand published, is prima facie evidence that the persons thereinspecified are registered according to the act the absence of a namefrom such copy is prima facie evidence that such person is not soregistered in case a person name does not appear on such copy, a certified copyunder the hand of the registrar of the entry of the name of such personon the register is evidence that such person is registered s 40 neglect to register - a person neglecting to register is not entitledto the rights or privileges conferred and is liable to all penaltiesagainst unqualified or unregistered practitioners 4 offences and penalties - to practise or profess to practise withoutregistration, for hire or reward, is punishable with a penalty of $10042 to wilfully or falsely pretend to be a physician, doctor of medicine, surgeon, or general practitioner, or assume any title or descriptionnot actually possessed and to which the person is not legally entitledunder this ordinance, is punishable with a penalty of from $10 to $5043, as amended by ord 24, 1892, s 2 to take or use a name or description implying or calculated to leadpeople to infer registration or recognition by law as a physician, surgeon, or licentiate in medicine or surgery is punishable with apenalty of from $25 to $100 44 unregistered persons - no person is entitled to recover for any medicalor surgical advice or attendance or the performance of any operationor medicine which he may have prescribed 45.