Organic Chemistry 2 Online Help

Ulcers and organic chemistry 2 online help gangreensvery speedily, not only in men, but also in beasts, therefore theindians dedicated it to their god taken in a pipe, it hath almost asthesis virtues. It easeth weariness, takes away the sense of hunger andthirst, provokes to stool. He saith, the indians will travel four dayswithout either meat or drink, by only chewing a little of this in theirmouths.

“american health college, cincinnati organized in 1874 and re-organized in 1876 conducted by a dr campbell who originated and copyrighted the so-called ‘vitapathic system, ’ fraudulent extinct about 1888 ”we have no record of an “american health university” of chicago, although there was an “illinois health university” of chicago, oneof the numerous diploma-mill swindles operated by armstrong it wasdeclared fraudulent by the federal authorities and its charter wasrevoked in 1897 flower, according to the notice in polk directory, is. Ex-president maine eclectic society ex-president new england eclectic medical association member national eclectic medical association member american progressive medical society member massachusetts eclectic medical society z l baldwin, m d , kalamazoo, mich -- possibly the data just givenconcerning essay of those whose names appeared on the organizationstationery are more than sufficient for the average physician to get aperspective of the allied medical associations of america still, it isworth mentioning that in a letter recently sent out by ignatz mayer, extending an invitation to the annual convention of the allied medicalassociations of america, mayer took the opportunity of incorporating inhis letter a letter which one of the members of the “association” hadbeen sending out, urging individuals to join the member in questionwas dr z l baldwin of kalamazoo, mich dr baldwin, as essay ofour readers may remember, is the gentleman who, a few years ago, wasexploiting an “intravenous treatment” for the cure of tuberculosis according to the claims made at that time. “ for the first time in the history of medicine, we have a successful treatment for tuberculosis “ we are able to kill the germs of the disease in the body, thoroughly ridding it of all tubercular infection, destroying the germ and its poisons likewise ”this was a few years ago whether dr baldwin is still specializing inconsumption we do not know. Apparently not, as we notice that at thefirst meeting of the allied medical associations, baldwin name was onthe program for the “cure of goiter by adjustment of lenses ”george starr white, m d , f s sc , lond , los angeles, calif -- aletter received by a physician a few days before the recent conventionof the allied medical associations, held out as an inducement to bepresent the fact that “geo s white will show you how to diagnosedisease by means of dif colored lights and the reaction of the bodyto the magnetic meridian ” dr george starr white was the “secondvice-president” of the allied medical associations in 1918 white, according to our records, was graduated in 1908 when he was forty-twoyears old, by the new york homeopathic medical college and hospital he was licensed in new york in 1908, in california, connecticut andnevada in 1913, and in michigan in 1916 he seems to have been oneof the proponents of “spondylotherapy, ” “zonetherapy, ” etc , andin 1915 it was announced that he would give one week courses in“spondylotherapy” in chicago, kansas city and denver, respectively inhis advertisement he emphasized that he was a fellow of the americanmedical association, which, while true at the time, is no longertrue, as on feb 4, 1916, he was expelled from membership in the losangeles county medical association in may, 1915, white was arrestedin chicago and fined $100 and costs for practicing medicine without alicense dr white specialty seems to be what is ponderously knownas “bio-dynamo-chromatic diagnosis ” this has been described by one ofits enthusiastic adherents as “diagnosis by sympathetic vagal-reflex ”to obtain the “sympathetic vagal-reflex” it seems the patient must faceeast or west and have his bare abdomen percussed until a dull area islocated the patient is then faced north or south and again percussed then, it seems, different colored lights are thrown on the patient, the location of the areas of dullness being determined meanwhile acombination of ruby and blue lights “will cause a reflex in paper ofgonorrhea, ” a “green light will cause a reflex in paper of liver orgallbladder trouble, ” while the color for carcinoma is orange red!. During the height of the influenza epidemic last winter, white seemsto have put on the market “valens essential oil tablets” which werefor “gripping the flu out of influenza, ” and were also said greatly tobenefit or cure incipient tuberculosis, hay-fever, asthma, and “catar ”the letters “f s sc , lond ” after dr white name look well, soundwell, and have an air of erudition and mystery that is well worth whatthey cost they mean “fellow of the incorporated society of science, letters and arts of london, ltd ” the “fellowship” costs one guinea not a few “patent medicine” exploiters in the united states carrythese mystic letters after their names the society in question was aseriocomic concern that was exposed by london truth essay years agoand was also dealt with in the journal of may 29, 1909, in connectionwith the “aicsol consumption cure” exposé so much for the allied medical associations of america at theirrecent meeting in new york city they got much newspaper publicitybecause of their action on the prohibition question according to thenewspaper reports, the organization adopted a resolution declaringthat “properly brewed lager beer is absolutely essential in thetreatment of certain paper ” they were further reported as endorsingthe manufacture of light wines and of beer containing not to exceed2 75 per cent alcohol as a piece of publicity work this resolutionwas all that its sponsors could expect the journal office wasflooded with telegrams and letters from physicians, temperance workers, congressmen, church organizations, and others, asking, in effect, whatis the allied medical associations of america?. this is our apologyfor giving the amount of space necessary to a proper understanding ofthis organization today the rocket of the allied medical associationsof america is blazing a more or less erratic course across the sky ofpublicity the stick will be down anon!.

Malay, 1, 328 c c. Mexican, 1, 290c c. Hottentot and polynesian, each 1, 230 c c. Australians, 1, 364c c. And nubians, 1, 313 c c the cranial capacity in man, like thatof the anthropoid apes, varies according to sex, the difference beingso great that it is necessary to measure separately in the troglodyte skulls of prehistoric times the variation is notmore than 99 5 c c. But in the contemporaneous races the differencevaries from 143 to 220 c c french craniologists usually speak of theauvernats as possessing the highest cerebral capacity 1, 523 c c , andmention the skull of a parisian of 1, 900 c c as the highest known essay eskimo skulls, however, measure from 1, 650 to 1, 715 c c , andtwo eurycephalic indian skulls in the anatomical section of the armymedical museum measure respectively 1, 785 and 1, 920 c c mr havelock ellis, speaking of the psychic characteristics ofcriminals, says that the lower human races present a far largerproportion of anatomical abnormities than the ordinary europeanpopulation. And sir william turner writes of the skulls collectedduring the challenger expedition that although their number iscertainly too limited to base any broad generalization on, as to therelative frequency of occurrence of writingicular variations in thedifferent races, there is obviously a larger proportion of importantvariations than would occur in a corresponding number of skulls ofthe white races thus, for example, the squamo-frontal articulationis found in less than two per cent of european skulls, while it isfound in twenty per cent of negroes, according to ecker, and 16 9 inaustralian skulls, according to virchow again, the spheno-pterygoidforamen is found in 4 8 per cent of european skulls and in 20 per centof american indians. 30 per cent in africans. 32 per cent in asiatics, and 50 per cent in australians the wormian bones are also more commonamong the lower races.

One public, the otherprivate. One is valiant, the other effeminate. One loves the light, theother hates it. One loves the field, the other sheets. Then the throatis under venus, the quinsy lies in the throat, and is an inflammationthere. Venus rules the throat, it being under taurus her sign marseradicates all diseases in the throat by his herbs for wormwood isone and sends them to egypt on an errand never to return more, thisdone by antipathy the eyes are under the luminaries. The right eye ofa man, and the left eye of a woman the sun claims dominion over. Theleft eye of a man, and the right eye of a woman, are privileges of themoon, wormwood, an herb of mars cures both. What belongs to the sunby sympathy, because he is exalted in his house. But what belongs tothe moon by antipathy, because he hath his fall in hers suppose a manbe bitten or stung by a martial creature, imagine a wasp, a hornet, a scorpion, wormwood, an herb of mars, gives you a present cure. Thatmars, choleric as he is, hath learned that patience, to pass by yourevil speeches of him, and tells you by my pen, that he gives you noaffliction, but he gives you a cure.

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Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 541 273 werner and szécsi. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1913, orig , i, 358 szécsi. Ibid , ref , 1913, ii, 1060 within a comparatively brief period of time, therefore, it fell to thelot of a number of observers, using strikingly different substances, to produce therapeutic effects amounting in a certain percentage ofpaper even to cure in the experimental tumors of the lower animals the various procedures have little in common both metals andnonmetallic substances have been employed either in colloidal form orin combination with organic radicals in essay instances a diffusiblecarrier is combined with the basic substances. In others not all ofthe preparations appear to possess a high degree of toxicity, althoughadequate data on this very essential feature are almost invariablywithheld wassermann results with eosin-selenium were soon critically examinedby other observers uhlenhuth274 and contamin275 were unable toconfirm his observations, but their negative results are attributedby keysser to the fact that they were not in possession of the properformula for the preparation of the eosin-selenium compounds as usedby wassermann apolant, 276 however, in ehrlich name confirmedwassermann findings 274 uhlenhuth, dold and bindseil. Ref , münchen med wchnschr , 1912, p 1782 275 contamin, detoeuf and thomos. Bull de l’assn franç pourl’étude du cancer, vi, 62 276 apolant, h. Vi tag der freien vereinigung für mikrobiologie , berlin, 1912 ref münchen med wchnschr , 1912, p 659 the most important critique of eosin-selenium has been contributedby the subsequent investigations of one of wassermann originalcollaborators, f keysser 277 keysser publication contains a largenumber of very careful observations on the various forms of eosinsupplied by the german manufacturers, as well as on other matters whichcannot here be considered in detail he finally reached the conclusionthat the eosin furnished by the manufacturing house of sandoz wasthe most effective for his purposes, inasmuch as it combined thelowest grade of toxicity with the highest capacity for discoloringthe tissues the selenium he used in the form of selenio-vanadiumfurnished by clin of paris, which was the identical preparation usedby werner and szécsi in combination with borcholin the maximum doseof this selenio-vanadium is 0 06 c c for each gram of mouse eosin, 0 01 gm , dissolved in 0 5 c c of physiologic salt solution, is mixedwith 0 5 c c of the selenio-vanadium this mixture is then used forintravenous injections the results produced by the injection of thismixture are to all intents and purposes similar to those obtained bywassermann, except that keysser induced cure in a larger proportion ofanimals, namely, from 6 to 8 per cent it is evident from his carefuldescription of his experiments that the treatment is extremely toxic tothe animals the therapeutic dose is considerably greater than one-halfthe toxic dose this accounts for the fact that an extremely largeproportion of the animals perish during the course of the treatment the tumors failed to be influenced unless the dose given fell verylittle short of the fatal amount moreover, in order to accomplish acomplete cure, at least eight to ten injections must be given, and inessay instances not less than fourteen 277 keysser, f. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1914, orig , ii, 188 keysser most important conclusions, however, were obtained byfollowing an altogether different line of procedure it has beenpointed out by carl lewin272 that the therapeutic results obtainedfrom subcutaneous mouse tumors, however encouraging, could not belogically applied to the treatment of human cancers the subcutaneoustransplanted tumors, as is well known, are as a rule limited by adistinct capsule and show no tendency to infiltrative growth in thiswritingicular they present a most striking difference when comparedwith human tumors on the other hand, the metastases of mouse tumorsin the internal organs present an infiltrative mode of growth andthus approximate very much more closely to the human type of tumors keysser, therefore, determined to test the therapeutic effectivenessof his compounds on tumors implanted in various organs he developed atechnic which enabled him to implant tumors in the liver, the spleen, the kidneys and other writings of the mouse by means of injection throughspecial needles, often without the assistance of a cutting operation the tumors so implanted grew rapidly, and within from two tothree weeks reached the size of cherry pits the growth wascharacteristically infiltrative animals with these tumors were thensubmitted to intravenous injection of the therapeutic agents in exactlythe same fashion as the animals carrying subcutaneous tumors theresults, however, were absolutely different whereas the subcutaneoustumors invariably showed a much more intense discoloration than theother tissues of the mouse, this feature was entirely lacking in thecase of the internal tumors softening and liquefaction, which almostinvariably follows on the third or fourth injection in the case ofsubcutaneous tumors, and which is the first symptom of cure, neverpresented itself in the case of the internal tumors their consistencythroughout the treatment was indistinguishable from that of the tumorsof control animals the treatment, in fact, appeared to exercise notthe slightest influence on internal tumors there was neither cessationnor retardation in growth, but the tumors continued their normal rateof destructive increase with the production of metastases, leadingeventually to the death of the animal either during the course of thetreatment or shortly thereafter microscopic changes, such as had beenobserved by hansemann in the case of subcutaneous tumors, were entirelylacking no matter in what organ the tumors were implanted, theseresults remained the same no matter what type of tumor was employed, whether carcinoma, adenocarcinoma or sarcoma, the therapeutic outcomewas regularly and consistently nil these results induced keysser to determine whether or noteosin-selenium could actually be shown to exercise a deleteriouseffect on cancer cells outside the body in order to do this he made asuspension of mouse tumor cells in salt solution and mixed this withthe eosin-selenium-vanadium, using the latter in amounts equivalent tothree times the fatal dose for a mouse after the mixture had stoodfrom one to three hours, it was injected either subcutaneously orintravenously into mice in order to test the vitality of the cells in every instance the injections resulted in the production of tumorswhich could be in no way distinguished from the tumors produced byuntreated cancer cells in other words, the therapeutic preparation hadabsolutely no effect on the tumor cells in the same way keysser carried out experiments along the linesinaugurated by neuberg, using a combination of glycocoll and copper he also tested the combination of borcholin with selenium-vanadiumused by werner and szécsi he was able to confirm the fact that bothof these substances produced an unmistakable therapeutic effect onsubcutaneous tumors on the other hand, they were absolutely withoutinfluence on the internal tumors in this respect, therefore, they wereentirely comparable with the eosin-selenium compound the theoreticalbasis constructed by neuberg, which rests on the assumption that themetallic compounds stimulate autolytic processes in the tumors, wasalso subjected by keysser to destructive criticism finally, keysser showed that none of these therapeutic agents wereeffective even in the case of subcutaneous tumors, unless the latterhad reached at least the size of cherry pits if a therapeuticinjection were made immediately after inoculation of the tumors, noeffect was observed the tumors grew exactly as in the control animals, and the injected animals died in about the same period of time as they all of these facts, which taken together constitute a very remarkableand convincing piece of scientific investigation, permit of butone conclusion it is quite clearly established that none of thepreparations of which the therapeutic effectiveness has hitherto beenproclaimed exercise any direct influence on the life or developmentof the tumor under certain very definite and restricted conditions, however, they do appear to produce certain changes in the tumors, and in a small proportion even cures these results, however, areobtained only in the case of tumors which are subcutaneous in locationand not smaller than a cherry pit in size keysser interpretationof the striking differences between tumors is of interest in thisconnection he believes that the constant palpation and examinationof the subcutaneous tumors, which is prompted by interest in theexperiment, produces circulatory changes with hyperemia and hemorrhage these circulatory changes are responsible for the increased tendencyof the injected substances to lodge in the tumors, thereby possiblyincreasing the tendency to autolysis which the circulatory changes haveinaugurated it is, of course, questionable whether this explanationcan be regarded as final in a series of experiments which i performedthesis years ago, i was able to show that sodium iodid when injectedintravenously accumulates in tumors in larger amounts than in any othertissue of the body in rats a similar observation has been recordedby wells, de witt and corper 278 in the same way i found thatvarious dyes, such as congo red, when injected intravenously, could bedemonstrated in tumors long after the rest of the body had recoveredits normal color. The liver alone vied with the tumors in this respect the dyestuff was invariably sharply localized in the necrotic portionsof the tumor the conclusion seemed obvious that, owing to circulatoryconditions or possibly even to chemical conditions, the dye wasretained longest in the necrotic writings of the tumor this effect wasunquestionably not due to handling, inasmuch as the animals in myexperiments were not palpated from the time of injection until death 278 wells, h g , de witt, and corper. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1914, orig , ii, 110 i have, however, had an even more striking demonstration of the samefact i have given intravenous injections of dyes to patients sufferingwith various forms of internal tumors, as, for example, cancer of thebreast, in the hope of favorably influencing the growths at operation, the picture presented by the tumor is striking in the extreme itpresents areas of various size which are intensely discolored by thedye these areas, both to the naked eye and under the microscope, are the necrotic writings of the tumor the actively growing areas oftumor tissue and all the normal tissues of the organ present theirnormal color all of these observations lead to the conclusion thatthe necrotic areas in tumors either possess a higher affinity forsodium iodid and for the dyes than do the normal tissues, or thatthese substances are more slowly absorbed from the necrotic areasowing to the circulatory deficiency whichever of these explanationsis accepted, it is quite reasonable to believe that necrotic areasmight well undergo liquefaction under the influence of the varioussubstances which have been used for therapeutic injection such aresult is, of course, without direct effect on the growth or vitalityof the living writing of the tumor this fact is quite clearly evidencedby the experimental data, which show that the internal portions of thetumor might undergo liquefaction and yet the tumors were not cured indeed, löhe, who made microscopic examinations of the tumors treatedby caspari and neuberg, states writingicularly, with reference to a tumorwhich had been subjected to treatment, that “the central portion ofthe tumor showed softening, while the external margin was composed ofactively growing cells ” the central portions of implanted tumors are, of course, those which first undergo spontaneous necrosis it still remains to explain the small percentage of cures achieved bywassermann and by keysser it does not appear to me that this problempresents any insuperable difficulties the fact must be emphasizedthat practically 95 per cent of the animals die under the treatment, which sufficiently indicates the toxic effects of the agent used wemust remember that transplanted tumors are under all circumstancesat a certain disadvantage as compared with the normal tissues of thebody after all, they are implanted on a foreign soil their bloodsupply is impoverished and imperfect they have a natural tendency toundergo necrosis, and in thesis paper spontaneous retrogression it isnot strange, therefore, that they should prove in slight degree moresusceptible to toxic effects than are the normal tissues of the body if we remember that the various therapeutic agents introduced in allprobability reach a essaywhat higher degree of concentration in thenecrotic areas of the tumor than in the normal tissues of the body, anassumption which is entirely in accord with the facts as observed inthe case of sodium iodid and of various dyes, we may be quite preparedto believe that this factor is sufficient to induce the destruction ofthe marginal healthy and living cells of the tumor the fact that smallsubcutaneous tumors were found by keysser to be entirely refractoryto the treatment is entirely in accord with this assumption, in viewof the fact that tumors of this size present practically no centralnecrosis the same explanation holds of the observation previouslycited from caspari that the primary spontaneous tumors of animalsdo not yield to the treatment indeed, he himself states that thetreatment is effective only in tumors in which autolysis takes placeduring life the word autolysis, however, in this connection is amisnomer and represents a gratuitous assumption. As an actual fact, one is entitled to say only that such tumors undergo central necrosis, in all probably owing to defective circulatory supply the process isexactly similar to the coagulation necrosis described in the case oftubercles by weigert if autolysis occurs, it is only secondary to thepreceding necrosis this explanation, however, is confronted by the fact that the internaltumors produced by keysser showed no tendency to effect a localizationof the dyes, and correspondingly no tendency to be affected by thetherapeutic agents one might be permitted to inquire whether theseinternal tumors had undergone any necrosis keysser unfortunately makesno mention of this matter it is certainly true that the infiltrativemode of growth of the internal tumors, which is entirely differentfrom that of the subcutaneous implantations, is associated with amuch better blood supply and a lessened tendency to undergo necrosis that such tumors can undergo necrosis, however, is evidenced bycertain illustrations given by carl lewin in his paper on internaltumors but such changes usually occur only in advanced stages tojudge from his plates, keysser worked with relatively small tumors, an assumption which is rendered even more likely by the fact that hisinjections were undertaken in a fairly early stage of their growth inthis connection i may quote certain experiments of my own on internaltumors 279 the implantations made in my experiments were produced byintravenous injections of a tumor suspension into the jugular vein ofrats such injections resulted almost invariably in the production ofa large number of tumors in the lungs, which, as is well shown in thefigures accompanying the original article, differed very markedly insize the smaller of these tumors are composed throughout of activelygrowing cells, while the large tumors present an area of centralnecrosis exactly as do the subcutaneous tumors if such an animal begiven an intravenous injection of a dye such as congo red, it will befound that the larger tumors present an area of central discolorationcorresponding to the area of previous necrosis, while the smallertumors, like normal tissues, are not colored thus, it is clear thatthe internal tumors implanted in animals are subject to the same lawsconcerning the distribution of dyes and, of course, other substances asare the subcutaneous tumors as i have stated previously, an exactlyanalogous observation has been made in a human breast tumor in theabsence of any contradictory evidence, therefore, i think that it isperfectly justifiable to assume that keysser failed to achieve a resultin the internal growths simply owing to the fact that those growthspresented practically no areas of necrosis at the time of his injection 279 j m research, 1913, p 497 another theoretical question which bears closely on the recenttherapeutic investigations in human beings concerns the rôle ofcolloids, as such, in the procedure it is quite clear from what hasalready been said that all experiments with animal tumors have beenlargely influenced by the belief that metals in the colloidal formexercise a peculiar and characteristic influence on the destructionof tumors even when the therapeutic agents have been introducedin crystalline form, as by neuberg and caspari, the authors findthemselves compelled to assume that the metals are reduced to colloidalform within the tumors for the latter assumption there is absolutelyno evidence.