History

Organ Donation Essay


Injury of organ donation essay spinal cord or pneumogastrics;paralysis of muscles of respiration from the use of curare. Thespasms of tetanus and strychnia poisoning. The entrance of air intothe pleural cavities with collapse of the lungs all tend to causemechanical suffocation either by pressure or by paralysis for deathsin epileptics, see paper 1, 10, 11, 33, and 40 it is not necessary that the air-passages should be absolutely closedto cause suffocation the cause of death is more likely to be pure asphyxia, because of theabsence of the complicating pressure of the hand or ligature on thevessels and nerves of the neck, and of fracture of larynx or vertebræ symptoms - foreign bodies889 entering the trachea naturally falltoward the right bronchial tube instead of the left because of thesize and position of the entrance of the right tube if then but onetube is involved, the signs will usually be on the right side. Whereasif the foreign body stop in the larynx or trachea, both sides will beaffected the latter condition is much more dangerous the symptomswould be resonance over the lung with the respiratory murmur writingly orwholly absent. Less mobility. Puerile breathing on the unaffected side in either case there may at first be little disturbance, especiallyif the shape of the foreign body is such as not to greatly interferewith the access of air. Otherwise there may be at once, and almostalways will be after a time, more or less urgent dyspnœa diminution ofthe necessary oxygen may cause convulsions, apoplexy, and other brainsymptoms acute emphysema of the portion of lung not obstructed mayfollow its forcible distention the local effect of the foreign body isan irritation which causes spasm and cough it may be carried upward bythe expirations and downward again by each inspiration inflammationis likely to appear eventually and may involve the lung if theobstruction is not complete there may follow periods of alternation ofgood and bad health, ending perhaps in recovery the foreign body maybe expelled after a greater or lesser interval on the other hand deathmay result from secondary causes in the absence of correct historythe symptoms may lead to a wrong diagnosis and inappropriate treatment;as where a patient whose symptoms resulted from the presence of a pieceof bone in the larynx, was treated for syphilis a foreign body may becoughed up from the lung into the trachea and fall backward into theopposite lung writingial closure of the larynx, most likely caused by a flat orirregular substance, rather than globular, may cause gradual asphyxiawith symptoms of apoplexy, making the diagnosis difficult when a foreign body remains a long time in the larynx, spasmodic coughand croupy breathing usually ensue, expectoration tinged with blood, hoarseness, or complete aphonia, pain, dyspnœa, possibly crepitationand dulness over the lungs the case may end suddenly in death fromclosure of the glottis, or the foreign body may pass into the tracheaand set up a new train of symptoms, or it may be expelled the frequency with which foreign bodies in the pharynx or œsophagusobstruct respiration, and the facility with which they may usually beremoved, suggest a careful examination otherwise the patient may betreated indefinitely for supposed obstruction in the air-passages foreign bodies in the œsophagus have perforated into the trachea, andeven the lungs, heart, and aorta in complete suffocation death will occur in from two to five minutes see remarks under strangulation death may also occur instantaneously the experiments of the committee on suspended animation890 showed that when the trachea of a dog was exposed, incised, and a tube tied in, the average time covered by the respiratory efforts after stopping up the tube with a cork was four minutes five seconds. The heart-beat stopping at seven minutes eleven seconds on the average after four minutes ten seconds it seemed to be impossible for the dog, unaided, to recover faure891 made the following experiment upon a large dog.

The roots are a safer purge than the leaves, and not so violent, they purge by vomit, stool, and urine. They areprofitable for such as have agues, dropsies, stoppings of the liver, orspleen, green sickness asparagi of asparagus, or sperage. They are temperate in quality, opening, they provoke urine, and cleanse the reins and bladder, beingboiled in white wine, and the wine drank asphodeli, hastæ regiæ fœm of kings spear, or female asphodel iknow no physical use of the roots. Probably there is, for i do notbelieve god created any thing of no use asphodeli, albuci, muris of male asphodel hot and dry in the seconddegree, inwardly taken, they provoke vomit, urine, and the menses:outwardly used in ointments, they cause hair to grow, cleanse ulcers, and take away morphew and freckles from the face bardanæ, &c of bur, clot-bur, or burdock, temperately hot and dry helps such as spit blood and matter. Bruised and mixed with salt andapplied to the place, helps the bitings of mad dogs it expels wind, eases pains of the teeth, strengthens the back, helps the runningof the reins, and the whites, being taken inwardly dioscorides, apuleius behen alb rub of valerian, white and red mesue, serapio, andother arabians, say they are hot and moist in the latter end of thefirst, or beginning of the second degree, and comfort the heart, stirup lust the grecians held them to be dry in the second degree, thatthey stop fluxes, and provoke urine bellidis of dasies see the leaves betæ, nigræ, albæ, rubræ of beets, black, white, and red. As forblack beets i have nothing to say, i doubt they are as rare as blackswans the red beet root boiled and preserved in vinegar, makes a fine, cool, pleasing, cleansing, digesting sauce see the leaves bistortæ, &c of bistort, or snakeweed, cold and dry in the thirddegree, binding. Half a dram at a time taken inwardly, resistspestilence and poison, helps ruptures and bruises, stays fluxes, vomiting, and immoderate flowing of the menses, helps inflammationsand soreness of the mouth, and fastens loose teeth, being bruised andboiled in white wine, and the mouth washed with it borraginis of borrage, hot and moist in the first degree, cheersthe heart, helps drooping spirits dioscorides brionæ, &c of briony both white and black. They are both hot anddry, essay say in the third degree, and essay say but in the first. Theypurge flegm and watery humours, but they trouble the stomach much, they are very good for dropsies. The white is most in use, and is goodfor the fits of the mother. Both of them externally used, take awayfreckles, sunburning, and morphew from the face, and cleanse filthyulcers. It is but a churlish purge, but being let alone, can do no harm buglossi of bugloss. Its virtues are the same with borrage, and theroots of either seldom used bulbus vomitorius a vomiting root. I never read of it elswhere bythis general name calami aromatici of aromatical reed, or sweet garden flag. Itprovokes urine, strengthens the lungs, helps bruises, resists poison, &c being taken inwardly in powder, the quantity of half a dram at atime you may mix it with syrup of violets, if your body be feverish capparum capper roots are hot and dry in the second degree, cuttingand cleansing.

Of the seed of sagetoasted at the fire, eight drams. Of long pepper, twelve drams. Allthese being brought into powder, put thereto so much juice of sageas may make them into a mass of pills, taking a dram of them everymorning fasting, and so likewise at night, drinking a little pure waterafter them matthiolus saith, it is very profitable for all manner ofpains in the head coming of cold and rheumatic humours. As also forall pains of the joints, whether inwardly or outwardly, and thereforehelps the falling-sickness, the lethargy, such as are dull and heavyof spirit, the palsy. And is of much use in all defluctions of rheumfrom the head, and for the diseases of the chest or breast the leavesof sage and nettles bruised together, and laid upon the imposthumethat rises behind the ears, doth assuage it much the juice of sagetaken in warm water, helps a hoarseness and a cough the leaves soddenin wine, and laid upon the place affected with the palsy, helps much, if the decoction be drank. Also sage taken with wormwood is good forthe bloody-flux pliny saith, it procures women courses, and staysthem coming down too fast. Helps the stinging and biting of serpents, and kills the worms that breed in the ear, and in sores sage is ofexcellent use to help the memory, warming and quickening the senses;and the conserve made of the flowers is used to the same purpose, andalso for all the former recited diseases the juice of sage drankwith vinegar, hath been of good use in time of the plague at alltimes gargles likewise are made with sage, rosemary, honey-suckles, and plantain, boiled in wine or water, with essay honey or allum putthereto, to wash sore mouths and throats, cankers, or the secret writingsof man or woman, as need requires and with other hot and comfortableherbs, sage is boiled to bathe the body and the legs in the summertime, especially to warm cold joints, or sinews, troubled with thepalsy and cramp, and to comfort and strengthen the writings it is muchcommended against the stitch, or pains in the side coming of wind, ifthe place be fomented warm with the decoction thereof in wine, and theherb also after boiling be laid warm thereunto wood-sage descript wood-sage rises up with square hoary stalks, two feethigh at the least, with two leaves set at every joint, essaywhat likeother sage leaves, but smaller, softer, whiter, and rounder, and alittle dented about the edges, and smelling essaywhat stronger at thetops of the stalks and branches stand the flowers, on a slender likespike, turning themselves all one way when they blow, and are of apale and whitish colour, smaller than sage, but hooded and gaping likeunto them the seed is blackish and round. Four usually seem in a husktogether. The root is long and stringy, with divers fibres thereat, and abides thesis years place it grows in woods, and by wood-sides. As also in diversfields and bye-lanes in the land time it flowers in june, july, and august government and virtues the herb is under venus the decoction ofthe wood sage provokes urine and women courses. It also provokessweat, digests humours, and discusses swellings and nodes in theflesh, and is therefore thought to be good against the french pox the decoction of the green herb, made with wine, is a safe and sureremedy for those who by falls, bruises, or blows, suspect essay veinto be inwardly broken, to disperse and void the congealed blood, andto consolidate the veins the drink used inwardly, and the herb usedoutwardly, is good for such as are inwardly or outwardly bursten, andis found to be a sure remedy for the palsy the juice of the herb, or the powder thereof dried, is good for moist ulcers and sores inthe legs, and other writings, to dry them, and cause them to heal morespeedily it is no less effectual also in green wounds, to be used uponany occasion solomon seal descript the common solomon seal rises up with a round stalk halfa yard high, bowing or bending down to the ground, set with singleleaves one above another, essaywhat large, and like the leaves of thelily-convally, or may-lily, with an eye of bluish upon the green, with essay ribs therein, and more yellowish underneath at the foot ofevery leaf, almost from the bottom up to the top of the stalk, comeforth small, long, white and hollow pendulous flowers, essaywhat likethe flowers of may-lily, but ending in five long points, for the mostwriting two together, at the end of a long foot-stalk, and essaytimes butone, and essaytimes also two stalks, and flowers at the foot of a leaf, which are without any scent at all, and stand on the top of the stalk after they are past, come in their places small round berries great atthe first, and blackish green, tending to blueness when they are ripe, wherein lie small, white, hard, and stony seeds the root is of thethickness of one finger or thumb, white and knotted in essay places, aflat round circle representing a seal, whereof it took the name, lyingalong under the upper crust of the earth, and not growing downward, butwith thesis fibres underneath place it is frequent in divers places of this land. As, namelyin a wood two miles from canterbury, by fish-pool hill, as also inbushy close belonging to the parsonage of alderbury, near clarendon, two miles from salisbury. In cheffon wood, on chesson hill, betweennewington and sittingbourn in kent, and divers other places in essex, and other counties time it flowers about may. The root abides and shoots a-new everyyear government and virtues saturn owns the plant, for he loves hisbones well the root of solomon seal is found by experience to beavailable in wounds, hurts, and outward sores, to heal and close up thelips of those that are green, and to dry up and restrain the flux ofhumours to those that are old it is singularly good to stay vomitingsand bleeding wheresoever, as also all fluxes in man or woman. Also, to knit any joint, which by weakness uses to be often out of place, or will not stay in long when it is set. Also to knit and join brokenbones in any writing of the body, the roots being bruised and applied tothe places.

1, 750 c c is the organ donation essay maximum, and anything aboveis macrocephalic. While the minimum is 1, 206 c c , which is rather toolow than too high according to topinard nomenclature of the cranialcapacity, macrocephalic in the adult european male are those havinga capacity of 1, 950 c c and above. A large skull is one of 1, 950 to1, 650 c c. Average or ordinary, 1, 650 to 1, 450 c c. Small, 1, 450 to1, 150 c c. Microcephalic 1, 150 c c and below it would seem that theskulls of the insane are below the type, a measurement of sixteen maleskulls giving an average of only 1, 449 c c scotchmen head the listwith the most voluminous skulls, and according to a tabular statementmade up from welcker, aitken, broca, and meigs, the english come next, with a capacity of 1, 572 c c then follow eskimo, 1, 483 c c. Germans, 1, 448 c c.

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But if the cord remainsfor essay time after death there may be hemorrhage, or if death organ donation essay does notoccur at once whether the ligature is removed or not it is impossibleto distinguish ante-mortem from post-mortem hemorrhage the parchment skin seen in hanging is seldom seen in strangulation neyding749 says that the dryness and induration called parchment skindepend mainly on the amount of excoriation of the skin, and this isgreater in hanging tardieu explains this frequency as being due to thefact that the constriction in hanging lasts a longer time liman hasseen the parchment skin in those strangled the violence used may cause ecchymoses and abrasions of the skin of theneck adjacent to the mark of the ligature the marks of very different constricting ligatures may be quitesimilar taylor750 mentions a case in which a soft silk handkerchiefwas used, and the appearance was the same as that of a narrow cord, dueto the tightness with which it was tied where a hard substance like a piece of coal or stone is inserted intothe ligature, usually then a soft cloth, and presses directly againstessay writing of the neck, there is usually a corresponding bruise marks of pressure by the thumb and fingers are usually on the frontof the neck, and either just above or below the larynx in thesis paperthese marks are only those of the finger-tips with essay scratches these marks may show definitely the probable size of the assaultinghand, and whether right or left marks of strangulation may disappear rapidly after the removal of theligature assailants usually constrict the neck much more violentlythan is sufficient to cause death marks of violence on the neck are, therefore, greater in strangulation than in hanging a great variety of external injuries other than those on the neckhave been found in the different paper reported where other formsof violence were used with few exceptions such additional injuriesindicate homicide external appearances due to asphyxia - a few of these have alreadybeen given under the caption “symptoms ” if death occurs quicklythere may not be any signs of asphyxia the general lividity whichcomes on in the second stage usually remains after death the facevaries in color from violet to black and may be swollen casper751says that the face has the appearance of any other corpse liman752found the face livid in only one of fourteen paper hofmann753 saysthat the cyanosis appears during the agony because of paralysis ofthe circulation and gravitation of blood the cyanosis of the face, projection of the eyes, and congestion of the conjunctivæ are due tothe expiratory effort these signs are also seen in fat persons whodo not die of strangulation tardieu754 mentions a dotted rednessor minute ecchymosis of the conjunctivæ and skin of face, neck, andchest as constant. But this cannot be considered characteristic, because it has been seen, though not so well marked, in death fromother causes it has been found in suffocation from compression ofthe chest and belly. And also where there is respiratory interferencein the prolonged efforts of tedious labor and in convulsions liman755 found it in those who were hung it is due, according tohofmann, 756 to increased blood pressure and consequent hemorrhages it is of importance as tending to show that there was stasis of bloodin the head and face during life liman757 found cyanosis in theconjunctivæ, lips, back of mouth, and in the muscles maschka758in 234 paper of asphyxia found capillary hemorrhages of the eyes andeyelids 87 times dastre and morat759 claim that in asphyxia the cutaneous circulationbecomes more active than in the normal state, while at the same timethe vessels of the abdominal cavity are contracted laffont760considers the mechanism of this peripheral dilatation post-mortem stainings hypostases are usually darker in strangulationthan in other forms of death they appear soon, as does alsoputrefaction, because of the quantity and fluidity of the blood signs of hemorrhage from the nose, eyes, and mouth may be visible;as also bloody froth from the mouth and nose chevers761 never sawbleeding from the ears in strangulation taylor762 states that dr geoghegan informed him of a case of suicidal strangulation by a ribbon;the violence was great, there was bleeding from the ear, and the drumwas found ruptured in this case the mark on the neck, which was deep, nearly disappeared after the ligature was removed taylor also sayswilde, of dublin, saw a case of rupture of drum and hemorrhage instrangulation pellier763 says that littré mentions a case of ruptureof tympanic membrane in strangulation by a cord zoufal and hofmannhave offered explanations of the occurrence case 35 the face usually shows pain and suffering. Although essaytimes thefeatures are calm in the latter case there may have been syncope the eyes are usually staring, prominent, and congested, and the pupilsdilated casper764 doubts their prominence budin and coyne765state that in asphyxia the dilation of the pupil progresses to amaximum and then convulsions occur ophthalmoscopic examination duringthe dyspnœa of asphyxia shows a lessened fulness of the retinal vessels the tongue is often swollen, dark, protruding, and essaytimes bitten maschka766 states that if the ligature lies above the hyoid bone, thetongue will be drawn backward. If over or below the bone, the tip ofthe tongue may appear more or less between the jaws the hands are usually clinched and may have in their grasp articleswhich, under the circumstances, have a medico-legal value the external generative organs are essaytimes congested. Erection ofthe penis may have taken place and persisted the vagina may be moist tardieu, devergie, and casper767 deny that these appearances areusual involuntary discharges of urine, fæces, and seminal fluid may haveoccurred there is nothing characteristic in their appearance all the external appearances of asphyxia are usually more marked instrangulation than in hanging internal appearances - the mark usually there is hemorrhage into theloose connective tissue under the mark and in the subjacent muscles;in most paper isolated and circumscribed, but essaytimes extendingbeyond the line of the mark hemorrhage from compression by the fingersis more marked than that from ligature 768 essaytimes there is onlyfulness of the subcutaneous veins the carotid arteries may suffer rupture of their inner and middlecoats, especially in atheromatous subjects and when the compressionhas been great friedberg769 states that the injury of the carotid, if there is hemorrhage into its middle and internal coats, is a proofthat the strangulation occurred during life, and probably from pressureof the fingers on the neck, without any regard to any disease of theartery he reports two paper the examiner should be careful not toinjure the artery with his forceps the vessels may contain clots the neck occasionally suffers extreme injury, and, owing to theviolence used, this occurs oftener in strangulation than inhanging 770 occasionally the neck is broken the hyoid bone may be fractured see case 5 maschka771 saw one casein eighteen of erdrosselung and five paper in fifteen of erwürgen the trachea is essaytimes torn, or may be folded on itself the cartilages of the larynx, especially if calcareous, may befractured this is more likely to affect the thyroid than cricoid the fracture would appear to occur only as the result of enormousforce. Especially in the young in whom the cartilages are so elastic the experiments of keiller772 on cadavers led him to conclude thatfalls on the larynx, even from a height and with superadded force, areunlikely to fracture that organ. That severe pressure or violent blowsagainst the larynx from before backward may cause fracture. But thatsevere lateral pressure, as in ordinary throttling, is more likely thanother forms of violence to fracture the alæ of the thyroid or even thecricoid cartilages and also the hyoid bone taylor773 states that dr inman, of liverpool, had informed him of a case of splitting of ringsof windpipe from pressure see paper 5, 13 maschka774 in fifteenpaper of choking found six fractures of the larynx chailloux775 has collected eight paper of fracture of larynx instrangulation they were all made with the fingers the experimentsof cavasse776 seem to show that there is no great difficulty infracturing the thyroid in strangulation internal appearances due to asphyxia - the veins of the entire bodyare distended with very dark and very fluid blood, while the arteries, especially in the young, are mostly empty experiments on the loweranimals have shown that the pulmonary artery and systemic veins to thefinest ramifications are distended with dark blood 777the heart - the right side, especially the auricle, is usually fullof dark fluid blood, due to the mechanical impediment to the passageof blood through the lungs if the heart continues to beat after therespiration has ceased the right ventricle is commonly well contracted, like the left cavities, and nearly empty, the lungs being muchcongested essaytimes the left cavities of the heart contain blood thiswould be most likely to occur if the heart should stop in the diastole essaytimes clots are found in the right ventricle maschka778 foundclots in the heart 25 times in 234 paper of asphyxia the lungs are usually much congested, resembling red hepatization, except that the blood is darker hemorrhages apoplexies into thesubstance of the lungs are common tardieu found patches of emphysemadue to rupture of the surface air-vesicles, giving the surface ofthe lung the appearance of a layer of white false membrane ogstonadmits this occurrence in pure strangulation but to a less extent inmixed paper liman779 found the lung surface uneven, bosselated, the prominences being of a clearer color and due to emphysema the lungs were in the same condition of congestion and emphysemain strangulation, suffocation, and hanging he failed to find theapoplexies described the lungs are essaytimes anæmic in healthy young subjects, especiallychildren, the blood-vessels of the lungs often empty themselvesafter the heart stops the lungs may, therefore, be bloodless, butemphysematous from the violent efforts to breathe page experimentson the lower animals showed the lungs of a pale reddish color andnot much distended. A few dilated air-cells might be seen towardtheir anterior borders, and there might be small hemorrhages over thesurface his experiments appear to show that subpleural ecchymosesoccur as a result of violent and repeated efforts to breathe amongother experiments780 he stopped the mouth and nostrils of a youngcalf long enough to excite violent efforts at respiration.