History

Othello Essay


Filing or attempting to filethe diploma or certificate of another, or false or forged evidence, isa felony punishable the same as forgery 3, 558 system of medicine - certificates are issued without prejudice, writingiality, or discrimination as to schools or systems of practice ormedicine, including the electropathic school 3, 561 fees - to treasurer of board by graduates and practitioners of tenyears’ standing, $5 by candidates for examination, $10 s 3, 552 to county clerk, for recording certificate, $1 3, 554 connecticut qualification, exceptions - after october 1st, 1893, no personshall for compensation, gain, or reward, received or expected, treat, operate, or prescribe for any injury, deformity, ailment, or disease, actual or imaginary, of another person, nor practisesurgery or midwifery unless or until he has obtained a certificate ofregistration, and then only in the kind or branch of practice statedin the certificate, but the act does not apply to dentists practisingdentistry only, nor to any person in the employ of the united statesgovernment while acting in the scope of his employment, nor to medicalor surgical assistance in paper of sudden emergency, nor to anyperson residing out of the state who shall be employed to come intothe state to assist or consult with any physician or surgeon who hasbeen registered in conformity with the act, nor to any physician orsurgeon then actually residing out of the state who shall be employedto come into the state to treat, operate, or prescribe for any injury, deformity, ailment, or disease from which any person is suffering atthe time when such non-resident physician or surgeon is so employed, nor to any actual resident of this state recommending by advertisementor otherwise the use of proper remedies sold under trade-marks issuedby the united states government, nor to any chiropodist or clairvoyantnot using in his practice any drugs, medicines, or poisons, nor to anyperson practising the massage method or swedish movement cure, suncure, mind cure, magnetic healing, or christian science, nor to anyother person who does not use or prescribe in his treatment of mankinddrugs, poisons, medicine, chemicals, or nostrums act 1893, c 148, s 1 any resident of the state who, at the time of the passage of theact, was or previously had been actually engaged in the state in thepractice of medicine, surgery, midwifery, or any alleged practice ofhealing, may, before october 1st, 1893, file with the state board ofhealth duplicate statements subscribed and sworn to by him upon blanksfurnished by said board, giving his name, age, and place of birth andpresent residence, stating whether he is a graduate of any medicalcollege or not, and of what college, and the date of graduation, andif practising under a license from any of the medical societies of thestate, which society and the date of such license and the length oftime he has been engaged in practice in the state, and also elsewhere, and whether in general practice or in a special branch of medicine orsurgery, and what branch on receipt of such statements, the boardshall issue a certificate of registration which shall state the kind orbranch of practice in which he is engaged 2 any person who shall, subsequent to october 1st, 1893, file with saidboard such duplicated statements, showing that he is a graduate ofa medical college recognized as reputable by any chartered medicalsociety of the state, shall receive a certificate of registration whichshall state the kind or branch of practice in which the person namedtherein is engaged or is to be engaged 3 any person residing in any town in another state which town adjoinsthe boundary line of connecticut, who was actually engaged in suchtown, at the time of the passage of the act, in the practice ofmedicine, surgery, or midwifery, or any branch of practice, may beforeoctober 1st, 1893, obtain from the said board a like certificate onfiling such duplicated statements also showing that he is entitled tosuch certificate under this section 4 except as above provided, no person shall after october 1st, 1893, obtain a certificate of registration until he has passed a satisfactoryexamination before a committee appointed by said board, nor until hehas filed with the said board duplicate certificates as aforesaid, signed by a majority of one of said examining commissioners, statingthat they have found him qualified to practise either medicine, surgery, or midwifery, and any person filing said certificates shallreceive from said board a certificate of registration 5 the state board of health, in january, 1894, is to appoint threeexamining commissions, each of five physicians nominated respectivelyby the connecticut medical society, the connecticut homœopathicmedical society, and the connecticut eclectic medical association, andrecommended by the said societies respectively as persons competent toserve upon the said examining commissions appointments are to be madethereafter from time to time by similar nominations 6 and 7 the state board of health shall designate when and where thecommissions shall hold examinations, but shall call a meeting of acommission within thirty days after the receipt of an application forexamination applicants shall be examined in anatomy, physiology, medical chemistry, obstetrics, hygiene, surgery, pathology, diagnosis, and therapeutics, including practice and materia medica eachcommission shall frame its own questions and conduct its examinationsin writing, and both questions and answers shall be placed on file withthe board each applicant may choose by which of the commissions hewill be examined after rejection by any examining commission, the applicant shall notbe eligible to examination by another commission until after theexpiration of twelve months 8 on the receipt of duplicate statements, the board shall transmit oneof them with a duplicate certificate of registration to the town clerkof the town where the person filing the statement resides, and if hedoes not reside in the state to the town clerk of the town in the statenearest to his place of residence, and said clerk shall record the sameand return them to the person who filed them with the board s 9 the secretary of each medical society shall file with the secretary ofthe state board of health a list of medical colleges or institutionsrecognized as legal and reputable by his society or all of suchsecretaries may agree upon a single list, and such list may becorrected from time to time 10 penalty - the violation of sec 10 shall be a misdemeanor, punishablewith a fine of from $100 to $300 for the first offence, and for eachsubsequent offence by a fine of from $200 to $500 or imprisonment inthe county jail for from thirty to ninety days, or both 11;swearing falsely to a statement is perjury 12 fees - to the state board of health, on filing statements orcertificates, $2 2, 3, 4, 5 to examining commission, before examination, their expenses notexceeding $10 8 to the town clerk, by state board of health out of the amount paid toit, for recording, 25 cents 9 delaware qualification - it is unlawful to practise medicine or surgery withouta license laws 1887, vol 18, c 35, s 1, as amended by laws 1889, vol 18, c 518 the medical board of examiners for the state must grant a licenseto any person applying therefor who shall produce a diploma froma respectable medical college, or shall, upon full and imwritingialexamination, be found qualified for such practice rev stats , c 47, s 3 the board consists of as thesis fellows of the medical society ofdelaware as the society deems proper 3 the clerk of the peace of a county, on presentation of a licenseissued by the board of examiners of the homœopathic medical societyof delaware state and peninsula, under its corporate seal, signed byits president and countersigned by its secretary, or of the licenseprovided by sec 3, c 47, of the revised statutes, or on the affidavitof a person that he or she has practised medicine or surgery for eightyears continuously in the state, and upon such person registering hisname, the date of his graduation and college if a graduate, and hisplace of intended residence, must issue a license 2 a person opening a transient office or assigning a transient officeby printed or written advertisement, must comply with the foregoingprovisions and pay special license fee for a license good only for oneyear laws 1887, vol 18, c 35, s 5 penalty - the violation of this law is a misdemeanor punishable by afine of from $100 to $300 7 exceptions - the present law exempts those who complied with the act ofapril 19th, 1883, and also regular practitioners of another state inconsultation with a lawful practitioner of medicine and surgery of thisstate 4, 6 fees - to clerk of the peace, for issuing license to practise, $10 50 laws 1887, vol 18, c 35, s 4 for issuing annual license forrevenue of the state, $10 50 laws, vol 13, c 117, as amended, vol 14, c 16 to secretary of board, for license, $10 rev stats , c 47, s 5 a license fee to practise medicine, for the revenue of the state, isalso required 8. Vol 13, c 117, as amended, vol 14, laws, c 16 district of columbia registration - it is the duty of every physician, accoucheur, andmidwife practising medicine, or doing business, to register at theoffice of the board of health, giving full name, residence, and placeof business, and in case of removal from one place to another in thedistrict to make a change in the register regulation of board ofhealth, august 28th, 1874, s 8, legalized by resolution of congress, no 25, s 2, april 24th, 1880 violation - the violation of the foregoing provision is punishable by afine of from $25 to $200 for every offence 9 qualification - all physicians required to register must do so upon alicense from essay chartered medical society or upon a diploma from essaymedical school or institution 11 first florida boards of examiners - the governor appoints a board of medicalexaminers for each judicial circuit, and a board of homœopathicexaminers for the state rev stats , 1892, s 801 the circuit board is composed of three practising physicians of knownability, graduates in good standing of a medical college, recognizedby the american medical association, residents of the circuit;the homœopathic board is composed of three practising homœopathicphysicians of known ability, graduates in good standing of a medicalcollege recognized by the american institute of homœopathy s 802 qualification - it is the duty of the board of examiners to examinethoroughly every applicant, upon the production of a medical diplomafrom a recognized college, upon anatomy, physiology, surgery, gynæcology, therapeutics, obstetrics, and chemistry, but no preferenceis given to any school of medicine. And it is the duty of the board ofhomœopathic medical examiners to examine thoroughly every applicant, upon the production of his diploma from a college recognized by theamerican institute of homœopathy, on anatomy, physiology, surgery, gynæcology, materia medica, therapeutics, obstetrics, and chemistry, but no preference is given to any school of medicine rev stats , 1892, s 806 when the board is satisfied as to the qualifications of the applicant, they grant a certificate which entitles him to practise medicine in anycounty, when recorded 807 any two members of the boardmay grant a certificate any member may grant a temporary certificate, upon examination, until the next regular meeting, at which time thetemporary certificate ceases to be of effect 808 before heshall be entitled to practise, the certificate must be recorded in theoffice of the clerk of the circuit court of the county in which he mayreside or sojourn. And the clerk must certify thereon, under officialseal, the fact and date of the record, and return the certificate809 a practitioner engaged in the practice of medicine in any dewritingmentprior to may 31st, 1889, upon the production of a diploma from amedical college recognized by the american medical association, isgranted a certificate, without further examination and without charge811 exceptions - this act is not applicable to persons who have compliedwith prior laws, nor to females practising midwifery, strictly as such no other person shall practise medicine in any of its branches ordewritingments, without having obtained and recorded a certificate s 812 penalty - practising as a physician without a certificate is punishableby imprisonment not exceeding six months, or a fine not exceeding $2002, 669 fees - to clerk, legal fee for recording 809 to board, $10 from each applicant whether certificate granted or not810 georgia the code of 1882, s 1, 409 a as amended by chap 413, laws 1882-83, provides that qualification - no person is to practise medicine, unless he wastheretofore legally authorized, or is hereafter authorized by a diplomafrom an incorporated medical college, medical school or university, orhas after attending one or more full terms at a regularly charteredmedical college, been in active practice of medicine since the year1866, or was by law authorized to practise medicine in 1866, and bycompliance with the statute definition - to “practise medicine” means to suggest, recommend, prescribe, or direct, for the use of any person, any drug, medicine, appliance, apparatus, or other agency, whether material or notmaterial, for the cure, relief, or palliation of any ailment or diseaseof mind or body, or for the cure or relief of any wound, fracture, orother bodily injury, or any deformity, after having received or withthe intent of receiving therefor, either directly or indirectly, anybonus, gift, or compensation 1, 409 b registration - every person now lawfully engaged in practice mustregister on or before december 1st, 1881. Every person hereafter dulyqualified shall, before commencing to practise, register in the officeof the clerk of the superior court of the county wherein he resides andis practising, or intends to practise, his name, residence, and placeof birth, together with his authority. He shall subscribe or verify, by oath or affirmation, before a person duly qualified to administeroaths under the laws of this state, an affidavit containing such facts, and whether such authority is by diploma or license, and the date ofthe same, and by whom granted, which shall be exhibited to the countyclerk, before the applicant is allowed to register, and which, ifwilfully false, is punishable as false swearing 1, 409 c removal - a registered physician changing his residence from countyto county must register in the clerk office of the county to whichhe removes and wherein he intends to reside and to practise medicine1, 409 d penalty - the violation of this law or practising, or offering topractise, without lawful authority, or under cover of a diploma orlicense illegally obtained, is a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine offrom $100 to $500, or imprisonment from thirty to ninety days, or both1, 409 e exceptions - commissioned medical officers of the united states army ornavy, or united states marine hospital service, and women practisingonly midwifery, are not affected 1, 409 f medical boards - all medical boards are abolished, and only thequalifications of practitioners of medicine set forth above arerequired 1, 409 g fees - to county clerk, fifty cents for each registration s 1, 409 c tax - on practitioners of physic, $5 per annum 809 idaho qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine or surgery whohas not received a medical education, and a diploma from a regularlychartered medical school, having a bona fide existence when thediploma was granted rev stats , 1887, s 1, 298 a physician or surgeon must file for record with the county recorderof the county in which he is about to practise, or where he practises, a copy of his diploma, at the same time exhibiting the original, ora certificate from the dean of a medical school certifying to hisgraduation 1, 298 a when filing the copy required, he must be identified as the personnamed in the papers, by the affidavit of two citizens of the county, orby his affidavit taken before a notary public or commissioner of deedsfor this state. And the affidavit is filed in the office of the countyrecorder 1, 298 b penalty - practising without complying with the act is a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of from $50 to $500, or imprisonment in a countyjail from thirty days to six months, or both fine and imprisonment foreach offence filing or attempting to file as his own the diploma or certificate ofgraduation of another, or a forged affidavit of identification, is afelony. Subject to fine and imprisonment 1, 298 c. S 6, 312 exceptions - the act is not applicable to a person in an emergencyprescribing or giving advice in medicine or surgery, in a townshipwhere no physician resides within convenient distance, nor to thosewho have practised medicine or surgery in this state for ten yearspreceding the passage of this act, nor to persons prescribing in theirown families, nor to midwifery in places where no physician resideswithin convenient distance 1, 298 e. As amended by act offebruary 7th, 1889 fees - no special fees are enumerated in the statute the countyrecorder fees for services are prescribed in rev stats , 1887, s 2, 128 illinois qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine in any ofits dewritingments unless he possesses the qualifications required if agraduate in medicine, he must present his diploma to the state boardof health for verification as to its genuineness if the diploma isfound genuine, and from a legally chartered medical institution in goodstanding, and if the person named therein be the person claiming andpresenting the same, the board must issue a certificate conclusive asto his right to practise medicine if not a graduate, the person mustpresent himself before the said board and submit to examination, andif the examination is satisfactory the board must issue certificate laws 1887, p 225, s 1 the verification of a diploma consists in the affidavit of the holderand applicant that he is the person therein named the affidavit may betaken before any person authorized to administer oaths, and attestedunder the hand and official seal of such officer if he have a seal swearing falsely is perjury graduates may present their diplomas andaffidavits by letter or proxy 3 all examinations of persons not graduates or licentiates are made bythe board.

It is just as though it were cut out for the purpose this herb bruised and applied to the navel, stays miscarriages. Iknow no herb like it for that use. Boiled in ordinary beer, and thedecoction drank, doth the like. And if her womb be not as she wouldhave it, this decoction will make it so let those women that desirechildren love this herb, it is their best companion, their husbandsexcepted also it consumes the phlegmatic humours, the cold andmoist constitution of winter most usually affects the body of manwith, and that was the first reason of eating tansies in the spring the decoction of the common tansy, or the juice drank in wine, is asingular remedy for all the griefs that come by slopping of the urine, helps the stranguary and those that have weak reins and kidneys it isalso very profitable to dissolve and expel wind in the stomach, belly, or bowels, to procure women courses, and expel windiness in thematrix, if it be bruised and often smelled unto, as also applied to thelower writing of the belly it is also very profitable for such women asare given to miscarry it is used also against the stone in the reins, especially to men the herb fried with eggs as it is the custom inthe spring-time which is called a tansy, helps to digest and carrydownward those bad humours that trouble the stomach the seed is veryprofitably given to children for the worms, and the juice in drink isas effectual being boiled in oil, it is good for the sinews shrunk bycramps, or pained with colds, if thereto applied wild tansy, or silver weed this is also so well known, that it needs no description place it grows in every place time it flowers in june and july government and virtues now dame venus hath fitted women withtwo herbs of one name, the one to help conception, and the other tomaintain beauty, and what more can be expected of her?. what now remainsfor you, but to love your husbands, and not to be wanting to your poorneighbours?. wild tansy stays the lask, and all the fluxes of blood inmen and women, which essay say it will do, if the green herb be worn inthe shoes, so it be next the skin. And it is true enough, that it willstop the terms, if worn so, and the whites too, for ought i know itstays also spitting or vomiting of blood the powder of the herb takenin essay of the distilled water, helps the whites in women, but moreespecially if a little coral and ivory in powder be put to it it isalso recommended to help children that are bursten, and have a rupture, being boiled in water and salt being boiled in water and drank, iteases the griping pains of the bowels, and is good for the sciaticaand joint-aches the same boiled in vinegar, with honey and allum, and gargled in the mouth, eases the pains of the tooth-ache, fastensloose teeth, helps the gums that are sore, and settles the palate ofthe mouth in its place, when it is fallen down it cleanses and healsulcers in the mouth, or secret writings, and is very good for inwardwounds, and to close the lips of green wounds, and to heal old, moist, and corrupt running sores in the legs or elsewhere being bruisedand applied to the soles of the feet and hand wrists, it wonderfullycools the hot fits of agues, be they never so violent the distilledwater cleanses the skin of all discolourings therein, as morphew, sun-burnings, &c as also pimples, freckles, and the like. And droppedinto the eyes, or cloths wet therein and applied, takes away the heatand inflammations in them thistles of these are thesis kinds growing here in england which are so wellknown, that they need no description. Their difference is easily knownon the places where they grow, viz place essay grow in fields, essay in meadows, and essay among thecorn. Others on heaths, greens, and waste grounds in thesis places time they flower in june and august and their seed is ripe quicklyafter government and virtues surely mars rules it, it is such a pricklybusiness all these thistles are good to provoke urine, and to mendthe stinking smell thereof. As also the rank smell of the arm-pits, orthe whole body. Being boiled in wine and drank, and are said to help astinking breath, and to strengthen the stomach pliny saith, that thejuice bathed on the place that wants hair, it being fallen off, willcause it to grow speedily the melancholy thistle descript it rises up with tender single hoary green stalks, bearingthereon four or five green leaves, dented about the edges.

Jour de physiol et de path gén 6:32, 50, 1904 othello essay 42 wertheimer and lepage. Jour de physiol et de path gén 4:1061, 1070, 1902 43 stepp. Jour physiol 43:441, 1912 action -- secretin is an excitant not only of the pancreatic juicebut also of the liver and the intestinal mucosa the flow of bile ismarkedly accelerated henri and portier, 44 enriquez and hallion45, likewise that of succus entericus delezenne and frouin, 46 bottazziand gabrielli47, and intestinal peristalsis is stimulated enriquezand hallion, 48 falloise49 injections of secretin produce a markedvasodilatation, but the secretory effect is independent of the bloodpressure changes the pancreas is not readily fatigued by secretin bayliss and starling50 have obtained undiminished flow after eighthours of continuous injection our experience confirms this result also, equal doses of secretin give corresponding results at variousintervals moreover, anesthesia does not affect the flow secretinis unrecoverable from the glands even after two hours of continuousinjection 51 the juice obtained by secretin has been subject to thesisstudies 52 it is of high alkalinity about seventh normal, containsall the pancreatic ferments, and corresponds in all respects to thejuice obtained in digestion from permanent pancreatic fistulas 5344 henri and portier. Compt rend soc de biol 54:620, 1902 45 enriquez and hallion. Presse méd 1:105, 1903 46 delezenne and frouin.

Thosewho send in the postal card to “h l roberts” receive a form-letter, signed “h l roberts” in facsimile handwriting, stating thatinformation was enclosed “regarding the ogden methods” and statingthat dr ogden would be in indianapolis or cleveland or pittsburgh, asthe case might be, on a othello essay certain date and that the fee for the “clinic”would be $100 with this letter is an eight-page pamphlet entitled“essay facts concerning the ogden method of treating rectal diseases ”the first page is headed in black-faced type. “about referencesand endorsements ” it then states that the “usual references andendorsements are omitted from this booklet ” further. “as to dr willard e ogden. The professional and social standing of dr ogden is such that he does not need to offer any “as to ‘the ogden method’ and its value to you in your professional work. What others say or think has little if any weight you are your own man you do your own thinking you decide for yourself-- do you not?. ”illustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of anadvertisement of the burleson concern with which ogden was connectedprevious to 1914, and which connection he is capitalizing in hispresent advertising the booklet gives an outline of the “course of instruction, ” which isalmost identical, word for word, with the outline given in the letteradvertising the mail-order course previously referred to the booklet further states that “the ogden method has entirelyeliminated the use of cautery, the ligature or any injections, in thetreatment of hemorrhoids, ” but that “the use of the electric currenthas proved to be the very correct method in such paper, as will bedemonstrated at the clinic ” the booklet reiterates the statement thatogden association with the burleson and burleson concern at grandrapids makes him “eminently well qualified to instruct members of themedical profession in this important branch of the medical science!. ”in addition to this booklet there is a four-page advertisingleaflet illustrating and describing the “ogden rectal cabinet” andalso the “ogden rectal table and stool ” there is also a littlepostcard-- addressed, of course, to “h l roberts”-- for the physicianto fill in stating that “you may enroll me as intending to attend dr ogden clinic in proctology, to be held at-- -- ” should the recipientnot fill in and mail this enrolment card he gets another form lettercalling attention to the fact that the enrolment card has not beenreceived and stating further that “available hotel facilities make itnecessary to limit our enrolment to twenty students ”careful search fails to disclose that dr willard ealon ogden has everdistinguished himself in the practice of the specialty in which he nowwishes to instruct physicians equally careful search fails to showthat dr ogden has ever published a paper either on any proctologicsubjects or on any other phase of medicine or surgery neither doesthere seem to be any evidence for the claim that dr ogden “has beenassociated with the leading proctologists of america ”-- from thejournal a m a , feb 4, 1922 “patents” patent laws and patent office practicethe inequity of our patent laws, or possibly it would be more correctto say, of the interpretation of our patent laws, has been commented onthesis times in the journal the journal also has had occasion to callattention to patents that have been issued for obviously unscientificand quackish devices and preparations the paper of the preposterousgas-pipe fake “oxydonor” and the creatinin mixture for the allegedconferring of immunity against diphtheria, pneumonia, scarlet fever, syphilis, tuberculosis, etc , are paper in point in a patent issued the early writing of this year for the “discovery” ofa method of flavoring epsom salt, the patent office has, in fatuity, piled pelion on ossa the “inventor” declares that his inventionrelates to a pharmaceutical preparation and a special method oftreatment of the medicinal agents whereby said agent will be renderedmuch more efficient in character he further avows that the “primeobject” of his “invention” is to “disguise the normal taste and imwritingan agreeable odor or smell to salts commonly employed as a cathartic ”parenthetically it may be said that probably not a day passes thatessay physician in the united states does not do substantially the samething when writing a prescription the “inventor” further claims thatthe object of his “invention” is to utilize the salts as a vehicleto carry an antiseptic and anesthetic agent whereby the salts whenadministered as a cathartic “will also act beneficially on the entiredigestive tract” and “whereby cramped and spasmodic conditions are atonce relieved with a resulting cure of flatulency, indigestion, sickand sour stomach, colic and the destruction of worms, etc ”such claims are so absurd that the only excuse for commenting onthem is the effect they have on the public mind the layman readingthe specifications of this patent would naturally conclude that aninvention of great importance had been made-- of such importance as towarrant the government in rewarding its inventor by granting him aseventeen-year monopoly on the sale of his invention the law requires that, to be patentable, inventions shall be new anduseful and shall show a higher degree of skill in their inception thanis naturally to be expected from those who are skilled in the arts towhich the inventions belong it has been decided again and again thatphysicians’ prescriptions are not patentable because it is assumedthat an educated physician will utilize his knowledge of pharmacy indevising proper compounds of medicines to meet the indications ofdisease when a physician prescribes a dose of epsom salt to be takenin one of the official aromatic waters, he does not produce or create anew invention by so doing of course, in one sense every prescriptionis an invention-- an invention to meet the conditions presented by thepatient-- but such inventions are not patentable, because they representthe ordinary skill of a physician in carrying on his vocation if the patent office goes on granting patents for such “inventions” asflavored epsom salt, and it should be found financially profitable tosecure such patents and place the products on the market, it will onlybe a matter of time before the materia medica will be so restrictedthat a physician will be unable to write a prescription withoutinfringing on essaybody patent the splendid conception of the framers of our constitution in providinga plan for promoting progress in science and useful arts by grantingto inventors for a limited time the exclusive use of their inventions, in exchange for the publication of full knowledge thereof, is beingdebased no branch of our government is of greater importance to theprogress of the country than the patent office, provided that office isintelligently administered when the patent office is used, however, for an extention of the nostrum business, founded on the abuse ofpatent and trade-mark laws, it becomes a menace to the public health the objects of the patent law are being defeated by the practices ofthe patent office -- editorial from the journal a m a , june 23, 1917 our archaic patent lawsin this issue we publish two reports of the council on pharmacy andchemistry which illustrate the weaknesses of the present working of theunited states patent laws in the first report the council presentsan investigation of a recently granted patent, and shows that thepatent was issued on the mere claims of the applicant and without thepresentation of any evidence for such claims the second report-- “needfor patent law revision”-- is an appeal to the patent office for amore enlightened administration of the patent law, and it presents afew illustrations of the unfair protection which has been granted bythe patent office the protest of the council appears at an opportunetime in science299 the “patent office society, ” an associationof employees of the u s patent office, announces that a committeehas been created on request of the national research council to makea study of the u s patent office and its service to science andarts it states that this committee will meet in washington shortlyto consider the adequacy of the present patent office equipment andthe simplification of procedure as well as responsiveness to presentnational and international requirements the committee also hopesto coordinate, in the interest of an improved public service, theendeavors of the various national societies, manufacturing interests, patent bar associations and all others aiming at genuine patent reform unquestionably, there is a growing conviction that in the case ofmedicines the monopoly given by the patent laws, if granted at all, should be granted with greater consideration of the public welfare too often the united states patent law has been used to obtain anunfair monopoly on a medicament or to abet quackery there is noquestion that one of two things is needed. Either a radical changein the patent law itself or the application of more brains in itsadministration -- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 12, 1918 299 dec 28, 1917, p 629 patents perpetuated by trade namesthe patent on aspirin300 acetylsalicylic acid, controlled bythe bayer company, american representative of the farbenfabriken ofelberfeld company, will expire next year 1917 the journal haspreviously stated that the grant of this patent was regrettable andworked injustice to american citizens it is unnecessary again to gointo the grounds for this statement. Neither in the farbenfabrikenhome country, gerthesis, nor in any other country except in the unitedstates, has a patent been granted for this product owing to theirmonopoly, the manufacturers have been able to exact a much higherprice for acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, in this country, thanelsewhere naturally, the bayer company, the american agents, view withdisfavor the prospect of being compelled to share this rich field withcompetitors the foregoing furnishes the answer to inquiries which havereached us from all over the country with regard to the campaign ofpublicity which the bayer company has inaugurated in the lay press apresumably authentic and apparently candid exposition of the methodsused and the motives behind the aspirin advertising is furnished inprinters’ ink:301300 granted feb 27, 1900 301 printers’ ink, june 29, 1916, p 189. July 13, 1916, p 100 “the manufacturers of aspirin are about to launch an extensive advertising campaign to clinch the market as far as possible before the expiration of their patent rights next year the purpose of the campaign is to identify the product with the trademark of the bayer company and to this extent hamper competition after the expiration of the patent ”the business of the bayer company, the article goes on to say, has beenhurt by the sale of worthless or even harmful imitations put on themarket by irresponsible and unauthorized persons when the present warstopped importations from gerthesis “the public knew aspirin, but did not know who made it italics ours when the bayer company, inc , took over the manufacture of aspirin in this country, the first steps were taken to identify the product with the firm who made it of course, there are good reasons why the makers were loth to advertise the product or to exploit their trademark as every one knows, the advertising of a medical proposition is an extremely ticklish subject it is easy to make a misstep aspirin is one of those proprietary drugs that are extensively prescribed by physicians if anything were done that might possibly associate this drug with the patent medicines that are in disfavor with the profession, the valuable influence and cooperation of thousands of doctors might be lost it is believed that this knotty phase of the question is being answered in the present advertising since nothing is mentioned about ‘medicine, ’ ‘cures’ or ‘ailments, ’ it is anticipated that there will be but little objection to the copy all that the advertising attempts to do is to link up the name ‘bayer’ with aspirin the nearest the copy gets to medical talk is in this sentence in very small type at the bottom of the advertisement, ‘the trademark “aspirin” reg u s patent office is a guarantee that the monoacetic acid ester of salicylic acid in these tablets is of the reliable bayer manufacture ’”from this it appears that, not content with seventeen years ofmonopoly, the aspirin people are attempting to retain a hold onthe market in perpetuo by associating the name of the companywith the trade name “aspirin ” there can be no better time than thepresent, therefore, for the medical profession to substitute, forthe nondescriptive name “aspirin, ” the descriptive and correct nameacetylsalicylic acid -- editorial from the journal a m a , aug 12, 1916 patenting therapeutic agentsin the past, therapeutic agents and apparatus have been controlledby patents and trademarks for profit if there have been exceptions, they have been rare the principles of medical ethics of the americanmedical association contain this statement. “it is unprofessionalto receive remuneration from patents for surgical instruments ormedicines ” this does not mean that the patenting is wrong in itself;there are occasions when it is wise, if not necessary, to obtain apatent in the interest of the public, and, in the case of surgicalinstruments and medicines, of the medical profession in certaininstances it is absolutely necessary that the article produced shallmaintain a definite standard of quality and purity-- and, it may beadded, shall be sold at a reasonable price enterprising pharmaceuticalmanufacturers have usually been ready to appropriate the results ofscientific research by investigators or therapeutic measures suggestedby practicing physicians not infrequently, in such instances, thedesire for financial gain has caused the marketing of such productswith extravagant, if not false, claims as to their value yet thepatent laws may be used so as to protect and benefit the public and themedical profession in research laboratories, work is being carried onresulting in the production of new therapeutic agents it is importantthat these agents shall be so controlled that they may be madeavailable without subordination to commercial interests it has becomepractically necessary, therefore, for research workers to protecttheir products in the interest of the public welfare and scientificmedicine it has not been an easy matter to decide how best to bringabout the desired results this question has been before the board oftrustees of the american medical association. And, in 1914, the houseof delegates passed a resolution authorizing the board to accept at itsdiscretion patents for medical and surgical instruments and appliances;as trustees, for the benefit of the profession and the public, provided that neither the association nor the patentee should receiveremuneration from these patents the rockefeller institute for medicalresearch has solved the problem in a similar manner in connection withthe report of the discovery of several new arsenic compounds, jacobsand heidelberger, 302 working in the rockefeller institute, say:302 jacobs, w a , and heidelberger, m. Aromatic arsenic compounds, ii, the amides and alkyl amides of n-- arylglycine arsonic acids, j am chem soc 41:1587 oct 1919 it may be appropriate to mention here that this substance and related compounds, described in the present and following papers of the series, are covered by u s patents nos 1280119-27 patents have also been applied for in foreign countries all discoveries made at the rockefeller institute are made freely available to the public, in accordance with the philanthropic purposes of the institution in order to insure purity of product and protection against exploitation, it has been deemed necessary in certain instances to protect the discoveries by patents it is the purpose of the institute to permit any drugs which may prove of practical therapeutic value to be manufactured under license by suitable chemical firms and under conditions of production which will insure the biological qualities of the drugs and their marketing at reasonable prices other than through the issuance of license, the rockefeller institute does not writingicipate in any way in the commercial preparation or sale of the manufactured chemicals. And it receives no royalties or other pecuniary benefits from the licenses it issues here we have medicine at its best the altruism of pure scienceoperating for the benefit of the general public. Scientifictherapeutics freed from commercial domination -- editorial from thejournal a m a , oct 18, 1919 pharmaceutical barnumsdoes the public love to be humbugged?. we doubt it that we, whethersage or fool, are humbugged is undeniable we are humbugged justto the extent that we are ignorant there lies one of the mostpowerful factors operating to the advantage of the “patent medicine”maker and the quack the layman ignorance of the possibilities andlimitations of drugs is wide and deep hence the ease with which heis fooled on this subject a seeming frankness in advertising beingthe order of the day, the nostrum maker makes a pretense of tellingwhat is in his stuff without disclosing any facts that will tend tolift the veil of mystery and thus destroy his greatest asset so theexploiter of nostrums to the medical profession, realizing that atleast a pretense must be made of giving the composition of medicamentsoffered to the physician, declares that his clay poultice has for itsbase “anhydrous and levigated argillaceous mineral ” this sounds muchmore imposing than dry and finely powdered clay, and satisfies by itsvery sonorousness now comes a product exploited chiefly to membersof the dental profession but also, it seems, to physicians tablets, “activated tablets, ” if you please!.

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The possibility of deathhaving occurred from other causes, even in strangulation, must beconsidered as taylor well says, our judgment must not be swayed to the extent ofabandoning what is probable for what is merely possible in all paper the cord or strangulating ligature should be carefullyexamined for marks of blood, for adherent hair or other substances the precise manner in which the cord has been tied should be noted strangulation. Accidental, suicidal, homicidal, simulated the question whether a case of strangulation is accidental, suicidal, or homicidal is very difficult to answer accidental strangulation is rare if the body has not been disturbed, there is usually no difficulty in arriving at a conclusion. But ifdisturbed a satisfactory conclusion may not be reached it is worthy of mention that the umbilical cord may be twisted aroundthe neck of a new-born infant and may have caused strangulation. Themark may give the appearance of death by violence suicidal strangulation is rare the experiments of fleischman suprasuggest that one may commit suicide by compressing his throat with hisfingers see case 48 where a ligature of any kind has been used it is important to noticethe number and position of the knots in a general way a single knoteither in front or at the back of the neck might suggest suicide. Morethan one would suggest homicide there are, however, exceptions suicide has been committed by mere pressure of a cord fixed at bothends a short distance from the ground. By twisting a rope several timesaround the neck and then tying it the coils may continue to compresseven after death. By tightening the cord with a stick or other firmsubstance. By tightening the cords or knots by means of the hands orfeet or essay portion of the lower limbs. By the use of a woollen garterpassed twice around the neck and secured in front by two simple knots, strongly tied one to another it is difficult to simulate suicide. Requires great skill andpremeditation on the writing of a murderer “the attitude of the body, the condition of the dress, the means of strangulation, the presenceof marks of violence or of blood on the person of the deceased, on hisclothes or the furniture of the room, or both, rope or ligature, arecircumstances from which, if observed at the time, important medicalinferences may be drawn ” the assassin either does too little or toomuch taylor795 cites a number of paper of simulation strangulation is generally homicidal the marks of fingers or of aligature on the neck suggest homicide this is true even if the markis slight. Because infants and weakly persons may be strangled bythe pressure of the hands on the throat even a strong man, suddenlyassaulted, may lose his presence of mind and, with that, his power ofresistance. With approaching insensibility his strength still furtherdiminishes this is true even if his assailant is the less powerful itrequires more address to place a ligature on the neck than to stranglewith the hand a victim may be made insensible by drugs or blows and then strangled bya small amount of compression.