History

Order Online Research Paper


This appeared in a journal owned and controlled by thesecond largest state medical association of the country even granting that gentian may improve the appetite, how absurd itis to claim that this mixture “relieves congestion, ” “restores toneto weakened blood vessels, ” “gives aid to the absorptive processes, ”“reinforces cellular order online research paper nutrition, ” or increases vitality!. Neither the composition of gray glycerine tonic nor the clinicalevidence warrants the belief that it has any therapeutic value otherthan that due to the psychic effect of the bitter drug gentian physicians who have prescribed it have done so because of theadvertising this nostrum has been kept so constantly before the eyesof medical men that they think of gray glycerine tonic when theycannot remember the official drugs that may be indicated in the case the moral is that liberal advertising will sell anything it is recommended that gray glycerine tonic comp be declared noteligible for inclusion in new and nonofficial remedies on account ofconflict with rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 editorial note -- an old practice in hospitals-- happily now practicallyobsolete-- was to have certain stock mixtures prepared in bulk amongthese there was usually a so-called tonic mixture, used in a more orless haphazard manner when nothing in writingicular seemed indicated sucha stock mixture was used in the state hospital for the insane at utica, n y , during the thesis years that dr john p gray was superintendent from the early fifties to the early eighties, although it is verydoubtful whether he originated the mixture after the death of dr gray-- so the story runs-- one of his sons, with a writingner, formed thefirm of purdue frederick company, and began the exploitation of theelder dr gray name, in connection, presumably, with this stockpreparation as indicated in the council report, gray glycerinetonic comp -- and what an absurd name!. -- is simply a mixture of ordinarydrugs, requiring no skill whatever in compounding if there is aphysician living who cannot write a prescription offhand as good asthis formula, that physician should either go back to a medical schoolor change his vocation there is, and can be, no excuse for prescribingsuch a ready-made mixture, for every cross-roads drugstore has theingredients and any pharmacist worthy of the name could compound it among the scores of nostrums that disgrace the medical professionof this country, none is more typical of all that is inimical toscientific medicine, to the medical profession and above all to thepublic-- for, after all is said, it is the public that ultimately ishumbugged -- from the journal a m a , july 10, 1915 tongaline and ponca compound report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council, having considered “tongaline, ” “tongaline tablets, ”“tongaline and lithia tablets, ” “tongaline and quinine tablets” and“ponca compound tablets, ” found these preparations ineligible for newand nonofficial remedies and authorized publication of the followingreport w a puckner, secretary tongalinetongaline mellier drug co , st louis is a fancy name given to whatis essentially a sodium salicylate mixture the air of mystery createdby the name permits the manufacturers to make claims for the productwhich would be ludicrous if the medical profession was fully conversantwith the very ordinary character of the preparation tongaline receives its name from tonga, an inert, long-discardedmixture of various barks and herbs said to be gathered and preparedby fiji islanders its constituents evidently tend to vary withthe collector the history of the introduction of this indefinitecombination of simples is thus given in the journal, may 10, 1913 “a supply of the crude drug was carried to england by a man who had lived for a short time in the fiji islands and it was placed in the hands of a retail house in london this occurred about 1879 in 1880, two english physicians of repute published laudatory articles on the therapeutic value of tonga in neuralgia and rheumatism this created a demand for the drug which extended to the united states ”time showed that tonga was inert therapeutically, and authoritieson pharmacology now no longer notice it as the council previouslyreported, 12 the indefinite character of the mixture should, alone, be sufficient to exclude it from practical therapeutics during thetemporary popularity of tonga, the proprietary mixture tongaline wasput on the market for physicians’ use by the mellier drug company, st louis in this, tonga was named as the active ingredient thecommercial interests thus involved have faithfully nourished and keptalive the “tonga” myth 12 reports of the council on pharm and chem , 1912, p 40 in a recent advertising booklet, “the therapeutic properties ofthe ingredients of tongaline, ” the virtues of tonga, blue cohosh, colchicum, jaborandi and salicylic acid are discussed the label of arecently purchased bottle reads. “tongaline contains tonga, cimicifuga racemosa, salicylate of sodium the salicylic acid being made from pure natural oil colchicum and pilocarpin ”it will be noticed that tongaline is “made from the pure, natural oil ”in fact, the statement is repeated in red ink, in large letters runningacross the face of the label, thus emphasizing the alleged importanceof this assertion in this connection it is only necessary to recallthat it has been proved clinically, chemically and physiologically thatthere is absolutely no difference between the salicylic acid made fromthe natural oil and the synthetic the formula was thus commented on in the article previously quoted fromthe journal. “tongaline is essentially a preparation of sodium salicylate, the mellier drug company realized the impossibility of creating any marked demand for a nostrum unless it had essay real drugs in it-- hence the presence of the salicylates what the actual composition of tongaline is, no one but the manufacturers know at one time the following was given as the formula. Fluid tonga 30 grains extract of cimicifuga racemosa 20 grains sodium salicylate 10 grains pilocarpin salicylate 1/100 grain colchin salicylate 1/500 grain “these amounts refer to the quantity of drugs in each fluidram of the preparation whether the nostrum still has this composition we do not know, but assuming that it has, it is quite evident that sodium salicylate is the essential and active ingredient ”the therapeutic indications given on the label of the bottle are. “rheumatism, neuralgia, grippe, gout, nervous headache, sciatica, lumbago, malaria, tonsillitis, heavy colds, excess of uric acid, and wherever the use of the salicylates is indicated ”in a recent booklet this semisecret salicylate mixture is recommended, not only in conditions in which salicylates are indicated, but alsocombined with aconite for rheumatic fever, with benzoate of soda inthe treatment of “grippe, ” with potassium bromid in nervous headaches, with gelsemium, glycerin and whisky for “heavy colds, ” with ammoniumchlorid, stramonium and cimicifuga in “rheumatic dysmenorrhea, ” andeven with mercury biniodid as a treatment of syphilitic eruptions!. “when administered with good judgment, tongaline exerts a stimulating effect upon every organ of elimination.

1st woman, hung herself with apiece of sheep-net band. Cut down before death 2d man, hung withplough-string. Cut down in about six minutes 3d a heavy man 24 tardieu.

“narkine” in the issue ofoct 24, 1908, “hydrocyanate of iron-tilden” in the issue of june 19, 1909, and “febrisol, ” in the issue of june 29, 1912 the first twoarticles are reprinted in the latest 9th edition of “the propagandafor reform ”if we are accused of exhibiting undue levity in discussing atherapeutic problem, we can only answer that it is impossible toconsider seriously the charlie chaplins of the nostrum world -- fromthe journal a m a , feb 17, 1917 biniodol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryin accordance with the usages of the council, the report whichappears below along with the reports of the clinical investigationby drs cole and keidel upon which the recommendations of thereferee were based were sent to the manufacturer for comment thereply of the manufacturer contained no evidence which justified thecouncil in modifying the action already taken publication of thereport was therefore authorized w a puckner, secretary biniodol was submitted to the council by the manufacturer, charles c yarbrough, memphis, tenn the manufacturer claims the product is asolution of 1 per cent of red mercuric iodid and 2 75 per cent ofguaiacol in bland vegetable oil it is marketed with the implicationthat it is new and superior to other oil solutions of mercuric iodid for instance. “ it is a straight solution of this mercurial compound, as no alkaline iodide or other chemical is used to bring about the solution ” “ it is probably the first and only one-percent oil solution of straight mercury biniodide made in america ” the manufacturer, in a letter addressed to the secretary of the council, explains. “by straight solution, i mean that the solution of the red mercuric iodid is effected without the aid of any alkaline iodid or other chemicals biniodol was first offered early in 1912 ” “biniodol is, therefore, superior and much to be preferred to other mercurials used for like purposes it is highly active therapeutically, producing the desired effects, usually without the inevitable disadvantages of other mercurials it rarely causes salivation, diarrhea, or other symptoms of mercurial intolerance, even when pushed to full therapeutic effect and when given for a considerable period of time nor does it produce anemia ”the chemical laboratory of the american medical association found thatbiniodol contained 1 per cent of mercuric iodid and 2 5 per cent of guaiacol. Hence the composition is essentially as claimed it isnot true, however, that biniodol is the “first and only one-percentsolution of straight mercury biniodide made in america ” as shownin the journal a m a , dec 9, 1914, p 2247, formulas by lemaireand dunning for making a “straight” solution of mercuric iodid werepublished in this country in 1909 and 1910, respectively moreover, a1 per cent solution of mercuric iodid in oil is on the market and isdescribed in new and nonofficial remedies to determine whether or not biniodol is “superior and much to bepreferred to other mercurials used for like purposes, ” the councilsecured the cooperation of the dewritingment of dermatology andsyphilology of the western reserve university cooperating with thecleveland city hospital, and of the johns hopkins hospital eachreceived three samples, labeled respectively, 1, 2 and 3. 1 containedbiniodol. 2, a 1 per cent solution of mercuric iodid in oil. 3, asolution made up according to the formula of biniodol, namely, 1 percent of mercuric iodid and 2 5 per cent of guaiacol in oil all thesolutions were sterile the investigators were not informed whichpreparation was designated by the respective numbers, but they wereasked to use the preparations when intramuscular injections of a 1 percent oily solution of mercuric iodid were indicated, and to note whatdifferences, if any, were observed following the use of the differentsolutions regarding pain, discomfort, induration and any otherevidences of effects of the medicaments the cleveland investigator reports that the patients were more or lessconfused in their replies to inquiries and gave rather indefinite andconflicting answers after carefully tabulating the replies, however, the following summary resulted. 1 was worse than 2 or 3 in 6 paper 2 was worse than 1 or 3 in 5 paper 3 was worse than 2 or 1 in 1 case the report from johns hopkins records a series of 117 injectionsfollowed by the estimated reactions recorded below. 1 severe, 13.

After which the seed is quickly ripe, yet in its prime in may government and virtues the herb is appropriated to the planetjupiter, and the sign aries antonius musa, physician to the emperoraugustus cæsar, wrote a peculiar book of the virtues of this herb. Andamong other virtues saith of it, that it preserves the liver and bodiesof men from the danger of epidemical diseases, and from witchcraftalso. It helps those that loath and cannot digest their meat, thosethat have weak stomachs and sour belchings, or continual rising intheir stomachs, using it familiarly either green or dry. Either theherb, or root, or the flowers, in broth, drink, or meat, or made intoconserve, syrup, water, electuary, or powder, as every one may bestframe themselves unto, or as the time and season requires. Taken anyof the aforesaid ways, it helps the jaundice, falling sickness, thepalsy, convulsions, or shrinking of the sinews, the gout and thosethat are inclined to dropsy, those that have continual pains in theirheads, although it turn to phrensy the powder mixed with pure honeyis no less available for all sorts of coughs or colds, wheesing, orshortness of breath, distillations of thin rheum upon the lungs, which causes consumptions the decoction made with mead, and a littlepennyroyal, is good for those that are troubled with putrid agues, whether quotidian, tertian, or quartan, and to draw down and evacuatethe blood and humours, that by falling into the eyes, do hinder thesight. The decoction thereof made in wine and taken, kills the wormsin the belly, opens obstructions both of the spleen and liver. Curesstitches, and pains in the back and sides, the torments and gripingpains in the bowels, and the wind cholic. And mixed with honey purgesthe belly, helps to bring down women courses, and is of special usefor those that are troubled with the falling down of the mother, andpains thereof, and causes an easy and speedy delivery of women inchild-birth it helps also to break and expel the stone, either inthe bladder or kidneys the decoction with wine gargled in the mouth, eases the tooth-ache it is commended against the stinging and bitingof venomous serpents, or mad dogs, being used inwardly and appliedoutwardly to the place a dram of the powder of betony taken with alittle honey in essay vinegar, does wonderfully refresh those that areover wearied by travelling it stays bleeding at the mouth or nose, and helps those that void or spit blood, and those that are burstenor have a rupture, and is good for such as are bruised by any fall orotherwise the green herb bruised, or the juice applied to any inwardhurt, or outward green wound in the head or body, will quickly healand close it up. As also any vein or sinews that are cut, and willdraw forth any broken bone or splinter, thorn or other things got intothe flesh it is no less profitable for old sores or filthy ulcers, yea, tho’ they be fistulous and hollow but essay do advise to put alittle salt for this purpose, being applied with a little hog lard, it helps a plague sore, and other boils and pushes the fumes of thedecoction while it is warm, received by a funnel into the ears, easesthe pains of them, destroys the worms and cures the running sores inthem the juice dropped into them does the same the root of betonyis displeasing both to the taste and stomach, whereas the leaves andflowers, by their sweet and spicy taste, are comfortable both to meatand medicine these are essay of the thesis virtues anthony muse, an expert physician for it was not the practice of octavius cæsar to keep fools abouthim, appropriates to betony. It is a very precious herb, that iscertain, and most fitting to be kept in a man house, both in syrup, conserve, oil, ointment and plaister the flowers are usually conserved the beech tree in treating of this tree, you must understand, that i mean the greenmast beech, which is by way of distinction from that other small roughsort, called in sussex the smaller beech, but in essex horn-beam i suppose it is needless to describe it, being already too well knownto my countrymen place it grows in woods amongst oaks and other trees, and in parks, forests, and chases, to feed deer. And in other places to fatten swine time it blooms in the end of april, or beginning of may, for themost writing, and the fruit is ripe in september government and virtues it is a plant of saturn, and thereforeperforms his qualities and proportion in these operations the leavesof the beech tree are cooling and binding, and therefore good to beapplied to hot swellings to discuss them. The nuts do much nourish suchbeasts as feed thereon the water that is found in the hollow placesof decaying beeches will cure both man and beast of any scurf, orrunning tetters, if they be washed therewith.

  • essay expert
  • how to i get help with my essay
  • psat essay
  • essay format template
  • buy business plan
  • buy persuasive essay
  • number 1 ranked research paper writing service
  • the essay writer
  • write my paper please
  • illustrative essay
  • division and classification essay
  • essay on integrity
  • essay about success
  • best custom essay service
  • college application essay writing service
  • write my school assignment
  • resume writing services
  • essay on the american dream
  • where can i buy a comparison essay
  • college essay length
  • freedom writers essay

“formamint is pentamethanallactose, 5 choh c₁₂h₂₂o₁₁ it is an original combination of formaldehyde with lactose, a definite chemical compound the formaldehyde molecule is locked up in it until solution in the saliva takes place, when the formaldehyde is liberated in its nascent state order online research paper and is therefore active without being irritant ”furthermore the makers contend that this new chemical compound isentirely harmless for example, daus, 5 in an article on “thedisinfectant action of formic aldehyde on mucous membranes, ” declares. “no indication of irritant or other injurious action made its appearance even after large doses the urine remained free from albumin and sugar ”such statements as these are found in the advertising literature. “formamint tablets are absolutely harmless and innocuous, even to little children ” “when dissolved in the saliva, formamint tablets liberate slowly nascent formaldehyde in a most active yet non-irritant form ”they maintain that formamint is not only absolutely harmless, butactually beneficial to the tissues it may be used “to tone up andstrengthen the tissues, prevent hoarseness, and allay irritation insingers, public speakers, ” etc the claims urged as to its germicidal power are indeed glittering this“new chemical compound” is claimed to liberate formaldehyd in essay newand peculiar condition which, while it has a soothing and tonic effecton the cells of the human tissues, can at the same time quickly killany form of bacterial life “dissolving readily, it releases its germicidal, antiseptic qualities, which impregnate the saliva and are carried naturally and easily around the mouth and in the deepest crevices of the throat-- destroying the germs where they are causing the mischief formamint prevents and destroys infectious germ life in a soothing grateful way ” “in the saliva it frees a germicide, fatal to germs but harmless to the most delicate membranes and flowing into every tiny corner of the gums, tonsils and throat, into places where no gargle ever reaches, it most effectively disinfects the throat ”the claims as to the preventive and curative effects of the preparationcover a large portion of the category of human ailments and distresses the following quotations indicate essay of its supposed properties. “ it is therefore self-evident that formamint should be looked upon as a necessary writing of the treatment of all forms of tonsillitis ” “the value of formamint is equally great in diphtheric tonsillitis, or as a prophylactic ” “the extraordinary success which i had with formamint in a school epidemic of scarlet fever during may and june, 1907, was the determining factor which induced me to abandon the use of inhalations, gargles, local applications in the treatment of diseases of the throat, and to use formamint exclusively for the future ” “there are naturally thesis similar conditions in which formamint may be used as a prophylactic, notably scarlet fever, mumps, streptococcal and staphylococcal sore throats, ‘milk outbreaks’ of sore throat, drain throats, hospital throats, and the like ” “formamint tablets are indicated in angina, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, stomatitis, gingivitis, glossitis, ulceration, spongy or bleeding gums, pyorrhea alveolaris, ‘smoker sore throat, ’ abscess or boils, etc ” “as a prophylactic against diphtheria, scarlet fever, influenza, measles, epidemic poliomyelitis, and other pathogenic micro-organisms to neutralize putrefaction products in and about the teeth, correct fermentative processes, deodorize and purify the breath, etc ” “to tone up, and strengthen the tissues, prevent hoarseness and allay irritation in singers, public speakers, neutralize the effects of dust-infection or disinfect the saliva or sputum in influenza, tuberculosis, etc ”one man declares that along with specific constitutional treatment he“had the best results from the use of formamint tablets” in a case ofsyphilitic ulceration of the tongue in short, formamint is recommended for the treatment or preventionof almost everything, from a bad breath to such grave conditions asscarlet fever, diphtheria and tuberculosis, conditions in which adelay in proper treatment-- for instance, in diphtheria, a failure toadminister antitoxin-- may result in the death of the patient a series of investigations was therefore undertaken in order todiscover whether the extravagant claims regarding the germicidal powerof formamint could be verified experimental datatwo fifty-cent bottles of wulfing formamint were purchased in theopen market and were kept well stoppered to prevent deterioration qualitative tests showed the presence of formaldehyd and the amount wasdetermined quantitatively by the hydrogen peroxid method as given bysutton 23 the results were respectively, 1 99 per cent and 2 03 percent of formaldehyd 23 sutton. Volumetric analysis, edition 10, p 390 illustration.