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Each consists of order resume online seven members, appointedrespectively by those societies, physicians actually engaged in thepractice of medicine, and of recognized ability and honor. But nophysician having a pecuniary interest in the trade of pharmacy can beappointed 2 suitable provisions must be made by each examining board to prepare aschedule of written examination upon anatomy, physiology, chemistry, surgery, practice of medicine, materia medica and therapeutics, obstetrics, gynæcology, pathology, medical jurisprudence and hygiene;the same standard of excellence is required from all candidates. Intherapeutics and practice, the questions must be in harmony with thetenets of the school selected by the candidate. And the standardof acquirements therein is established by each board itself theexamination must be fundamental in character and such as can beanswered in common by all schools of practice 1, 42 application for license is made in writing to the president of eitherboard of medical examiners which the applicant may elect, withsatisfactory proof that the applicant is more than twenty-one years ofage, is of good moral character, has obtained a competent common-schooleducation, and has either received a diploma conferring the degreeof doctor of medicine from essay legally incorporated medical collegein the united states, or a diploma or license conferring the fullright to practise all the branches of medicine and surgery in essayforeign country, and has also both studied medicine three years andattended three courses of lectures in different years in essay legallyincorporated medical college or colleges prior to the granting ofthe diploma or foreign license.

If these data are furnished by himself and not a typographical error-- though i find the same data in the american medical directory for 1916-- then it is high time that essay board of censors should make a careful examination of his credentials “anybody, like myself, who is acquainted with medical matters in gerthesis knows that it is preposterous to assume that anybody could obtain the degree of m d in any german university at the age of 18 years m d , leipzig ”eighteen is rather young to receive an m d degree from heidelberg!. By again going over the various sources of information available thefollowing data were collected. In polk medical directory for 1886 dr abrams’ name appears as a graduate of the university of heidelberg, 1882, and of cooper medical college in 1883 the records we havefrom these two institutions confirm these dates the year of dr abrams’ birth seems less clear in the early writing of 1902 the americanmedical association sent dr abrams a blank for him to fill out for apermanent record this was returned in due course and, according toit, dr abrams was born in san francisco dec 8, 1863 this same dateappears in various editions of “who who in america ” a blank sent bythe a m a directory dewritingment to dr abrams in 1908 asking for apersonal biographical report was returned aug 20, 1908. It gave dr abrams’ date of birth as dec 8, 1864 a similar blank sent in theearlier writing of 1909 was returned giving the same birth date we learn, however, that an affidavit executed in 1917 states that albert abramswas born in san francisco dec 8, 1862 just how long dr abrams attended heidelberg university before he wasgranted the m d degree, we do not know apparently, at that time thestandards for admission to that institution were not especially severeand the length of time one would have to attend before being admittedto an examination seems to have depended on the educational credentialsthat the matriculant offered what credentials dr abrams submitted, we do not know assuming that the earliest date 1862 represents dr abrams’ date of birth, he could have been but twenty years old whenhe received his m d from heidelberg this indicates a precocity thatmight have forecast dr abrams’ later achievements throughout the records of dr abrams’ educational credentials thereappears the statement that he also graduated from the “universityof portland” in 1892, receiving the degree of a m from referencesavailable we have been unable to find any record of a “university ofportland ”-- from the journal a m a , april 8, 1922 a defense by upton sinclaira essaywhat voluminous letter has been received from mr upton sinclair, which is a defense of dr albert abrams of san francisco we publishmr sinclair letter because we believe it is written in honesty andsincerity-- and because the journal readers will enjoy it!. it is worthmentioning in this connection that mr sinclair in his latest bookdevotes a few pages to a eulogy of dr abrams and his methods thismaterial has not only been reproduced by dr abrams in his “houseorgan” physico-clinical medicine but is reprinted in leaflet form andis being distributed by essay of the individuals who are exploiting theabrams methods such reprints have been sent to this office by bothlaymen and physicians mr sinclair’ letterto the editor -- a few weeks ago you published an article dealingwith the discoveries or claims of dr albert abrams of san francisco i happen to be attending dr abrams’ clinic at the time and havediscussed this article with him at essay length dr abrams follows thepolicy of ignoring attacks on his work, taking the view that in thelong run, the man who cures disease makes his way in the world in spiteof all opposition however, it is easy to see that he has been deeplyhurt by this attack on his reputation, and as one of his friends andmost ardent admirers i am taking the liberty of addressing a letter toyou i do not know if the rules of your publication permit interventionin medical affairs by a mere layman permit me to introduce myselfas a layman who for essay twenty years tried faithfully to be curedof various diseases by thesis doctors of the best reputation in thesiswritings of the world, and failed. And who, therefore, was compelled, asa matter of self-protection, to look into the question of health forhimself i have read so thesis different kinds of books on health andmade so thesis experiments of my own that nowadays when i meet with agroup of physicians i find that before long they come to accept me asone of themselves you may not go that far, but at least you may be sogenerous as to allow me to tell you a little of what i have seen duringthe time i have spent in the clinic of dr albert abrams i observe that in the course of your two page article dealing with thissubject, you nowhere have anything to charge against dr abrams, nordo you show that you have investigated his work you consider that allyou have to do is to quote dr abrams’ own words as to what he can do, and that these words refute themselves italics our -- ed also youquote dr abrams’ schedules of prices, and imply that his motives aremercenary i will take up these two questions one at a time what dr abrams can dofirst, as to what dr abrams can do.

These are ferments or enzymes the vegetable acids, metalloids and metals present in all plants in colloid form act biochemically among the metalloids are hydrogen, carbon, manganese, oxygen, sulphur, order resume online phosphorus and chlorine. The heavy metals are iron, potassium, sodium, magnesium and copper these biochemic principles are always present in plants as colloids ”it is claimed by the merrell company that. “proteogens stimulate the cytogenic mechanism to higher activity. Therefore, indirectly cleave the invading microorganism and eliminate their special toxins proteogens swing the disturbed metabolism back to normal and, by natural processes, build up effective defenses against recurrent bacterial attacks ”proteogen no 1 was first introduced as “plantex, ” and at that time themerrell company referred to a preparation that was the result of “aseries of studies” carried out by a “noted biologist” with a view of“evolving a cancer remedy” that was “to be autolytic in character, ” andannounced. “the house of merrell always interested in the progress of plant therapy, began pharmacological experimentations to reproduce this same substance the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the substance as used in new york having been published simplified matters a essaywhat similar remedy has now been prepared it consists of the following substances-- menyanthes trifoliata buckbean, melilotus officinalis yellow sweet clover, mentha crispa curled mint, brassica alba white mustard, anemone hepatica liver leaf, viola tricolor pansy, anthemis roman chamomile, fructus colocynthidis colocynth, lignum quassiæ quassia, urtica dioica nettle, radix rhei rhubarb root, hedge hyssop these substances are in approximately equal proportions with the exception of the mustard which forms 20 per cent of the mixture, and the colocynth fruit which is 5 per cent ”with respect also to the other proteogens listed above, study ofmedical literature revealed no evidence establishing their therapeuticvalue. In fact, no evidence was found other than that appearing inthe advertising matter of the manufacturer the range of diseases inwhich proteogens are recommended is so wide as to make obvious thelack of scientific judgment which characterizes their exploitation acircular letter, received january, 1919, reminded the physician thatabout a year ago his attention had been directed to proteogen no 1for cancer, that later developments enabled the firm to recommend forhis consideration “a series of proteogens nos 2 to 9, ” and that now“in response to an insistent demand, dr a s horowitz has preparedtwo new proteogens-- no 10 for syphilis and no 11 for gonorrhea ”a postscript to this circular letter announced another preparation, “proteogen no 12 for influenza and pneumonia, ” a “development out ofthe present influenza epidemic, ” and admitted that “it has not hadthe clinical experimentation that precedes our introduction of a newproduct ”the introduction of no 12 was effected by means of a special bulletinwhich consists exclusively of clinical reports from seven physicians, all from chicago save one, and all purporting to show most favorableresults from no 12 they describe paper which any physician withexperience with influenza can duplicate without any special treatment it is difficult to give serious consideration to a set of allegedremedies when the only evidence is that furnished by the proponents ofthe alleged remedies this is writingicularly true when the alleged remedydoes not make a sufficient appeal to one sense of the rational intherapeutics to lead one to feel justified in asking a trial at thehands of careful clinical observers considering the grave nature ofthe diseases for which proteogens are recommended, writingicularly cancer, tuberculosis, and pernicious anemia, the want of a rational basisfor the method of treatment and the general tenor of the advertisingmatter, it appears safe to conclude that these agents do not representany definite advance in therapeutics as the use of preparations, secret in composition, and of noestablished value, is contrary to rational therapy, it is recommendedthat the proteogen preparations be declared in conflict with rules 1, 6and 10 report of second referee reviewing manufacturers’ replythe report declaring the proteogens of the william s merrell companyinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies was adopted by thecouncil, but before publication it was sent to the merrell companyfor such comments as it might desire to make in due time the replyof the firm was received it consisted of two volumes bound in limpmorocco, each stamped in gold. “report proteogen therapy requested bythe american medical association, 1919. The wm s merrell company ”the first volume contained 79 pages of typewritten material. The secondvolume contained 76 pages of typewritten material and a number ofadvertising booklets put out by the wm s merrell company, exploitingthe proteogens among the typewritten material was a 14-page report on “proteogentherapy” by its originator, a s horowitz following this thereare several pages devoted to what is termed “a short qualitativedescription of the ingredients of major importance in proteogens ”then follows a page describing the advertising of proteogens, andthe remainder of the two books is devoted to testimonials, laudingthe benefit of proteogens in diseases such as cancer, tuberculosis, rheumatism, asthma, influenza, enlarged prostate, rheumaticendocarditis, syphilis, eczema, psoriasis, diabetes, secondary anemia, gonococcic infections, etc finally, there are attached samples ofadvertising pamphlets the dissertation by a s horowitz contains little actual informationconcerning these substances, but is concerned principally withdiscussion of foreign proteins, “antiferments, ” “non-specificproteins, ” “anti-virolins” and speculations on their hypotheticalactions and interactions on each other and on the organs of the bodyand on bacteria the report contains thesis questionable statements one finds in this report but few definite statements of facts whichare known to be accurate or which could be accepted without question the qualitative description of the proteins and their components isas vague as the previous discussion the differentiation between thevarious proteogens is extremely indefinite. That for tuberculosis, no 3 is described as “polyvalent, non-specific protein which rapidlyattacks the acid-fast, encapsulated tubercle bacilli”. Proteogen no 10 for syphilis is said to be a combination of “non-specific plantproteins and different chemicals which has the power to paralyze anddestroy living spirochete ” it is stated that proteogens are scientificpreparations based on standard ingredients and that the standardizationis more accurate than in serums, vaccines or toxins, etc the reportgives no proof of such statements the testimonials that are submitted are typical of “reports” thatmanufacturers are able to obtain from essay physicians, to prove theefficacy of almost any preparation in any disease each consists, practically, of the opinion of the individual who has employed theproteogens or the opinion of the patient who has been treated few dataare given in these reports from which an imwritingial conclusion might bedrawn a few of the testimonials presented by the william s merrellcompany follow the valuelessness of such material as scientificevidence is obvious. Rheumatism:-- proteogen no 2 -- the doctor has one case being treated with no 2 she has improved so rapidly she cannot express her pleasure, and will continue for essay time on the treatments she is a patient who was confined during the time she suffered from a rheumatic illness, and it seemed to affect her mental condition this condition is clearing up also, very much to the pleasure of both patient and doctor -- november 27, 1918 influenza:-- proteogen no 12 -- first day, temperature 102, gave 1 c c proteogen no 12.

“i am enclosing a copy of a circular letter just received from parke, davis & company, and will call your attention to a marked paragraph in this letter on which i would like to have an expression of your opinion ”the circular letter which the doctor forwards is devoted to singingthe praises of “pneumonia phylacogen ” it opens with the statement:“influenza, we learn, has appeared in your section ” the paragraphmarked by our correspondent reads. “pneumonia phylacogen has been found to be a dependable means of preventing and treating pneumonic complications of influenza in one large city it became a routine measure to give all persons affected with influenza an injection of pneumonia phylacogen as a prophylactic of pneumonia the results were remarkable not only did the paper improve rapidly, but in a great majority of them the pneumonia did not occur ”the “phylacogens” were repeatedly discussed in the journal during 1913and 1914 when these products were being pushed with much vigor by themanufacturers we know of no evidence that calls for a revision ofthe statements then made regarding them the injection of phylacogensis simply the administration of a mixture of the filtered productsof several bacterial species the results which follow represent thereaction of the bacterial protein-- a reaction for good or evil thereis no scientific evidence to show that they possess any specificprophylactic virtue to recommend their use in paper of influenza, as a prophylactic against pneumonia, is unwarranted, and thephysician who acts on the advice of the manufacturer must assume theresponsibility for the results in case of mishap he cannot fall backon the manufacturer. He will find no scientific evidence to supporthim -- from the journal a m a , nov 15, 1919 pineoleum advertising methods capitalizing the name and position of the president of the american medical associationto the editor:-- enclosed is a postal card which a physician inoklahoma has sent me together with thirty-six cents in stamps theenvelop was addressed to me at the address of the pineoleum company the postoffice corrected the address and sent it to me it is evident, therefore, that the physician in oklahoma thought i was sending thesepostals as an employee of the pineoleum company, or, at least, wasendorsing their products illustration. Postal card capitalizing the name and position of the president of the american medical association kindly do me the favor to publish this letter in the journal as aprotest against the dishonesty of this method of advertising what isquoted from an article that i wrote appeared originally in the newyork state journal of medicine and was abstracted in the journalof the american medical association of august 2, 1919 the obviousinference to be drawn from this postal is that i referred to theproducts of the pineoleum company in that article i did not have theproducts of the pineoleum company in my mind i never have used theirproducts and never prescribed them this form of advertising is done with intent to deceive and did deceivethe doctor in oklahoma it was therefore a successful falsehood, itssuccess depending on the false use of the name of the president of theamerican medical association to bolster up the sale of the product i resent the use of my name in connection with the quack advertisingof nostrum venders the low, vulpine cunning of the method used ison the same level as the deceit and dishonesty which use this formof advertising to the injury of my name and reputation as presidentof the american medical association i must insist that you protectme by publishing this letter in the journal, giving it as widespreadpublicity as possible alexander lambert comment -- “pineoleum” is a “patent medicine” advertised in thecheapest and most effective way-- by the aid of the easy going andcomplacent physician in 1906 pineoleum was being marketed by thewinslow laboratory of new york city, which also put out three or fourother nostrums-- “morumalt, ” “egeriol, ” “digestylin, ” and “fordnucleo-peptone ” pineoleum was advertised to the public then as it isadvertised now, via the medical profession physicians are circularizedand are offered a petty graft in the form of a cheap nebulizer and asample bottle of pineoleum essay time ago the company seems to havedeveloped a scheme whereby physicians could make money “dispensingpineoleum nebulizer outfits at more than 140 per cent profit ” thepineoleum concern for years has also polluted the stream at its sourceby attempting to get the secretary of the senior class of every medicalschool to distribute its free nebulizer outfits to members of theclass and receive therefor 5 cents for each outfit distributed!. thelife history of pineoleum is that of the typical nostrum epidemics, of course, are utilized as opportunities for pushing the product in1911 a card was sent out featuring “a special lagrippe offer”.

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Mei, threu, mor, for, teux, za, zon, the, lu, chri, ge, ze, on as the sun becomes firm in this name and daily renews itself, so order resume online doesthis formation also make firm as conditions were previously quickly, quickly, rapidly, rapidly for behold!. i call the great name in whichbecomes firm again what was destined to die. Jas, azyf, zyon, threux, dain, chook make this formation firm as it has been, quickly, quickly, rapidly, rapidly this document must be covered with the tendon of acrane, enclosed in a capsule, and worn by the patient at his heel ”remedy against diseases of the eye advised by sextus placituspapyriensis magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 597. “ifthe right eye becomes afflicted with glaucoma, rub it with the righteye of the wolf, and, similarly, the left eye with the left eye of thewolf ”in photophobia fear of light “wear as an amulet an eye whichwas taken from a live crab ” quintus serenus samonicus magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 595 with pains of the eye the patient must, with a copper needle, put outthe eyes of a green lizard caught on a jupiter day, during a moon thatis on the wane, in the month of september the eyes must be worn in agolden capsule, as an amulet around the neck marcellus empiricus magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 602 the above illustrations are surely sufficient to give the reader anidea of the medicine of the magicians at the same time they show thegreat similarity which exists between these ancient magic cures and thesympathetic cures of our people at the present day § 4 ancient medicine and magic - but how is it possible that theancient physicians, and even the most enlightened minds among them, should not only have tolerated such a crass medical superstition as theabove examples have shown us, but should even have incorporated them intheir works?. incomprehensible, however, as this fact may appear to themodern practitioner, it becomes conceivable if the condition of antiquemedicine and of the medical profession of ancient times is considered in the first place, ancient medical science adopted an entirelydifferent mode of diagnostico-theoretical method than that employedby professors of medicine in modern times ancient natural science compare also chapter v of this work, as well as ancient medicine, obtained their scientific views exclusively by deduction i e , theydeduced individual results from general presumptions, or, rather, theyconstrued, by reason of essay general presumption, the physico-medicalconsequences which were to follow from such a general supposition ifthis attempt to obtain an insight into physical processes is extremelyhazardous, it becomes still more precarious when the manner and meansin which these general presumptions were arrived at were primarily ofan entirely hypothetical nature it is true, no fundamental objectioncan be raised to this method, as even modern natural science andmedicine, despite the fact that their methods of investigation in adiagnostico-theoretical respect scarcely admit of material objections, can not do without hypothesis but hypothesis is not always merehypothesis it is well known that there are hypotheses which, even inthe minds of the most conscientious investigators, are not inferior tothat knowledge which is obtained by experiment and observation, whereasother hypotheses again present the distinct stamp of insufficiency andmakeshift the trustworthiness and the heuristic value of an hypothesisdepend upon the quality of the diagnostico-theoretical process by meansof which it was obtained if this process has been such as physicalinvestigation is bound to insist upon, the hypothesis thus arrivedat is fully justified to supply the still absent data with regardto the phenomena in question this, however, can be accomplished byhypothesis only when the latter is not set forth until it plainlyappears that, in spite of a conscientious and orderly arrangement ofobservation after observation, of experiment upon experiment, withoutthe admission of logical loopholes, full data in regard to the natureof the phenomena is not forthcoming in such a case we may consideras actually proven by hypothesis what observation and systematicexperiment, continuous and logical, were intended to prove, andfailed however, this inductive hypothesis is alone entitled to beconsidered in medicine naturally, such an inductive hypothesis was notthought of by the ancients, as the inductive method of investigationwas generally quite unknown to them the process by which ancientmedicine usually attempted to find its hypothesis was by an argumentfrom analogy each and every point of resemblance, however superficial, between two phenomena was considered sufficient by the ancientnaturalists to warrant the assumption that analogous phenomena in themost various domains were most certainly proven to possess similarpoints of resemblance and upon the basis of such an insecure methodof deduction which, moreover, was selected entirely at the option ofthe observer the ancient investigator erected the boldest hypotheses thus, for instance, the atomic theory of leucippus and democritus isan hypothesis which rests upon the basis of a conclusion from analogy the motes which appear in the rays of the sun led these two ancientinvestigators to the conception that, like the writingicles of dustsporting in the air, the primary component writings of everything thatexists in the entire universe consisted of similar writingicles 2 2 lucretius, book 2, verse 113, sqq it appears that epicurus arrived at his theory of light according towhich, as is well known, images of things were brought to the senses bydelicate but absolutely objective small pictures which were detachedfrom the surface of things in a continuous current by the factthat thesis animals for instance, snakes shed their skins the theoryof humoral pathology, one of the most important advances in medicalscience, was based on a conclusion from analogy and arrived at by thedeductive method the diagnostico-theoretical lines in which antique medicine movedwere bound and this is the point of importance in this case to exerta determining influence upon medical criticism for medico-physicalcriticism can only appear in closest connection with the prevailingcondition of the respective sciences, being really nothing else buta precipitate from them thus the ancient physicians were compelledto take an entirely different position toward magical medicine thanwe moderns, educated in the school of inductive methods, have alwaystaken the probable and similar, the supposable and possible, in whichdeductive medicine found its data, working on the lines of argumentfrom analogy, were necessarily bound to find expression also in thecharacter of medical critique, and it was impossible, therefore, for the ancient physician to detect anything absurd or contrary toexperience in hypotheses which the practitioner of to-day at oncebrands as nonsensical and superstitious we are not in the least justified, therefore, in speaking disparaginglyof galen and alexander of tralles because they believed in magicalmedicine and applied it in their practise as no human being canjump out of his skin, so is he unable to get beyond the intellectualadvancement of his time as the ancient physicians were also unable todo this, accordingly they were believers in the magical medicine but there is still a second point which explains the remarkableposition taken by ancient physicians in relation to magicalmedicine namely, the fact that the conception of miracle and magicwere essentially different in the ancient world from what they are atpresent the belief in the interference of spirits and supernaturalbeings in terrestrial matters, and the manifestations of theirinfluence exerted in manifold ways essaytimes for good, essaytimesfor evil had been widely disseminated from the earliest times, andwe encounter them in all periods of classic antiquity this beliefin demons had become incorporated in the systems of thesis leadingphilosophers of antiquity now if the world were filled with demons thenatural consequence was that their activity would manifest itself invarious ways it was necessary, therefore, that man should always beprepared to experience manifestations which more or less violated thecustomary order of terrestrial happenings, and for this reason nothingthat could be styled a miracle really existed for him a miracle couldnot be conceived in its full modern sense until it was realized thatthe course of all natural phenomena was nothing but the expression ofeternal and changeless laws however, it was not until comparativelylate that this conception became generally disseminated. Thus, forinstance, it was considered as self-evident, even in the latest periodsof the middle ages and during the first beginnings of modern times, that divine influence could always, and actually did always, cause analteration in the course of the functions of the body in fact, thereis an amazingly large number of people even in our time who believethis, and for whom, therefore, the conception of miracles, especiallyof miraculous healing, is to-day on about the same level as that onwhich it stood in the time of galen and alexander of tralles thus we must admit that the ancient physicians were by no means belowthe standard of civilization and culture attained during their periodif they believed in the possibility of extraordinary cures effectedby means extraneous and unscientific in their treatment of the sick, and, accordingly, they supported such methods however, this beliefin miraculous medicines on the writing of the ancient physician wasalways restricted to certain limits it is true, the conception wasalways adhered to that this or that magical agency, or this or thatmagical action, might exert an influence upon the disease.