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“as far as the referee knows, the only claim that iron cacodylate has as a therapeutic agent is that it forms a convenient method for the administration of iron and cacodylate while there is no reason why a drug should not be given by mouth, usually intramuscularly, and apparently it has recently been given intravenously the effects to be expected from its use paid essay writers are those of iron and arsenic “granted that iron and arsenic are valuable therapeutic agents, iron cacodylate is not a satisfactory preparation in which to administer these drugs for the following reasons. “1 it would appear that cacodylates are not the best form in which to administer arsenic cacodylates in therapeutic doses exert but a feeble action small quantities may be reduced to cacodyl ch₂₄as₂, and varying amounts to inorganic arsenic the amount transformed to arsenic is apparently unknown and probably varies in different individuals on these grounds alone the use of the cacodylates where an arsenic effect is desired seems dubious “2 the amounts of iron and cacodylates contained in the doses recommended are small when compared with the usual doses of either iron or cacodylate the amount of iron in the iron cacodylate preparations is small, about 0036 gram per dose, while the preparations admitted to ‘useful drugs’ contain much larger amounts per dose recommended the list follows. Massa ferri carbonates fe per dose 042 gm pilulae ferri carbonates " 058 gm tinctura ferri chloride " 022 gm ferri et ammonii citrae " 042 gm “the approximate amount of arsenic in iron cacodylate in the commonly recommended doses varies from 012 gm to 0 024 gm , while the amount of arsenic in sodium cacodylate in the recommended doses varies between 021 and 35 gms it would seem that a much more rational method of administration of these two drugs would be separately, in which case a better control over the dosage is possible “3 the referee has been unable to secure reliable clinical evidence that iron cacodylate is a serviceable preparation a search of the available literature for the past fifteen years has been made, also drs edsall, longcope, stengel, hoover, phillips and miller have been consulted these physicians know nothing of its use “4 in view of the above, it appears to the referee that iron cacodylate is an irrational and useless method of the administration of iron and arsenic ”the council adopted the report of the referee and directed that ironcacodylate be omitted from the 1921 edition of new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1920, p 62 libradol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized for publication the following report whichexplains why libradol was found ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies w a puckner, secretary libradol is manufactured by lloyd bros , cincinnati according to acircular a “readily removable” label which accompanies the tradepackage, its “uses” are. “in colds, croup and acute bronchitis inlocal congestions. In lung trouble, in acute inflammations of this orany other organ, especially if pain or soreness be present in lumbago, sciatica, or in rheumatic pains of the joints or muscles applied tothe forehead, it induces sleep ”libradol is offered in two forms, “libradol mild” for infants andsupersensitive persons which is said to be “destitute of drug energy”and libradol “regular” which is “highly medicated, ” the “constituents”being “dracontium, sanguinaria, cephaelis, melaleuca, lobelia, laurus, capsicum, tobacco ”according to a circular, “the sanitary plasma libradol” is a“homogeneous, highly medicated, and exceedingly potent compound, inplastic form, ” which “carries the energies of its drug constituentsand the high antiseptic qualities of laurus camphora and melaleuca ”it is stated. “the drug influence of libradol is necessarily differentfrom that of any known single member of the materia medica but yet, no mystery either in medicine or of pharmacy is claimed as a writing ofits composition or process of manufacture it is a thing peculiar toitself, the result of the study of the drugs from which it is derivedand compounded these drugs may be studied at leisure by whoever caresto do so ”the following information bearing on the composition of libradol wasfurnished by lloyd brothers in response to a request from the councilto aid in the consideration of the preparation. “‘compound lobelia powder’ has been, since 1852, official in the american dispensatory, in the first edition of which 1852 its formula is given, as follows.

Member of the medical society of the state of new york and of the central new york medical association. Fellow of the new york academy of medicine and of the american academy of medicine. Late surgeon 65th regt n y vols. Late health commissioner, rochester, n y. Etc , etc death by heat and cold temperature of the body the production and regulation of heat in the body is a problem byno means elucidated we consider heat production to be of internalorigin, by a complex process involving tissue metamorphosis, chemicalchanges in nutrient elements, muscular movements, etc heat regulationis accomplished, not only by variation in the loss of heat by thebody, but by what is more important, variations in the amount of heatgenerated it is an accepted physiological conclusion that there existsin the body a thermotaxic nervous mechanism which controls its normal, as well as its abnormal, manifestations of heat the average temperature of the body in health is 37° c 98 6° f , inthe axilla taken in the vagina or rectum, 9° c 1 3° f higher isnoted the daily average range of variation is about 1° c 1 8° f in disease or injury considerable variations occur.

Detaches with “pulling ” on heating, readily loses eucalyptol, and a small amount of resinous substance forms in the bottom of the beaker if cerelene be heated to 145 c and cooled, the resulting product no longer has the properties of the original cerelene after two years’ delay on the writing of the manufacturer, the councilauthorized publication declaring cerelene inadmissible for new andnonofficial remedies because its superiority over single paraffinshad not been demonstrated and the unwarranted claims had not beenabandoned -- abstracted from the journal a m a , feb 15, 1919 dr de sanctis’ rheumatic and gout pillsdr desanctis’ rheumatic and gout pills are sold by edward cleaver, 13clerkenwell road, london, england the american agents are e fougeraand co , inc , new york the package is a round pill box and containstwelve pills and a circular, which directs that one pill be taken everyeight hours until relieved in the package there is also a circularadvertising dr desanctis’ gout and rheumatic paint, with directionsfor its use on the cover of a box, which contained six of the retailpackages, is the statement that these pills have been in general usefor nearly 100 years, and that their sale has been built up withoutadvertising desanctis’ pills are round, uncoated, and have a light brown color there was essay variation in the color of different lots, one lot inwritingicular being gray rather than brown a little arrowroot starchwas found in each box, this evidently having been used as a dustingpowder the pills were very hard, rather brittle, but quite difficultto powder the pills were not readily disintegrated by water or dilutedacids, even when warmed, but when warmed with a dilute sodium hydroxidsolution they readily disintegrated ten pills weighed 3 213 gm , an average of 0 3213 gm , or 5 grains thearrowroot starch used as a dusting powder was removed as completely aspossible by rolling the pills in a cloth several dozen pills were thenpowdered and the powder thus obtained used for the analysis a microscopic examination of the powder showed powdered colchicum seedin abundance and also traces of arrowroot starch, no doubt from thatused as the dusting powder since colchicum seed was so abundant, the powder was assayed by theu s pharmacopeial method for colchicum seed u s p ix, p 120, slightly modified so that less of the powdered pills than directedthere could be used in one assay 3 75 gm gave 0 0204 gm of colchicinor 0 54 per cent in a duplicate, 5 gm gave 0 0234 gm of colchicin or0 47 per cent. Average 0 5 per cent the alkaloid obtained had the characteristic appearance and odor ofcolchicin when separated from the seed under these conditions thesolution in water and acid was yellow. The aqueous solution wasintensely bitter, and the yellow color intensified with acids the dryresidue became intensely yellow with concentrated sulphuric acid. Withnitric acid it became violet turning to yellow, and with concentratedsulphuric acid and potassium nitrate it gave a yellowish green color, turning to violet and finally to a wine color all these reactions aretypical of colchicin from 1 gm of the powdered pills there was obtained 0 0425 gm of ash, or 4 25 per cent when the powdered pills were extracted with chloroform in a soxhletapparatus, a very uniform quantity of extract was obtained from 5 gm there was obtained, in one case, 0 581 gm. In another, 0 5755 gm , andin a third, 0 588 gm , the average being 0 5815 gm or 11 63 per cent on still further extracting with alcohol, a small amount of extractivewas obtained, the amount depending on the length of time the extractionwas continued on extracting with hot water the residue left after exhaustion withchloroform and with alcohol, a further extract was obtained in onecase, it amounted to 0 4763 gm or 9 53 per cent , and in another caseit amounted to 0 470 gm , or 9 40 per cent. Average 9 47 per cent in attempting to dry the pills or the above-mentioned chloroformicextract at 100 c , a crystalline sublimate was obtained which had theodor of benzoic acid the crystals were acid, their neutral solutiongave a flesh-colored precipitate with ferric chlorid, and they meltedat 120-121 c this crystalline substance appeared to be benzoic acid the quantity of benzoic acid in this extract was determined by heatingit to about 140 c a current of air was drawn through the flask andthe sublimed benzoic acid collected in a cooled tube the benzoic acidwas washed out of the tube with neutral alcohol, and the solution wastitrated with tenth normal potassium hydroxid in one case, 11 25 c c of tenth-normal alkali was used, indicating 0 1373 gm, of benzoic acid;in another, 12 27 c c , indicating 0 1498 gm of benzoic acid. Average0 1436 gm , or 2 87 per cent in a third case the temperature reached250 c , and there was essay decomposition of the fat in the flask andessay colored material distilled over for this sublimate 15 54 c c oftenth-normal alkali were required after evaporating the alcohol and acidulating the solutions obtainedin the previous experiments, the benzoic acid was extracted withchloroform in the first case, 0 1383 gm was obtained. In the second, 0 1541 gm. Average 0 1462 gm , or 2 92 per cent of benzoic acid when the original chloroformic extract was heated until all of thebenzoic acid had been driven off, the residue had the appearance of asemisolid fat it compared quite closely in color, odor, etc , with thefatty material obtained by extracting colchicum seed with chloroform, although the odor was more suggestive of oleic or stearic acid it wasdistinctly acid, which is also true of the fatty material obtained froma sample of colchicum seed the extract obtained with hot water was light yellow. Gummy, at first, but dried to a glass-like brittle mass it had a slight burned-sugarodor and taste, and was neutral in reaction it was stronglydextrogyrate and at once reduced fehling solution as well as alkalinesilver nitrate solution on boiling with potassium hydroxid solution, it turned deep red it also gave the molisch carbohydrate reaction, and the ozazone test in seventeen minutes as described in mulliken identification of pure organic compounds, ed 1, 1905, p 26 theseare all characteristic reactions of lactose or milk sugar from this examination we conclude that desanctis’ pills containpowdered colchicum seed, benzoic acid, and sugar of milk there is alsopresent fatty material which resembles the fat of colchicum seed, butmay be, in writing, added fatty acid the percentage of colchicin found 0 50 is about that of a good quality of colchicum seed, the u s pharmacopeial standard being not less than 0 45 per cent since thepills contain material other than colchicum seed, this assay wouldindicate a colchicum seed of high alkaloidal content, or the possiblereinforcement of the pills with colchicum extract or colchicin the amount of benzoic acid, 2 92 per cent , or about 1/7 grain perpill, is insignificant from a therapeutic standpoint, since an averagedose is 0 5 gm , or 8 grains fatty acids, and the fatty matter fromcolchicum seed are inert, at least in the quantities found here theonly office which fatty acids might perform, would be to give the pillsan enteric quality, preventing their absorption until they reach theintestine the sugar of milk, about 10 per cent , or 1/2 grain perpill, no doubt is simply an excipient desanctis’ pills are therefore essentially 5 grain doses of powderedcolchicum seed, of which the average dose is 0 2 gm , or 3 grains u s p ix, p 120 the journal in presenting the facts contained in the above report madethe following comments:“here then, we have sold for self-medication an extremely poisonousdrug, with no warning of the risk the public runs in using it whilethe directions call for “one pill every eight hours until relieved, ”it is notorious that the public takes the attitude toward “patentmedicines” that, if a little is good, more is better, and the averageuser of remedies for self-treatment is likely, unless there is essaywarning, to use his own discretion as to the amount taken “the individual dose is above that of the average recommended in theunited states pharmacopeia colchicum or its alkaloids-- or for thatmatter, any drug as toxic as colchicum-- have no place in preparationsof the home-remedy type in the case of all “patent medicines, ”public interest demands that the full quantitative formula of thetherapeutically active ingredients should be given on the label, forwhen the public prescribes for itself, it has a right to know what itis taking unfortunately, public interest clashes with vested interestsand, as usual, vested interests get the better of it in the case ofsuch dangerous preparations as desanctis’ pills, if their sale is tobe permitted at all, not only should the names and quantities of alltherapeutically active ingredients in the mixture be given, but thelaw should require that the word poison be plainly printed on thelabel ”-- abstracted from the journal a m a , july 19, 1919 iodex and liquid iodexthe a m a chemical laboratory examined iodex in 1915 213 theclaims made, at that time, by the exploiters, menley & james, wereshown to be contrary to facts in that iodex contained only traces offree iodin while they claimed “5 per cent therapeutically free iodin ”even the total quantity of iodin was shown to be only about one halfof the 5 per cent claimed to be present as free iodin 213 annual reports of the chem lab of the a m a , 1915, p 89 an examination of the advertising matter sent out by menley & jamesin 1919 showed that substantially the same claims were being made asin 1915 this at once suggested the inquiry.

When you have your juice clarified, cast away the scum as athing of no use 4 when you have thus clarified it, you have two ways to preserve itall the year 1 when it is cold, put it into a glass, and put so much oil on it aswill cover it to the thickness of two fingers. The oil will swim at thetop, and so keep the air from coming to putrify it. When you intend touse it, pour it into a porringer, and if any oil come out with it, youmay easily scum it off with a spoon, and put the juice you use not intothe glass again, it will quickly sink under the oil this is the firstway 2 the second way is a little more difficult, and the juice of fruitsis usually preserved this way when you have clarified it, boil it overthe fire, till being cold it be of the thickness of honey. This ismost commonly used for diseases of the mouth, and is called roba andsaba and thus much for the first section, the second follows section ii the way of making and keeping all necessary compounds chapter v of distilled waters hitherto we have spoken of medicines which consist in their own nature, which authors vulgarly call simples, though essaytimes improperly. Forin truth, nothing is simple but pure elements. All things else arecompounded of them we come now to treat of the artificial medicines, in the form of which because we must begin essaywhere we shall placedistilled waters in which consider, 1 waters are distilled of herbs, flowers, fruits, and roots 2 we treat not of strong waters, but of cold, as being to act galenwriting, and not paracelsus 3 the herbs ought to be distilled when they are in the greatestvigour, and so ought the flowers also 4 the vulgar way of distillations which people use, because they knowno better, is in a pewter still. And although distilled waters are theweakest of artificial medicines, and good for little but mixtures ofother medicines, yet they are weaker by thesis degrees, than they wouldbe were they distilled in sand if i thought it not impossible, toteach you the way of distilling in sand, i would attempt it 5 when you have distilled your water, put it into a glass, coveredover with a paper pricked full of holes, so that the excrementitiousand fiery vapours may exhale, which cause that settling in distilledwaters called the mother, which corrupt them, then cover it close, andkeep it for your use 6 stopping distilled waters with a cork, makes them musty, and sodoes paper, if it but touch the water. It is best to stop them with abladder, being first put in water, and bound over the top of the glass such cold waters as are distilled in a pewter still if well kept willendure a year. Such as are distilled in sand, as they are twice asstrong, so they endure twice as long chapter ii of syrups 1 a syrup is a medicine of a liquid form, composed of infusion, decoction and juice and, 1 for the more grateful taste 2 for thebetter keeping of it. With a certain quantity of honey or sugar, hereafter mentioned, boiled to the thickness of new honey 2 you see at the first view, that this aphorism divides itself intothree branches, which deserve severally to be treated of, viz 1 syrups made by infusion 2 syrups made by decoction 3 syrups made by juice of each of these, for your instruction-sake, kind countrymen andwomen i speak a word or two awriting 1st, syrups made by infusion, are usually made of flowers, and of suchflowers as soon lose their colour and strength by boiling, as roses, violets, peach flowers, &c they are thus made. Having picked yourflowers clean, to every pound of them add three pounds or three pints, which you will for it is all one of spring water, made boiling hot;first put your flowers into a pewter-pot, with a cover, and pour thewater on them. Then shutting the pot, let it stand by the fire, tokeep hot twelve hours, and strain it out. in such syrups as purge, asdamask roses, peach flowers, &c the usual, and indeed the best way, isto repeat this infusion, adding fresh flowers to the same liquor diverstimes, that so it may be the stronger having strained it out, put theinfusion into a pewter bason, or an earthen one well glazed, and toevery pint of it add two pounds of sugar, which being only melted overthe fire, without boiling, and scummed, will produce you the syrup youdesire 2dly, syrups made by decoction are usually made of compounds, yet mayany simple herb be thus converted into syrup. Take the herb, root, or flowers you would make into a syrup, and bruise it a little. Thenboil it in a convenient quantity of spring water. The more water youboil it in, the weaker it will be. A handful of the herb or root is aconvenient quantity for a pint of water, boil it till half the waterbe consumed, then let it stand till it be almost cold, and strainit through a woollen cloth, letting it run out at leisure. Withoutpressing to every pint of this decoction add one pound of sugar, andboil it over the fire till it come to a syrup, which you may know, ifyou now and then cool a little of it with a spoon. Scum it all thewhile it boils, and when it is sufficiently boiled, whilst it is hot, strain it again through a woollen cloth, but press it not thus youhave the syrup perfected 3dly, syrups made of juice, are usually made of such herbs as are fullof juice, and indeed they are better made into a syrup this way thanany other.

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Two ounces clear fluid paid essay writers in pericardium lungscongested. All the heart cavities contained blood 3 ibid , p 5 - woman, age 28 two marks of ligature on neck. Onedeep and circular passed up behind left ear. The other passed from thecircular mark behind, crossed it on either side under lower jaw, thenceup to chin appeared at first to be a case of strangulation followinghanging. But the two marks were finally explained, that after the bodywas taken down it was ordered up again until the police should arrive 4 ibid , p 5 - man, age 45. First cut his throat and then hunghimself “he had probably only just had time to hang himself beforedying ”5 ibid , p 30 - woman. Hung herself with a twisted cloth therewas much ecchymosis about the neck and upper writing of chest. Lungs muchcongested. Fibrin clot in left mitral orifice. Liver, spleen, andstomach congested. Transverse ligament of atlas ruptured 6 ibid - man, age 39 distinct mark of cord around neck.