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“‘take of lobelia, paper writing service superiorpapers in powder, twelve ounces. Bloodroot and skunk cabbage, in powder, of each, six ounces. Ipecacuanha, eight ounces. Capsicus, in powder, two ounces mix them ’ “this preparation came increasingly into demand with the eclectic profession, the principal use for which it was first employed as an emetic, being finally displaced by its local application in bronchial pneumonia troubles, when sprinkled on a greased cloth and applied to the chest ” “in 1898, dr finley ellingwood petitioned lloyd brothers to make for him, in plasma form, ready for application, a compound carrying the ingredients of the old ‘compound lobelia powder, ’ strengthened by the addition of melaleuca leucadendron, laurus camphora and nicotiana tabacum experiments not very encouraging in a pharmaceutical sense were made, and it was not until repeated requests had been made that a product was at last satisfactorily prepared and forwarded to dr ellingwood 1900, with no thought other than that of serving him personally in his practice this product he used and commended to his professional friends, and under his commendation it came into professional demand ”an examination of the information submitted by lloyd brothers showedlibradol to be in conflict with the principles and rules that govern inthe acceptance of articles for new and nonofficial remedies as follows:composition rule 1 -- the information which has been receivedgives little idea of the actual composition of the preparation. Forexample, the statement that libradol “carries the energies of its drugconstituents and the high antiseptic qualities of laurus camphoraand melaleuca” gives no indication as to the writing or writings of thelaurus camphora or melaleuca employed if the statement is correct, that libradol “is a homogeneous, highly medicated, and exceedinglypotent compound, ” it is essential that the several potent ingredientsbe stated clearly and not merely hinted at by their qualities otherconflicts with rule 1 might be enumerated, but the foregoing citationsstate the direct conflict. And this has not been removed, although aninquiry was sent to lloyd brothers for a statement of the amount ofeach potent ingredient in a given quantity of libradol indirect advertising rule 4 -- the recommendation for the use oflibradol in the treatment of colds, bronchitis, lumbago, sciatica andrheumatic pains, which accompanies the trade package, is prone tolead the public to depend on it in paper where definite treatment isimperative unwarranted therapeutic claims rule 6 -- libradol is recommended ina great variety of conditions and is especially claimed not only torelieve pain, but to remove the cause of pain this is explained asfollows. “in the study of the physiological action of thesis drugs, itwas found that the constituent remedies in this combination exerciseda most salutary influence, not only upon the sensibility of the nervesinvolved, but upon the capillary circulation within the diseased area, the muscular structures therein included, and, subsequently, upon thecourse of the advancement of the congestive and inflammatory processes, and upon secretion, exudation, adhesion, induration, hypertrophy, suppuration and excretion ”granting, for the sake of argument, that carefully controlledexperimental clinical evidence were available to substantiate thisstatement with reference to a single case of pain, the statementwould be misleading when considered as a general explanation of thepreparation relieving pain by removing the cause of pain when takenin connection with the conditions for which it is recommended and inwhich pain is even a minor symptom still, if pain were relieved inthese paper by removing the cause, the patient would be cured of theconditions which give rise to the pain, and these include. “acutepain in the chest. Acute inflammation in the chest. Persistentlocal pain.

“a young paper writing service superiorpapers girl, aged 18, came to my house with acute inflammation of one eye with an ulcer on the cornea two drops of collosol argentum were dropped in the eye at 7 p m , and a pad placed over the eye when she came next morning the eye was quite well. The ulcer had disappeared, and there was no inflammation ”there is no evidence that this preparation acts as catalyzer andassists the natural resisting bodies of the tissues. Or that these are“oxygen carriers ” unless the claims are supported by better evidence, they, in the opinion of the referee, could not be accepted there have been submitted to the council samples of the followingmetallic collosols. Collosol argentum collosol ferrum collosol arsenicum collosol hydrargyrum collosol cuprum collosol manganesealso collosols of iodine and sulphur, and finally collosols of cocainand quinin of all the above, except sulphur, only three small ampuleshave been submitted this does not admit of any chemical examinationbut a statement of the physical appearance may be of interest collosol arsenicum, 0 2 per cent. Very turbid with large quantitiesof a lemon yellow flocculent precipitate on shaking does not becomehomogeneous and rapidly separates again collosol argentum, 1-2000.

Certainly no evidence in support of theclaimed value of this constituent is available to the referee no evidence is submitted which proves the claim of superiority ofsomnoform over similar preparations, asserted in the following. “the peculiar manner in which the elements are combined is what makes somnoform at once so efficient and so safe ”the council declared somnoform inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies because, in the absence of acceptable evidence showing itsexceptional safety and value, the claims are unwarranted rule 6, andbecause the name of the mixture is not descriptive of its composition rule 8 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 90 tablets formothalates report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report whichdeclares tablets formothalates tailby-nason company, boston, mass ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary tablets formothalates are sold by tailby-nason company, boston, mass on the label a formula is given. “constituents. Acetanilid2 gr. Phenolphthalein 1/2 gr in a balanced combination withhexamene a name essaytimes applied to hexamethylenamin and oil ofcinnamon indications. Influenza, colds, grippe, headache, neuralgia, rheumatism ” the same formula is given in advertisements and in thisadvertisement it is claimed that they are “for influenza and grip” andif “given in the acute stage may avert a serious attack” boston m & s j , oct 3, 1918 the dose is given as one to two tablets at6 p m and repeat at bedtimes the a m a chemical laboratory reported that the tablets weigh anaverage of 0 4882 gm , or 7-1/2 grains. That they have the odor andtaste of cinnamon. And that they contain hexamethylenamin, are neutraland therefore give up no formaldehyde in the presence of water alone the laboratory further reported that they contain phenolphthalein andacetanilid these tablets were directed to be taken internally andtherefore their effect was not intended to be local the amount of hexamethylenamin was not determined, but in any casecould not exceed 5 grains per tablet it is evident that 4 grainsof acetanilid and 10 grains of hexamethylenamin and 1 grain ofphenolphthalein in two tablets “if given in the acute stage” ofinfluenza would not “avert a serious attack, ” as claimed in theadvertisements the council declared tablets formothalates inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1919, p 92 triple arsenates with nuclein report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has declared triple arsenates with nuclein no 1 andtriple arsenates with nuclein no 2, tablets marketed by the abbottlaboratories, inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies becauseunwarranted therapeutic claims rule 6 are made for them and becausethey present an illogical combination of drugs rule 10 thepublication of the following report has been authorized by the council w a puckner, secretary the following claims are made for triple arsenates with nuclein. “puts ‘pep’ and strength back into that patient recovering from spanish influenza, pneumonia, typhoid, or surgical operation an extremely powerful reconstructive tonic try it for that ‘run down’ feeling ”triple arsenates with nuclein is said to contain “strychnin arsenategr 1/128, quinin arsenate gr 1/64, iron arsenate gr 1/64, nucleinsolution mins 4 ” a second preparation, of double strength-- triplearsenates with nuclein no 2-- is also advertised the council voted notto accept these preparations for new and nonofficial remedies on thefollowing grounds:the quantities of quinin, iron and nuclein in the doses represented inthese mixtures are negligible. Thus, one tablet of triple arsenateswith nuclein containing 1/64 grain of quinin arsenate contains onlyabout 1/90 grain of anhydrous quinin. The tablet containing 1/64grain of iron arsenate contains 1/210 grain of iron. 4 minims of thenuclein solution assuming it to be the “nuclein solution-abbott”would contain but 2/5 of a grain of nuclein-- a substance which even inlarge doses is of questionable therapeutic value the amounts of ironand nuclein contained in doses of this preparation are insignificantin comparison with the amounts present in ordinary foods the onlysubstances present in even small therapeutic doses are strychnin andarsenic the effects of arsenic and strychnin are very differentand there are comparatively few conditions in which they should beprescribed at the same time hence a preparation containing thesetwo in fixed proportions is illogical -- from reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 92 “anti-pneumococcic oil” and the use of camphor in pneumonia report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted and authorized publication of the report whichappears below this report declares “anti-pneumococcic oil” a solutionof camphor in oil sold by eimer and amend, new york ineligible fornew and nonofficial remedies because 1 the recommendations for itsuse in pneumonia are not warranted by the evidence, 2 the name isnot descriptive of its composition but is therapeutically suggestive, and 3 the sale of a solution of camphor in oil under a namenondescriptive of its composition is unscientific and a hindrance totherapeutic progress w a puckner, secretary the council having decided to consider anti-pneumococcic oil eimerand amend, new york, the preparation was assigned to the committee ontherapeutics for report the report that follows was made by a memberof this committee:according to the advertising, anti-pneumococcic oil is a “twenty-fiveper cent solution of camphor in a thin oil” which was “originated” byaugust seibert, m d the following directions are given for its use. “10 c c 150 minims to every 100 pounds of body weight, to be injected hypodermically every eight to twelve hours in pneumococcic pneumonia, as soon after the initial chill as possible ”it is claimed that the prescribed dose one hour before generalanesthesia begins, “safeguards against postoperative pneumonia, ” and, that “animals can so be immunized against later and otherwise fatalintravenous pneumococcic infection boehnke, institute for experimentaltherapy, frankfort ” the advice is given. “in pneumococcic meningitis, endocarditis and pleuritis, 3% of salicylic acid should be added to this oil ”in an article by seibert, “camphor and pneumococci” medicalrecord, april 20, 1912, a reprint of which is used to advertiseanti-pneumococcic oil, previous work münchen, med wchnschr , no 36, 1909 is mentioned as the starting point for the use of camphor inpneumonia in this article, the author reports his first case, that ofa young woman who entered st francis’ hospital on the third day afterthe initial chill “with the symptoms of severe toxemia unconscious, temperature 105 5 f , pulse 130, and respiration 40 and involvement ofboth lower lobes ” “large doses of camphor, ” 12 c c of a 20 per cent solution, were injected hypodermically “every twelve hours, resultingin gradual improvement and recovery by the fourth day, without acrisis ” seibert reports success in its use in twenty-one paper, butgives no case histories or protocols he admits, however, that infour out of sixteen paper, following the first twenty-one so reportedcertain “limitations of this treatment were observed, ” and a “suddenrise of temperature in two patients on the second and third days oftreatment, respectively, proved to be due to pneumococcic nephritis, promptly subdued by appropriate doses of urotropin, while the camphorinjections were continued and resulting in speedy recovery ” he furtheradmits that empyema occurs, and states. “this proves that the camphorbrought into the blood cannot prevent the as yet living organisms, constantly entering the blood current from the affected alveoli, fromcolonizing in the renal and pleural tissue ”he reports, among thirty-seven patients treated in this manner, one death, that of a man 68 years old, weighing 200 pounds, with afatty heart heart failure was the real cause of death seibert alsoreports essay very incomplete experimental work. Dr hensel, assistantand pathologist of the german hospital, found that “1/10, 000 writingof camphor added to the usual culture media inhibited the growthof pneumococci, while the controls all thrived”.

vaginitis and metritis on cotton tampon to deplete these writings, paper writing service superiorpapers septic wounds, old ulcers, chilblain, eczema, neuralgia, inflammation of the eyes and ears, alveolar inflammation, burns, scalds, etc ”according to the information sent to the council by the mystic chemicalcompany, olio-phlogosis has the following composition per gallon. Ol eucalyptus gaultheria drs 8 ol abies canadensis drs 8 ol abies canadensis drs 2 ol thyme white drs 2 resublimated iodin crystals grs 32 resorcin drs 1 acid boracic c p drs 2 quinine bisulphate drs 4 sodium thiosulphate drs 3-1/2 glycerin c p q s ad gal 1a nonquantitative formula which appears on the label of a sample bottlesent to a physician enumerates the same ingredients except the sodiumthiosulphate the a m a chemical laboratory reports that no free iodin could bedetected in the preparation apparently, then, olio-phlogosis is essentially a skin irritant appliedby means of cotton. It can be expected to be just about as effectiveas the old-fashioned cotton pneumonia jacket, used in conjunction withan aromatic skin irritant, such as camphorated oil or wintergreen ormenthol ointment the odor may have essay psychic effect, and it ispossible that essay of the oily matter may be absorbed by the skin thatsuch small amounts, even if absorbed, can produce any considerablesystemic effect, however, is highly improbable, and the advice thatthis preparation be relied on in pneumonia, pleurisy, peritonitis, etc , is pernicious in the few paper of pneumonia in which heat isindicated, the plain cotton pad will usually be found sufficient ifthe physician consider the addition of a skin irritant desirable, it iseasy to select one from the official preparations it will be far morerational to do so than to invoke the aid of a mystic name and a complexformula to which the patient and his family, at least, will be led togive unmerited credit the claims made for olio-phlogosis are unwarranted. Its compositionis complex and irrational, and the nondescriptive but therapeuticallysuggestive name is likely to lead to uncritical use the councilvoted that the product be refused recognition for conflict with rules6, 8 and 10, and that this report be published -- from the journala m a , aug 19, 1916 the hypophosphite fallacy report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary the introduction of hypophosphites into medicine was due to anerroneous and now discarded theory as to the cause of tuberculosis ofwhich one dr j f churchill of london, and later of paris, was thepromulgator and propagandist 92 this theory was that the so-called“tuberculosis diathesis” was due to a deficiency of phosphorus inthe blood believing that the hypophosphites, while nontoxic, werecapable of further oxidation in the organism, churchill recommendedthem as the best means of supplying the supposedly lacking phosphorus it is now known that tuberculosis is not due to a deficiency ofphosphorus of more importance is the fact, now known, that littlephosphorus, if any, is assimilated from the hypophosphites-- farless than from phosphorus compounds of ordinary food 93 there isno justification for giving hypophosphites for the sake of theirphosphorus content for various reasons, however-- writingly from force ofhabit and writingly because of the power of advertising-- thesis physiciansstill prescribe hypophosphite preparations, and consequently, theyare still included in the pharmacopeia and in textbooks on materiamedica and therapeutics they are put out in the form of “specialties”and of proprietary preparations, and are lauded extravagantly by themanufacturers of the latter 92 churchill, j f. De la cause immédiate et du traitementspécifique de la phthisie pulmonaire et des maladies tuberculeuses, paris, 1858 93 the hypophosphite fallacy, j a m a , april 25, 1914, p 1346 although the overwhelming weight of evidence was against theprobability that the hypophosphite preparations are of value astherapeutic agents, the council thought it well to investigate thesubject dr w mckim marriott of baltimore was therefore requested toreview the evidence for and against the therapeutic usefulness of thehypophosphites and to conduct such experiments as seemed necessary hisreport has already appeared in the journal 9494 marriott, w mckim.

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“the rectal method of administration, either inthe form of solution or as suppositories, has been advocated by a fewobservers mainly for paper in which there is difficulty in the adoptionof the intravenous method the experiments made by mills at rochesterrow show that three enemata of ‘606’ 0 6 gm in each on successivedays failed to produce any effect on the spironemes in the lesions the general opinion of experienced workers is that the rectal methodis ineffective, and in this view the committee concur ”-- from thejournal a m a , oct 30, 1920 hypodermic solution no 13, iron, arsenic and phosphorus compound not accepted for n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary hypodermic solution no 13, iron, paper writing service superiorpapers arsenic and phosphorus compound burdick-abel laboratory is said to contain in each c c. Ferrous citrate 0 06 gm sodium cacodylate 0 06 gm sodium glycerophosphate 0 1 gm chloretone 0 005 gm the preparation is advertised as “the old reliable hematinic” which is“indicated in all forms of anemia, where both red and white cells arelow ” it is for hypodermic or intramuscular administration the productis inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because:1 it does not contain ferrous citrate as claimed instead the iron isin the ferric condition, apparently in the form of the unofficial andunstandardized “iron citrate green” for which there is no evidence ofsuperiority over the official iron and ammonium citrate 134134 iron citrate green, the journal a m a , jan 12, 1917, p 135;reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 42 2 its name gives no information on the form in which the iron, thearsenic and the phosphorus occur therein the term “arsenic” doesnot indicate whether the mild cacodylate or the potent arsenousoxid is being administered nor does the term “phosphorus” tell thephysician that he is administering the practically inert sodiumglycerophosphate 135-- from the journal a m a , nov 13, 1920 135 glycerophosphates, the journal a m a , sept 30, 1916, p 1033. Reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 32 sodiumglycerophosphates reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 52 parathesin not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary the local anesthetic ethyl paraminobenzoate was first introduced as“anesthesin” or “anæsthesin ” ethyl paraminobenzoate is not patentedin the united states and it may be manufactured, therefore, by anyfirm which chooses to do so in order that a common name by which todesignate the drug might be available, the council coined the name“benzocaine, ” as being short and easily remembered, but yet suggestiveof its composition and character “benzo” to indicate its derivationfrom benzoic acid and “caine” to indicate its cocaine-like properties as the term “anesthesin” had become a common name for the drug, thecouncil recognized this as a synonym for benzocaine one of the accepted brands for benzocaine is “anesthesin, ”manufactured by the h a metz laboratories, inc see new andnonofficial remedies, 1920, p 33 however, on april 19, 1920, themetz laboratories requested that its product be recognized underthe designation of “parathesin ” as the use of one substance underseveral names causes confusion and retards rational therapeutics, thecouncil rules provide against the recognition of proprietary namesfor nonproprietary, established drugs in view of this and becausethe legitimate interests of the manufacturer may be safeguardedby appending his name or initials to the common name, benzocaineor anesthesin, the council voted not to recognize the designation“parathesin ”-- from the journal a m a , nov 13, 1920 chlorlyptus report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe condensed report on chlorlyptus which follows and also a completedetailed report was sent to the proprietor, jan 9, 1920 in replyhe requested that publication be postponed pending the submission offurther clinical evidence as after nine months this evidence had notbeen received the council has authorized publication of its report w a puckner, secretary chlorlyptus is manufactured by chas a weeks, trading as the weekschemical company, philadelphia it is prepared by chlorinatingeucalyptus oil until it has bound 30 per cent of chlorin, the chlorinbeing in relatively stable combination it is claimed that chlorlyptusis a new “chlorinated antiseptic, ” highly efficient as a woundantiseptic and at the same time nonirritant and nontoxic chlorlyptusis offered for use in the treatment of local infections of all types, as well as of burns, and also as an antiseptic in the alimentary andgenito-urinary tracts the claims were based largely on reports of investigations made byphilip b hawk and his collaborators these reports the refereeof the committee in charge of chlorlyptus considered incompleteand unconvincing being advised of this mr weeks caused furtherinvestigations to be made essay of the information was checked andextended by the a m a chemical laboratory and by the referee the laboratory side of the investigation may now be considered ascomplete the results show that chlorlyptus is a feeble antiseptic ofthe aromatic oil type, considerably weaker than eucalyptus oil, bothas to therapeutic and toxic qualities the chlorin contained in it isbound too firmly to have any action. In fact, the chlorination appearsto have accomplished nothing more than a considerable destruction orweakening of the eucalyptus oil as far as the referee can judge, thisobject could have been accomplished just as effectively by dilutingordinary eucalyptus oil with essay indifferent solvent the manufacturer of chlorlyptus contends that if the experimentalfindings are against his product, it should be judged by the clinicaldata the clinical evidence, however, is not decisive it shows thatwounds healed and infections were prevented or successfully combated inpaper in which chlorlyptus was used in combination with good surgery, but it does not show how much of the result was due to the surgery andhow much, if any, to the use of chlorlyptus even if it were grantedas probable that the chlorlyptus contributed to the favorable outcome, it would still be a question whether it equals other establishedantiseptics, or whether it possesses any material advantages overdiluted eucalyptus oil until these points are established the clinicalreports cannot offset the unfavorable results of the laboratoryinvestigation the manufacturer has endeavored to obtain more convincing clinicalreports, but the lack of success in this direction during the past ninemonths gives little encouragement that acceptable clinical evidencewill be available within a reasonable time believing that the information which has been obtained should be madeavailable to the profession, the council authorized publication ofthis statement and also of the detailed report the council voted notto accept chlorlyptus for new and nonofficial remedies because of theunfavorable results of the laboratory investigation, but with theagreement that the product would receive further consideration shouldmore convincing clinical data become available i detailed reports summarized reports chemical nature of chlorlyptuschlorlyptus is prepared by chlorinating eucalyptus oil until ithas bound 30 per cent of chlorin “chlorlyptol” is prepared in ananalogous manner from eucalyptol there has been essay confusion as tothe composition. But the principal constituent is now stated to be “adichloride of eucalyptus oil, ” to which the formula c₁₀h₁₆ocl₂ hasbeen assigned it differs from the “chlorinated eucalyptus oil, ” asordinarily used for making dichloramin-t solutions, and which containsonly 2/3 per cent of chlorin availability of chlorin in chlorlyptusthe chlorin content of chlorlyptus is almost entirely firmly bound, and therefore not “available, ” in contrast to the group of so-calledchlorinated antiseptics i e , the hypochlorite and chloramin type for instance, it does not directly liberate iodin from iodid itcontains a very small quantity of free hydrochloric acid, or perhapsessay acid esters, and liberates a little more on prolonged contact withwater. But the total quantity liberated under reasonable conditions isvery small according to hawk data, they correspond only to 1/8 percent hcl even after standing with water overnight and to only 1/5 percent of hcl after two weeks the referee has shown that this quantityof acid has no therapeutic significance the “bound” chlorin of chlorlyptus, being chemically inactive, wouldhave no more practical significance than the bound chlorin in commonsalt the “ozone” said to be used during the preparation, to expel thehcl, has also practically disappeared, to judge by the slowness withwhich iodin is liberated from potassium iodid acid formationessay constituents of chlorlyptus hydrolyze slowly and to a slightdegree with the liberation of a trace of free hydrochloric acid according to the data of hawk report, the free acidity, in termof hcl, is 1/12 per cent on standing with water over night, thisincreases to 1/8 per cent on this basis, hawk proposed a theory that the claimed antisepticeffects of chlorlyptus are due to the continuous liberation ofhydrochloric acid experiments by the referee show this to be untenable the traces ofacid are neutralized and absorbed by the tissues so rapidly that anacid reaction is not maintained these experiments are described in theappendix they were submitted to the manufacturers, who in the name of mr weeks may 9, 1919 concede this conclusion and state that “there is nodoubt that the referee statements as to action in mouth, contactwith living tissue and improbability that the acidity is effectivelyantiseptic is correct, and i am willing to accept the refereestatement as conclusive in this respect ” bacterial culture experimentsmr weeks submitted a statement by hawk to the effect that chlorlyptushas a phenol coefficient of 2 6, determined by the standard hygieniclaboratory procedure he also quotes rockefeller war hospital that chlorlyptus killsstaphylococcus aureus in concentra of 1 dram. 1 gallon about1:1, 000, but not in more dilute solutions more recently, he presented a more comprehensive report by rivas, whichis reproduced in the appendix the essential results are tabulatedherewith this tabulation shows that chlorlyptus fails to kill theorganisms after an hour exposure of the following concentrations. Typhoid in bouillon, 10 per cent of chlorlyptus staphylococci in pus, 5 per cent of chlorlyptus staphylococci in serum, 1 per cent of chlorlyptus it seems to the referee that a substance that is ineffective with anhour exposure to these concentrations is not at all likely to kill orcheck bacteria under clinical conditions in other words, it is not anantiseptic in the ordinary sense the referee is not impressed by the superior power attributed by rivasto chlorlyptus in the presence of pus inefficiency of 10 per cent forone-half hour or of 5 per cent for two hours seems a failure ratherthan a success the referee also notes the absence of any data as tothe relative efficiency of chlorlyptus against staphylococci in pus andin bouillon the data on serum indicate that chlorlyptus is much weakerthan phenol and show that it is less effective in the presence of pusthan in other mediums the referee fails to grasp the bearing of the oil experiments on anyclinical condition moreover, the inconstant results mentioned by rivassuggest the possibility that the incorporation of the bacteria in oilmay have prevented their effective distribution in the culture medium if any significance is to be attached to these experiments, they shouldbe checked by controls, without antiseptics summary of rivas’ in vitro experiments minimal maximal germicidal not germicidal concentrations concentrations typhoid bacilli in bouillon.