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Others offerthe simple law of the series in explanation outline for college essay. Others still believe thatimitation is the principal cause while there is no doubt a grain oftruth in each of these, less philosophic minds will look upon such abeastly proceeding as a mark of the complete satisfaction sought by thedestructive instinct why such things should be is of less concern than the fact thatcriminal mutilation of the dead body is not confined to any age orcountry though more frequent in the last fifteen years, it takes upquite a space in the history of human cruelty the violent passion, wrath, and vengeance that caused the prophet isaiah to be sawn in twoat the age of one hundred years by order of manasses and agag cut intopieces by samuel have not materially changed in the days of jack theripper. And we find such crimes in antipodal writings of the world, amongvaried sociological conditions, no matter whether it be the northamerican indian, who scalps and mutilates his enemy and places thesevered penis in the mouth, or the civilized european, who cuts up thebody of his victim and serves it in a curry at a feast of assembledfriends 584this new point of judiciary medicine has lately been elaborated byeuropean writers under the title of dépeçage criminel, a term whichapplies to the operation resorted to by an assassin having for its endthe getting rid of the body of the victim and to render more difficultthe establishment of its identity the cleverness of experts scarcely keeps pace nowadays with the morecomplicated proceedings adopted by criminals in fact, at a trial ofthis kind truth and science are often the under dogs in a fight, thanwhich none in forensic medicine is longer and more embarrassing tocause a rapid disappearance of the proofs of a homicide, with a viewto escape the investigations of justice, murderers have been knownliterally to make hash of the victim which was subsequently eaten bythemselves and others gruner relates the case of a man who, havingkilled and cut into pieces his victim, boiled and roasted the fragmentsand ate them with his wife such examples, however, suggest morbidrather than passional phenomena, which manifestly call for rigidscrutiny into the mental state of the culprit, who may be more of alunatic than a malefactor in paper of infanticide new-born children are essaytimes cut into piecesand the fragments burnt in order to facilitate the disappearance of thecadaver there does not appear to be, however, any well-authenticatedinstance of the operation having been done on a living child generallythe dismemberment is done in order to cause more ready disappearance ofthe remains the medico-legal problem to be solved in paper of criminal mutilationis to establish the identity of the victim and that of the author ofthe crime thesis apparently trivial circumstances may assist in the formation of anopinion as to the identity of the culprit if the victim be an adult, a man is the author of the deed. If an infant, a woman, the mother, isalmost always the guilty one the london lancet may 30th, 1863, p 617 reports a case in which the body of a child, of apparently four tosix months, was found in the sewage of a water-closet, minus an arm cutoff below the shoulder, presumably that a vaccination-mark might not beadduced as evidence a young woman was suspected several women deposedhaving seen a dusky-brown mother mark near the child navel aftersteeping in pure water a portion of the skin said to include the mark, and after washing, the mark gradually reappeared at the end of threedays, perfectly distinct it was recognized by witnesses and producedat the trial as corroborative evidence the accused was found guilty in a case of infanticide at tarare, in 1884, the upper extremity of afœtus was found to have been disarticulated after the manner of carvingthe wing of a fowl this having suggested to dr lacassagne a cook asthe author of the crime, she was speedily discovered and convicted afew years later an analogous case occurred in florence and was reportedby dr a montalti the instrument used for mutilating the body may furnish a suggestionof identity, to be dispelled or affirmed upon further investigation the mode of section observed in various instances has led to therecognition of a butcher as the culprit an expert would have butlittle trouble in distinguishing the hacking and mangling of a bodyfrom the careful cutting and preservation of muscles and blood-vesselsin dissections made by medical students, whom the public, by the way, invariably suspect in paper of mutilation if it can be ascertainedthat the instrument used was operated either by a left-handed person orby an ambidexter, such a fact may prove of importance essaytimes thefragments are tied or sewn up in a package the manner in which theknot is tied may indicate the occupation of the culprit in one casethe regularity of the sewing revealed that it was the work of a woman examination of the remains of clothing and of neighboring objects wherethe crime was committed may result in the identification of the victimor of the murderer indeed, it is the careful noting of trivial factsand their combination that is so valuable in all investigations ofthis class a compound fact made up of minor facts, which consideredseverally would possess but little value, may essaytimes solve thepuzzle in a case where no single fact of conclusive value is obtainable having collected as much of the mutilated remains as possible, thefirst step toward identification is to replace the pieces in anatomicalorder, to note carefully their correspondence or otherwise, and toascertain whether the fragments belong to the same body or to two orseveral individuals this is often a delicate and difficult matter, especially where decomposition is advanced or where the horror has beenpushed to its utmost limits, as in the case of a fratricide committedin france by several persons, who fragmented the cadaver with a saw andhatchet. Boiled the remains and fed them to hogs.

A, carotid bloodpressure. B, record of flow of pancreatic juice in drops time, twenty-five minutes tracing a. Intravenous injection of 10 c c secretin prepared fresh from dog duodenal mucosa at x tracing b:intravenous injection at x of 10 c c of the same secretin as intracing a, after being digested in normal human gastric juice at 37 c for two hours we bought a quantity of duodenin in the open market, and carried out onthis product the same series of experiments as that used in the case ofsecretogen the results were similarly negative table 8 table 8 -- summary of typical experiments showing the absence ofsecretin in “duodenin”dogs under ether anesthesia | | secretion of pancreatic juice in drops, | | following intravenous injection exp | number -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - no |duodenin| control| duodenin in | control | tablets| 10 c c -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 10 c c | used |secretin|distilled| 0 4% | 70% | 0 9% | secretin | | | water | hcl |alcohol| nacl | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 3 | 29 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 ?. | 28 1 | 6 | | | 1 ?. | | | 2 | 18 | 16 | | 6 | | | 16 3 | 5 | 14 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 8 3 | 25 | | | 1 ?. | | | 4 | 100 | 110 | | 0 | | | 67 5 | 150 | 19 | | 0 | | 0 | 8 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- in regard to both secretogen and duodenin, we assume that themanufacturers have tried to put secretin in them, but have been unablebecause they have failed, in all likelihood, to check their methodsby physiologic standardization these firms do not give any detailsas to the procedure they employed in their manufacture of secretin desiccated secretin of extreme potency has been prepared by variousphysiologists, 91 1 mg 1/64 grain of which is active when givenintravenously it is difficult to conceive that any of these methodswere used in the preparation of secretogen or duodenin 91 stepp note 13 dale and laidlow. Jour physiol 44:11, 1912 launoy and ochslin. Comp rend soc de biol , 74:338, 1913 conclusions1 secretin is quickly destroyed by gastric juice and by trypsin 2 secretin is not absorbed in active form from the alimentary tract 3 the presence of secretin or prosecretin cannot be demonstrated inthe commercial preparations “secretogen, ” “elixir secretogen” and“duodenin” even when the therapeutic dose of the preparations is givenintravenously in the case of “secretogen, ” intravenous injection of100 times the therapeutic dose reveals occasionally an insignificanttrace of secretin discussion of resultsit is, of course, objectionable that preparations containing nosecretin should be advertised to the medical profession as containingthis substance the more important blunder, however, consists in theattempt to offer such preparations for oral administration, becauseeven chemically pure secretin would be equally ineffective when takenby mouth there is as yet no reliable evidence that lack of secretinis a primary or important factor in any disease even should this beestablished, secretin therapy, to be effective, must be intravenous secretin has not yet been prepared in sufficiently pure state to renderpossible intravenous injection in man without injurious effects andeven when this has been attained, the very fleeting action of secretinwill in all probability render secretin therapy as futile in all thediseases in which it is theoretically indicated as epinephrin therapyis in addison disease but there remains the alleged favorable effect from secretin therapyby mouth in various diseases in man it is, perhaps, impertinent forlaboratory men to comment on these clinical results the ordinary“testimonials” need not be considered, but we should like to ask theserious worker who thinks he has actually obtained good results fromsecretin therapy how certain he is of the causal relation between thegiving of secretin or alleged secretin and the abatement of the disease when a therapeutic measure not only lacks a positive basis inphysiology and pathology but runs contrary to all the well-establishedexperimental facts in these fundamental medical sciences, is it toomuch to ask that positive clinical findings be subjected to more thanusual critical analysis before acceptance?. “clinical tests, ” it issaid, “covering a period of several years have proved that neither thecondition in the stomach during digestion nor those in the intestineprevent the secretin from entering intact into the circulation ” whenwe meet claims such as this, should we not scrutinize the “tests” aswell as the men who make them?. We are indebted to dr j h moorehead for assistance in writing of thesurgical work -- from the journal a m a , jan 15, 1916 articles refused recognition report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrybelow appear abstracts of the council action on articles refusedrecognition which were not deemed of sufficient importance to requirelengthy reports. Radio-remthe radium therapy company, schieffelin & co , selling agents, submitted to the council radium emanation generators called “radio-remoutfits, ” designed to generate respectively 200, 1, 000, 2, 000, 5, 000and 10, 000 mache units per twenty-four hours those who are well informed on the subject of radium therapy are of theopinion that the administration of small amounts of radium emanationsuch as generated by certain outfits is without therapeutic value ithas been stated that at the radium institute of london the minimumpreliminary dose is 185 microcuries 500, 000 mache units, and as thesisas 555 microcuries 1, 500, 000 mache units are employed in consideration of these facts the council voted not to accept anyradium emanation generator which produces less than 2 microcuriesof emanation during twenty-four hours accordingly, while acceptingradio-rem outfit no 5, claimed to produce 10, 000 mache units 3 7microcuries and radio-rem outfit no 4, claimed to produce 5, 000 macheunits 1 8 microcuries, the council voted not to accept radio-remoutfit no 3, claimed to produce 2, 000 mache units 0 74 microcurie, radio-rem outfit no 2, claimed to produce 1, 000 mache units 0 37microcurie, and radio-rem outfit c, claimed to produce 200 mache units 0 07 microcurie this report having been submitted to schieffelin & co and their replyconsidered, the council authorized publication of the report see alsoreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 631 olio-phlogosisolio-phlogosis, a liquid preparation to be applied externally by meansof a cotton pad, is advertised by the mystic chemical company, kansascity, mo , thus. “doctor. Don’t fail to use olio-phlogosis liberally for pneumonia, bronchitis and pleurisy it works quickly olio-phlogosis is as far ahead of all medicated kaolin plasters as these plasters were ahead of the old-time moist and soggy poultices ”a pamphlet advises the use of olio-phlogosis in “ all paper of inflammation and congestion, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, pleurisy, croup, boils, carbuncles, rheumatism, swollen glands, peritonitis, ovaritis, as a surgical dressing, mamitis mastitis ?. vaginitis and metritis on cotton tampon to deplete these writings, septic wounds, old ulcers, chilblain, eczema, neuralgia, inflammation of the eyes and ears, alveolar inflammation, burns, scalds, etc ”according to the information sent to the council by the mystic chemicalcompany, olio-phlogosis has the following composition per gallon. Ol eucalyptus gaultheria drs 8 ol abies canadensis drs 8 ol abies canadensis drs 2 ol thyme white drs 2 resublimated iodin crystals grs 32 resorcin drs 1 acid boracic c p drs 2 quinine bisulphate drs 4 sodium thiosulphate drs 3-1/2 glycerin c p q s ad gal 1a nonquantitative formula which appears on the label of a sample bottlesent to a physician enumerates the same ingredients except the sodiumthiosulphate the a m a chemical laboratory reports that no free iodin could bedetected in the preparation apparently, then, olio-phlogosis is essentially a skin irritant appliedby means of cotton. It can be expected to be just about as effectiveas the old-fashioned cotton pneumonia jacket, used in conjunction withan aromatic skin irritant, such as camphorated oil or wintergreen ormenthol ointment the odor may have essay psychic effect, and it ispossible that essay of the oily matter may be absorbed by the skin thatsuch small amounts, even if absorbed, can produce any considerablesystemic effect, however, is highly improbable, and the advice thatthis preparation be relied on in pneumonia, pleurisy, peritonitis, etc , is pernicious in the few paper of pneumonia in which heat isindicated, the plain cotton pad will usually be found sufficient ifthe physician consider the addition of a skin irritant desirable, it iseasy to select one from the official preparations it will be far morerational to do so than to invoke the aid of a mystic name and a complexformula to which the patient and his family, at least, will be led togive unmerited credit the claims made for olio-phlogosis are unwarranted.

or has essay one perpetrated a outline for college essay joke on me?. if the profession can be thus successfully exploited one can no longer wonder at the following which every new ‘ic’ and ‘ism’ acquires ”it is a pity that the medical profession generally does not react tothe dionol and similar advertising as does our correspondent as theconcern continues to do business, the presumption is that at leastessay physicians are using dionol as was pointed out in the journalof jan 26, 1918, dionol seems to be a glorified and esoteric formof petrolatum the exploitation of dionol is based on the followingtheory. 1 the brain is a generator of neuro-electricity. 2 thenerves are the conductors of this electricity. 3 the nerve sheathsare the insulator. 4 wherever there is local inflammation thenerves are short circuited, due to a breaking down of the insulationresistance of the nerve sheath. 5 this results in “an escapeof neuro-electricity;” 6 dionol coats the nerve sheaths with anonconducting layer and this restores the insulation and “stops theleak ”whether this ingenious theory was invented to lend an air ofverisimilitude to an otherwise bald and unconvincing tale and give a“reason for being” for dionol or whether dionol was first inventedand it became necessary to evolve a theory that would give essayplausibility to the claims made for this etheralized petrolatum, we areunable to say in any case the theory and the product are exploitedtogether among the material sent in by a correspondent are essay “dionol casereports ” neither the names nor the addresses of the physicians makingthese reports are given, but the company states that they may be had“on request ” one special “report” is featured under the heading“infected wound striking results after united states and frenchgovernment army surgeons failed” is signed “dr w ” it is dated july19, 1919 a few months ago the dionol company was sending out this sametestimonial with the full name and address of the “doctor” giving it investigation showed that the “doctor” in question was an osteopathwhose specialties, according to his advertisement in his localnewspaper, are “catarrhal deafness and hay fever, acute and chronicdiseases”!. in this connection it is worth noting that investigation ofessay of the earlier testimonials sent out by the dionol concern andalleged to have been given by “doctors” showed that the gentlemen inquestion were “drugless healers ”as a “true indication of the value which the medical profession isplacing on dionol” the dionol company has published the names of essayphysicians who, it is alleged, have used the preparation -- from thejournal a m a , feb 7, 1920 the eli products of eli h dunnphysicians are receiving essay miscellaneous advertising matter from aconcern that seems to operate under various names such as “e h dunn &co , ” “eli h dunn, ” “eli laboratory, ” etc the concern is located at3820 main st , kansas city, mo one journal reader, who is evidentlynot greatly impressed by this material, forwards the stuff to us withthe laconic request. “will you please give me your opinion on thisjunk?. ”the “junk” referred to comprised, in writing, an advertising leaflet on“eli 606 capsules, ” another leaflet on “eli vaginal capsules, ” stillanother on “eli ‘vim’ restorative;” then there was reference to theinevitable nostrum for intravenous use. “ampoules eli venhydrarsen ” afour-page leaflet, headed in large and very black letters “confidentialguide to live wire physicians only, ” expressed its key-note in theopening paragraph. “how to make money as well as reputation in the treatment of all chronic ailments and all types, forms and sequella of venereal diseases ”the “eli ‘vim’ restorative” is said to be a “tonic aphrodisiac ” the“action” of the product is to “arouse sexual ardor and desire influxblood supply to the genital organs ” a postscript to the “guide” urgesphysicians. “if you do not already use intravenous serums, by all means get an outfit, if for no other reason than to meet the popular demand ”a “special note” in the “confidential guide” advises physicians who“have to deal with hysteria” to “write the author of this guide, whowill explain by personal letter a method of cooperation by which suchconvulsions may be at once and forever stopped there will be $100for you from every case treated ” one physician wrote to the “author ofthis guide”-- eli h dunn, m d -- asking for further information on thistreatment for hysteria he received in reply two letters both signedeli h dunn. One was to be shown to the patient, the other was for thedoctor own information the letter for the patient to see describedthe marvelous effects of “dunn intravenous and restorative treatment”in hysteria and recommended it “with the utmost confidence in everycase able to pay you the fee commensurate with the service you render ”then followed these two paragraphs.

Right auricle showed full andregular contractions and dilatations the spinal cord was then divided one hundred and twenty minutes, heart-beats forty per minute thesepulsations of right auricle continued at intervals for three and a halfhours longer. Readily excited by point of scalpel heart normal. Leftventricle contracted. Right ventricle not so. No coagulation brainnormal. Lungs collapsed. Liver and spleen congested. Mucous membraneof small intestine pinkish. Other organs normal in the discussion, dr gay thought the absence of cerebral congestion was due to thecirculation continuing in the left carotid 90 hofmann. Wien med woch , 1880, xxx , pp 477-480 - man, acriminal, hung. After hanging ten minutes, the body was cut down examination half-hour after drop fell he was resuscitated and writinglyregained consciousness, but died three days afterward of œdema oflungs after repeated severe convulsions he had tumors of the neckwhich probably interfered with the compression of the trachea see alsoallg wien med zeit , 1880, xxv , p 161, and wien med blät , 1880, i , pp 423-430.

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Le rose v commonwealth, 84 pa st , 200 183general rule as to required amount of skill and experiencestated - the general rule may be stated thus, as derived from theseand other authorities:the extent of the previous study and investigation, and the amount ofskill and information which must be shown, will depend upon the factsof each writingicular case but essay special and peculiar knowledge orskill must be established, the amount of it to be determined by thetrial judge in his discretion the possession of such knowledge andskill is presumed in medico-legal paper if the witness is a licensedpractitioner essay practical suggestions as to conduct of witnesses outline for college essay on thestand - in this preliminary examination, the conduct and demeanorof the witness are of no little importance, because it is then andthere that he makes his first impression upon the court and jury he should be perfectly open and unreserved in stating his means ofspecial information, in explaining what are the limits of his personalexperience and the extent of his reading. But, at the same time, itwould be well for him to avoid all appearance of self-glorificationand all tendency to exaggerate his individual acquirements often hasit occurred that expert witnesses of undoubted capacity and honesty, who are unfortunately grandiose and self-assertive in their manner, have, however honest and able they might be, lost entirely their weightwith the court and jury by undue self-complacency and exaggeration oftheir personal qualifications, during their preliminary examination this is a matter requiring tact and judgment and nerve, and should befully understood between counsel calling him and the witness, beforethe witness is placed upon the stand in that event, it will be quitesafe for the witness to closely follow the questions of counsel by hisanswers, and to volunteer little or nothing if his answers are notfull and complete enough, counsel can renew the question in the same orin other form or carry the matter into greater detail if, on the otherhand, his answer is too full or he appears too eager, he may createa prejudice against him which nothing can overthrow, and which theart of counsel upon the other side in cross-examination and in makingcomments upon his testimony when summing up before the jury, will veryeffectually use to destroy his weight as an expert 184scope and extent of examination of expert witnesses - having statedhow experts may be summoned and qualified, it remains to consider thescope and extent to which they may be examined the advancement of the sciences and the progress of research in specialfields of knowledge have made expert testimony of large importanceduring the present century the basis of its admission is the factthat there are certain processes of reasoning which an ordinary juryis incapable of performing, even with the assistance of courts andlawyers oftentimes in the administration of justice in our courts, proof is given of circumstances which although admitted would havelittle or no significance in the mind of an ordinary juror, andwhich he would be unable to contrast and compare with other facts, successfully, without the aid of those more familiar with scientificmatters and the inductive process of reasoning than he is in suchpaper it is necessary that the jury should be specially enlightenedby persons who have, through training, skill and experience, acquiredthe power to enlighten them a common instance and illustration ofthis matter is to be found in the case of homicide by poisoning ahuman body is found dead. Externally there may be no indicia toshow positively the cause of death under such circumstances thelaws of all civilized countries permit what is called a post-mortemexamination by skilled physicians, who, finding no external evidencesof the cause of death, are permitted by the officers of the law toremove the internal portions of the body for special and carefulexamination if this discloses traces of inflammation or of lesions ofan abnormal character, further power is vested in the authorities tohave at the expense of the state a chemical examination of the internalorgans if this examination, which is necessarily long and excessivelytechnical, results in the discovery of any poisonous substance, suchas would produce death, and if it is found in sufficient quantities toproduce death, these persons who made the post-mortem examination anddiscovered the outward indications of the administration and effectsof the poison, and the chemists who discovered the poison itself inthe tissues of the body, in sufficient quantities to produce death, are called as experts before the jury the post-mortem examinersexplain what the appearance of the body was, as distinguished from theappearances of the body of an individual who had died from naturalcauses the chemist describes his course of experimentation, thevarious deductions which he made from his experiments, the tests whichhe applied in his investigation in discovering poison, and is thenallowed to testify that the poisonous substance was found in sufficientquantities to produce the physical appearances which the post-mortemexaminers have described, and to accomplish the death of the humanbeing in whose body the poison was found it is obvious that the powerof observation and the skill, which the skilled chemists and physiciansused as the basis of their reasoning in this case, were such as anordinary man, unskilled and inexperienced, would not possess, and theability to use them must have come from the study of treatises onsuch subjects, and from teaching and experience, to such an extent asto entitle the persons so testifying to be considered by the courtsas qualified to express an accurate and sound opinion on the mattersand things under investigation thus it appears how, in such paper, adewritingure became essential to the successful administration of justice, from the strict rule that witnesses shall testify solely to matters offact and observation, and why it has long been considered that essaywitnesses must be allowed to testify to opinions and conclusions again, in a like case, a body is found bearing evidences of wounds orbruises the question to be determined is whether they were inflictedbefore or after death. If before death, whether they were sufficient tocause death essay wounds and injuries might be sufficiently apparentand dangerous so that the common, inexperienced eye would at oncedetect that they were sufficient to cause death but in most instancesthis is not the case, and in such instances the testimony of expertsis required by the necessity of the case, to show that the wounds andinjuries were sufficient to cause death the general rules stated as to subjects for expert testimony - hencethe general rule is, that wherever the facts to be investigatedare such that common experience and knowledge of men do not enablethem to draw accurate conclusions, but are such that the study andexperience of specialists do enable such specially endowed persons todraw accurate conclusions, then the inferences and deductions theyhave drawn can be testified to by those who qualify themselves beforethe court as persons having sufficient skill and experience as suchspecialists to entitle them to give opinions the paper in which experttestimony is permitted to be given are set forth in rogers on experttestimony, sec 6, quoting from jones v tucker 41 n h , 546, asfollows:“1 upon questions of science, skill, or trade, or others of like kind “2 where the subject-matter of inquiry is such that inexperiencedpersons are unlikely to prove capable of forming a correct judgmentwithout such assistance “3 where the subject-matter of investigation so far writingakes of thenature of science as to require a course or previous habit of study inorder to the attainment of knowledge of it ”so also chief justice shaw of the supreme court of massachusetts, innew england glass co v lovell 7 cushing, 319, said:“it is not because a man has a reputation for sagacity and judgmentand power of reasoning that his opinion is admissible in testifyingas a witness if so, such men might be called in all paper to advisethe jury, and it would change the mode of trial. But it is because aman professional pursuit, or his peculiar skill and knowledge of essaydewritingment of science not common to men in general, enable him to drawinferences where men of common experience, after all the facts havebeen proved, would be left in doubt ”to the same effect see muldowney v illinois central r r co , 36iowa, 472. Wharton on evidence, sec 436. Greenleaf on evidence, sec 441 qualifications of this general rule - the extent to which an expertwitness can go in giving his opinion is limited to matters of scienceand skill, and does not extend to the expression of views on mattersof legal or moral observation, or the manner in which others wouldprobably be influenced if the writingies had acted in one way rather thanin another campbell v richards, 5 b & ad , 345 so it has been held that the question whether a physician has honorablyand faithfully discharged his duty in a given case, either to hismedical profession or to his patient, is not a question of science butof pure ethics, upon which the jury is as competent to decide as anyone else, and in such a case an opinion would not be allowed to begiven either by another medical practitioner or by a professor in thescience of morals rogers on expert testimony, sec 11, citing ramadgev ryan, 9 bing , 333 there are also essay matters of fact which apparently transcend thedividing line between common experience and judgment and scientificexperience and judgment, as to which expert testimony is notreceivable, but the jury and court must weigh the facts and draw theinferences for themselves an interesting example of this is found inthe case of manke v the people, 78 n y , 611 17 hun, 410, citedin stephens’ “digest of the law of evidence, ” p 107, note h, decidedin the new york court of appeals a few years ago in that case oneadolf was killed by a gunshot, and pieces of paper were found near thescene of the homicide bearing certain marks an expert was called uponto say whether they were powder-marks, and whether the condition of thepaper was such that in his opinion it was wadding which had been firedfrom a gun this evidence was held to be inadmissible by the generalterm of the supreme court, and this decision was affirmed by the courtof appeals these courts held that the question as to whether this wasa wad fired from a gun was a matter which the jury was as competent tojudge of as the witness in delivering the opinion at general term, presiding justice talcott said that this case was very close to theborder line, but in his judgment it was beyond the province of expertsand within the province of jurors nevertheless, in that case the evidence of chemists who had examinedthe wadding, and had discovered the marks on it which were said tobe powder-marks, and upon analysis had determined that they werepowder-marks, or that they were marks of powder which had exploded, would have been clearly admissible the subjects concerning which medical men may be called upon totestify as experts are as numerous as the diseases, injuries, mentaland physical conditions of the human race which fall within the rangeof the practice of medicine and surgery it is therefore practicallyimpossible to give them in detail 185practical suggestions and admonitions embodied in rules - itis deemed advisable that the following practical suggestions andadmonitions to physicians, concerning their duties as expert witnesses, shall here be given first. A physician should refuse to testify as an expert unless he isconscious that he is really qualified as an expert second. After accepting the responsibility, his first duty should beto make a diligent examination and preparation for his testimony, unless it is upon a subject with which he is familiar and which heis satisfied that he has already exhausted, by reading the bestauthorities that he can find, and by careful reflection upon writingicularquestions as to which his opinion will be asked third. Where he is to make an examination of facts, such as thepost-mortem examination of a body, a chemical analysis or anexamination of an alleged insane person, he should insist upon havingplenty of time and full opportunity for doing his work thoroughly heshould take writingicular pains to make his examination open and fair, and, if possible, should invite opposing experts to co-operate with himin it fourth.