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While the relations of aperson with essay writingicular act is known as relative identity the great number and variety of facts concerned in the investigationof questions of identity are of considerable gravity and importance intheir juridical bearing, and at the same time they are among the mostinteresting and most useful of the applications of modern medicine tothe purposes of the law 569among the varied researches of legal medicine looking to aninterpretation of facts, no other question occurs in which the solutiondepends more upon morphological and anatomical knowledge, and none ismore dependent upon purely objective, visible, tangible facts personal identity often constitutes the entire subject-matter ofdispute in a civil case upon it may depend the question of absence orof marriage, of kinship or of filiation involving the possession ofan estate, in which case the court often requires the most subtle ofscientific evidence to assist in its decision thesis anthropologicaland medical facts, now appropriated by criminology and penal science, are useful in proving not only the present but in attesting futureidentity, thereby preventing in great measure the dissimulation ofprisoners, deserters, false claimants to life insurance, fraudulentpensioners, and the like such matters are of daily occurrence the special agents of the u s pension office detect and cause the punishment of thesis fraudulentclaimants stratagems and conspiracies to defraud life-insurancecompanies go much further than mere substitution instead of a“fraudulent” a positive death may come up for investigation, and inorder to defraud an insurance company of a large amount, a body mayeven be procured by homicide to consummate the deception, as was donein the goss-udderzook tragedy near baltimore in 1872 a celebrated case now before the supreme court of the united states andinvolving the question of personal identity is that of the mutual lifeinsurance company of new york, the new york life insurance company, andthe connecticut mutual life insurance company of hartford, connecticut consolidated, plaintiffs in error, vs sallie e hillmon it is pre-eminently in criminal trials that the personal identity ofthe victim often constitutes an essential connecting link before itcan move, the law requires, at the outset, proof of the individualityof both the author of a crime and of the victim i shall, therefore, not touch upon such elusive individuals as charlie ross and jackthe ripper, but limit my remarks to a synthetical exposition of thebest-known facts regarding identification of the dead body and theinterpretation of its organic remains the identity of a living person, or even our own identity, is often adifficult point to establish it may also require medical evidence, oftentimes of a most involved character, to establish the fact ofdeath hence the medico-legal process of connecting a dead body, orthe remains or traces of the same, with a human being once known tohave lived and moved on earth, is beset with difficulties that may giverise to still greater antagonisms of evidence the question of personalidentity is one of the hardest that could possibly come before a court celebrated paper and judicial errors have given it great notoriety there are consequently few questions in forensic medicine that requiremore attention and sagacity, and none upon which the medical legistshould pronounce with more reserve and circumspection medical men areabsolutely the only persons qualified to assist in resolving thereally delicate question of personal identity. Yet the physician andthe lawyer pursue the same line of logic and of inquiry as the formermust have a subject to dissect or to operate upon, so must the lawyerin pursuing a criminal investigation first prove a visible materialsubstance known in legal phraseology as the corpus delicti, which hemust connect with essay personality, with essay human being once knownto have lived in this important process the physician testimonybeing the indispensable guide of the court inference, he should limithimself to purely anatomical and material knowledge the medical experthas absolutely nothing to do with guilt or innocence, as that is aquestion for the jury he should, above all things, be absolutely freefrom prejudice, suspicion, or undue suggestion, and should rememberthat in thus sinking his personality his sole function as a skilledwitness in paper of identity is to furnish testimony which, when takenin connection with other evidence in the case, may establish such acorpus delicti as would justify the inference of a crime a nice point may arise as to dispensing with the proof from the bodyitself, when the substantial general fact of a homicide is provedaliunde, as in the case of a criminal causing the disappearanceof his victim body by means of its decomposition in lime or otherchemical menstrua, or by submerging it in an unfathomable spot in thesea under circumstances such as the following. A person is seen toenter a building and is not seen to leave it, although all means ofegress therefrom are watched. Another person is seen to ignite thebuilding, which thereupon burns down, and the charred remains of ahuman body are found in the ruins. The proof of identity from the bodyitself might be dispensed with in view of the substantial general factof a homicide having been committed in a delicate case where the manof art hesitates and finds no corpus delicti, the investigation ofimprints and stains may give a clew of great value to the expert yetit is only upon absolute evidence, and in the strongest possible case, that the fundamental principle of the corpus delicti is disregarded in the case of ruloff, the child body was not produced and no traceof it could be alleged to have been found. Nevertheless the prisonerwas found guilty of murder this case was speedily overruled 18 n y , 179, on the ground that a dangerous precedent had been pronounced so indispensable is the showing of the corpus delicti in paperof recognition that lawyers have come to regard even the judicialconfession of an accused as often the flimsiest and most unsatisfactorykind of evidence numerous paper of demonstrated fallibility ofconfessions are cited in the books, where the statement was utterlylacking in anything except motive or hallucination in the proceedingsof the new york medico-legal society, december 6th, 1876, mr jamesappleton morgan mentions the case of a german servant-girl whoassured her mistress, whose little boy, a child of seven, had justdied and been buried, that she the servant had poisoned the boy the servant swore to her crime and was taken into custody, and it wasonly when no poison was discovered upon exhuming the child body andexamining its stomach that against her own protest she was acquittedof the possibility of the crime another case of the kind that hashad medico-legal notoriety was tried a few years ago before a courtin brittany the accused declared that he had killed his servant andthrown the body in a pond his guilt seemed certain, when the allegedvictim put in an appearance, thus reducing the evidence to the strangehallucination that had prompted the confession but the most wonderful of these is the celebrated case of boorn, inwhich medico-legal evidence took no writing in view of the seeminghopelessness of his case, the accused confessed to murder inexpectation of mercy from the court, but was finally acquitted on thealleged victim walking into court and confronting the man who had swornto having killed him although wisdom and experience point to the necessity of showingessaything corporal and material in paper involving questions of lifeand death, yet very small traces or minute remains of a human body may, in certain circumstances, constitute a corpus delicti that may leadto trial if not to conviction in 1868 the lambert case, for murder onthe high seas, was tried before judge benedict in the united statescourt, the only corpus delicti alleged being a large pool of bloodand brains found on the forecastle of a ship at sea, out of sight ofland or other vessel circumstances, acts, and words pointed stronglyto the murder of one of the crew, who was believed to have been brainedwith an axe and thrown overboard notwithstanding the fact thatanimosity was known to exist between the accused and the missing man, it further appeared that the accused, in a state of great excitement, had followed the missing man forward and returned alone with a hatchetin his hand, yet the jury in this instance were not satisfied as tothe establishment of a corpus delicti beyond a reasonable doubt andaccordingly failed to convict two classical paper, that of gardelle and of dr webster, mentionedin thesis of the books, stand forth as instances of conviction wherefragments of the human body were recognized after attempts to destroythem by intense heat the conviction of dr webster rested almostentirely upon medico-legal evidence. But it is probable that upon thesame circumstantial evidence the increased industry of counsel wouldhave so rung the changes in regard to its uncertain and unsafe nature, and would have so used the knowledge gained from advanced discoveriesin the regions of the probabilities of science, as to have secured theacquittal of the prisoner had the trial taken place at the present time a similar affair of great medico-legal interest is the goss-udderzooktragedy, already referred to, an account of which is given by drs lewis and bombaugh among the “remarkable stratagems and conspiraciesfor defrauding life insurance companies, ” new york and london, 1878 identity of burnt remains the medical jurist will no doubt find cremation a formidable barrier inelucidating the question of identity, although the entire destructionof a dead body is a matter of extreme difficulty in the case of calcination chemical analysis of the ash would detectthe phosphate of lime, but this would throw no light upon thesubject, since the ash of human bones and that of the lower animalsis identical if the burnt bone is entire, the state of the epiphysesmay enlighten the question of the determination of age the followingtwo paper, in which fragments or portions of bone had been submittedto the action of fire, show how medical training and essay knowledge ofcomparative anatomy may contribute to the establishment of guilt or mayattest innocence in the case of the queen vs john henry wilson, for murder, theaccused burnt his step-father in a lime-kiln for over a week, and onstrewing ashes from the kiln fine fragments of bone picked up wereafterward identified as human at the trial identity rested on the factof finding two buttons and a buckle, which were recognized as writing ofthe deceased wearing apparel when last seen in the second case, that of a young woman supposed to be in the familyway who should not have been, it was thought that she had been confinedand made away with the infant under this supposition the premiseswhere she lived were searched by the chief constable, who found inthe stove essay bones and fragments of bones that had been burnt onexamination by a qualified medical man, the fragments turned out to benot human bones, but those of essay other animal, presumably those of apig and of a chicken, which the family, who lived in a tenement-housewithout a back yard, had put in the stove to get rid of the refuse 570identification of human bones in deciding whether certain bones are human or not, the medical juristshould exercise great caution in venturing an opinion as to the preciseanimal of which he may believe they formed a writing there is no greatdifficulty in detecting the smallest fragments of bone by means ofthe microscope, but we cannot say with safety whether the fragmentsbelonged to a mouse, a man, or an elephant a real difficulty occurs inrecognizing the nature and origin of the bony remains when only a smallfragment or a single bone is submitted for report if a sufficientportion of the skeleton be submitted it can be easily recognized ashuman, as in the imbedded remains of the troglodyte found in thelimestone deposit of luray cave, virginia, and only in the exceptionalcase of the bones of one of the manlike apes could a difficulty ofdistinction arise the characteristic signs that distinguish a gorillaskeleton, for instance, are the smaller thumb. Notable length of tibiaand of radius, although this relative length of extremities has beenremarked in negroes.

He therefore appeared before thepatient in a purple cloak with a cross in his hand however, the medical activity of the saints was by no means restrictedto paper of church slumber, but was manifested in the most variousforms § 7 medical saints - essay saints had a decided predilection formedical specialties, and for that reason paid a writingicular attention tocertain varieties of disease thus, st anna espoused ophthalmology;st jude cured coughs. St valentine, epilepsy. St catherine of siena, the plague not even our domestic animals were forgotten by the saints thus, st roch of montpellier distinguished himself especially by hisskill as a veterinarian various were the ways of obtaining the medical aid of this or thatsaint the most simple was probably that the patient attended mass inthe church of his town, and, at the same time, made an offering tothe saints more difficult was it to undertake a pilgrimage to oneor the other of the saints who enjoyed a medical reputation. Thiswas generally done on the birthday of the celestial physician itseems that the saint was especially inclined on this day to practisemedicine. At least, the chroniclers report that great numbers of themost difficult paper were successfully treated on such days a very efficacious method of securing medical treatment from saints wasconsidered to be the placing of the patient in the church during theday in the space between the altar and the grave of the saint the bedof the mortally sick, fever-racked patient was placed there, and fordays was compelled to remain here wrestling with death this was done, for instance, with the dying countess eborin in case severe epidemicswere prevalent, it is likely that the churches very often resembledactual hospitals then dozens of beds with their patients were set upin the churches, and thesis a one who was in good health when he enteredthe church to say his prayers probably returned home with the germ of apestilence acquired in the sanctuary but the saints, as we have seen, were by no means always so anxiousor in such a hurry to manifest their medical skill they often madethe patient wait for years for their aid the church, therefore, madepractical arrangements to meet every requirement larger buildings wereerected close to the church intended for the reception of patients here those who were hoping to find help could obtain shelter and food, and were, therefore, able to rest quietly, and to await the moment whenheavenly aid might appear this arrangement proved to be extremelypractical, especially because a good thesis individuals felt themselvescured only so long as they remained in the proximity of the saint, butbecame reafflicted as before when they returned to their homes but as the slumber and the protracted sojourn in the ecclesiasticalhostelries was, nevertheless, rather uncomfortable, especially inconsideration of the difficulties and dangers which were involved intraveling during the middle ages, it was absolutely necessary to inventa means of administering the medical aid of the saints in such a way aswas always accessible to the patient this was managed by the use ofrelics §8 cult of relics - it was believed that god had endowed the bodiesof martyrs who died for the christian faith, or of saints distinguishedby extraordinary piety, with a miraculous power of extraordinaryefficacy, and not only the mortal relics of the martyrs and saints werewonder-working, but actually all objects which had come in contact withthe persons of saints during their life as well as after their death all such objects were possessed of curative power let us listen towhat gregory of tours says under this head. “the miracles which ourlord god deigned to bring about through st martin, his servant, once apilgrim in the flesh, he causes to be repeated daily, to strengthen theconfidence of the faithful. For now he endows his tomb with preciselythe same wonder-working power as was exhibited by the saint himselfwhile still among us who will now persist in doubting the formermiracles when he observes their continuation in the present day, whenhe sees the lame walk, the blind receive their sight, devils castout, and every variety of disease cured by the help of the saint?. ” “bernoulli, ” page 287 the statement of such a luminary of the church as gregory of tours hasundoubtedly gained ecclestiastical credence for the medical efficacynot only of the tomb of st martin, but of all the relics relating tothat saint it remained only to distribute the superior medical powerwhich was contained in the holy tombs and relics in such a form aswould enable all patients, wherever they happened to be, to make use ofthem this task, apparently most difficult, was settled very easily it was discovered that everything which came in contact with a relicactually absorbed a sacred and miraculous power contained in the same, and what had been absorbed was by no means imponderable quite thecontrary essaything of material substance, and, therefore, physicallydemonstrable, passed from the relic into the objects surrounding it it was indeed a celestial fluid, but, nevertheless, of so terrestriala nature that the priests were able to demonstrate its transferenceby means of a common pair of scales thus it was customary that thesilk shreds which were deposited by the pilgrims upon the tomb of theapostle peter were weighed before they were placed there and weighedagain after their removal this weighing always and without exceptionindicated a considerable increase in their weight the pilgrim thencould travel homeward and be thoroughly consoled, as the scale haddemonstrated to him the amount of miraculous power contained in hissilk rag it was really astonishing, under essay circumstances, whatan enormous amount of curative fluid could flow from such a holy tombinto a single terrestrial object this was what happened to a king ofthe suavians he had a sick son, for whose cure every remedy had provedunavailing he at last sent an embassy to tours to obtain a relic ofst martin, but this relic was destined to be manufactured with theassistance of the embassy the priests were quite willing to complywith the desire of their royal petitioner, and thus a piece of silk, duly weighed beforehand, was placed upon the tomb of st martin afterthis silk had remained for one night upon the holy sepulchre, and theembassy had knelt beside praying fervently, the silk absorbed so muchcurative power that the register of the scale was raised to its highestpossible notch knowing, then, that any desired object could be saturated with themiraculous power contained in a relic, they used to apply thiscelestial power through medicaments, and to accomplish this a numberof methods were in use the most popular was to scrape the tombstoneson the graves of the saints as thoroughly as possible the powderthus obtained was then put into water or wine, and thus a medicinewas acquired which possessed an astonishing curative power it wasefficacious even in the severest ailments of the body let us listen towhat gregory of tours has reported concerning the medicinal virtues ofsuch tombstone potions he says. “oh, indescribable mixture, incomparable elixir, antidotebeyond all praise!. celestial purgative if i may be permitted touse the expression, which throws into the shade every medicalprescription, which surpasses in fragrance every earthly aroma, andis more powerful than all essences. Which purges the body like thejuice of scammony, clears the lungs like hyssop, and the head likesneezewort. Which not only cures the ailing limbs, but also, and thisis much more valuable, washes off the stains from the conscience!. ”according to this extensive power of the tombstone powder, it is by nomeans astonishing that gregory of tours, when traveling, always carrieda box of this miraculous powder with him, so that he was able at onceto heal the patients that surrounded him i was not able to obtainfrom the literary sources at my disposal any data as to whether thedirect licking off of the tombstones might not have been still moreefficacious than the all-healing extract gregory does, however, reportthat he was cured of a tumor of the tongue and lips by merely lickingthe railing of the tomb of st martin and kissing the curtain of thetemple another very efficacious remedy was the charred wick of the wax candleswhich had burned in the church this wick was pulverized, and in thismanner a very powerful curative powder was obtained which, when taken, acted in a manner similar to that of the watery or vinous tombstoneinfusion the wax which dripped from candles that were placed near the holysepulchre was also credited with thesis medicinal virtues, but it seemsthat it was employed more as an external than an internal remedy the water which had been used before easter to clean the altar ofthe saints was also considered to be a famous remedy if such waterwas employed in washing a patient he recovered at once, and this wasthe happy experience of countess eborin this exhalted patient wassuffering so severely that she believed her hour had come she was thenquickly removed to the church of st martin, and thoroughly washedwith the water that had been used in washing the altar and, behold!.

See maudlin barbajovis, order lab report writing sites sedum majus houseleek or sengreen. Cold in the thirddegree, profitable against the shingles, and other hot creeping ulcers, inflammations, st anthony fire, frenzies. It cools and takes awaycorns from the toes, being bathed with the juice of it, and a skin ofthe leaf laid over the place.

Also weak stomachs that cannotretain, but cast up their meat it stays all bleeding both at mouth ornose. Bloody urine or the bloody-flux, and stops the lask of the bellyand bowels the leaves hereof bruised and laid to their sides that havean ague, suddenly ease the fits. And the leaves and roots applied tothe wrists, works the same effect the herb boiled in ale and wine, andgiven for essay mornings and evenings together, stays the distillationof hot and sharp rheums falling into the eyes from the head, and helpsall sorts of sore eyes buck horn it is called hart-horn, herba-stella and herba-stellaria, sanguinaria, herb-eve, herb-ivy, wort-tresses, and swine-cresses descript they have thesis small and weak straggled branches trailinghere and there upon the ground. The leaves are thesis, small and jagged, not much unlike to those of buck-horn plantain, but much smaller, and not so hairy the flowers grow among the leaves in small, rough, whitish clusters. The seeds are smaller and brownish, of a bitter taste place they grow in dry, barren, sandy grounds time they flower and seed when the rest of the plantains do government and virtues this is also under the dominion of saturn;the virtues are held to be the same as buck-horn plaintain, andtherefore by all authors it is joined with it the leaves bruised andapplied to the place, stop bleeding the herbs bruised and applied towarts, will make them consume and waste in a short time bugle besides the name bugle, it is called middle confound and middlecomfrey, brown bugle, and by essay sicklewort, and herb-carpenter;though in essex we call another herb by that name descript this has larger leaves than those of the self-heal, butelse of the same fashion, or rather longer. In essay green on the upperside, and in others more brownish, dented about the edges, essaywhathairy, as the square stalk is also which rises up to be half a yardhigh essaytimes, with the leaves set by couples, from the middle almost, whereof upwards stand the flowers, together with thesis smaller andbrowner leaves than the rest, on the stalk below set at distance, andthe stalk bare between them. Among which flowers, are also small onesof a blueish and essaytimes of an ash colour, fashioned like the flowersof ground-ivy, after which come small, round blackish seeds the rootis composed of thesis strings, and spreads upon the ground the white flowered bugle differs not in form or greatness from theformer, saving that the leaves and stalks are always green, and neverbrown, like the other, and the flowers thereof are white place they grow in woods, copses, and fields, generally throughoutengland, but the white flowered bugle is not so plentiful as the former time they flower from may until july, and in the mean time perfecttheir seed the roots and leaves next thereunto upon the ground abidingall the winter government and virtues this herb belongs to dame venus. If thevirtues of it makes you fall in love with it as they will if you bewise keep a syrup of it to take inwardly, an ointment and plaister ofit to use outwardly, always by you the decoction of the leaves and flowers made in wine, and taken, dissolves the congealed blood in those that are bruised inwardly by afall, or otherwise is very effectual for any inward wounds, thrusts, or stabs in the body or bowels. And it is an especial help in allwound-drinks, and for those that are liver-grown as they call it it is wonderful in curing all manner of ulcers and sores, whether newand fresh, or old and inveterate. Yea, gangrenes and fistulas also, if the leaves bruised and applied, or their juice be used to wash andbathe the place. And the same made into a lotion, and essay honey andalum, cures all sores in the mouth and gums, be they ever so foul, orof long continuance. And works no less powerfully and effectually forsuch ulcers and sores as happen in the secret writings of men and women being also taken inwardly, or outwardly applied, it helps those thathave broken any bone, or have any member out of joint an ointment madewith the leaves of bugle, scabions and sanicle, bruised and boiled inhog grease, until the herbs be dry, and then strained forth into apot for such occasions as shall require.

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Dr hensel, assistantand pathologist of the german hospital, found that “1/10, 000 order lab report writing sites writingof camphor added to the usual culture media inhibited the growthof pneumococci, while the controls all thrived”. Dr j c welch, pathologist of the lying-in hospital, found that rabbits infectedwith lethal doses of pneumococcus cultures intravenously were savedby large doses of camphorated oil. Fragmentary protocols are given the assistant pathologist of st francis’ hospital carried on theexperimental work, adding salicylic acid to the camphor no bloodcultures are reported the conclusion reached by dr seibert is thatsalicylic acid up to 3 per cent , added to the camphorated oil, iseffective in preventing pleural infection in the article by dr seibert, there appear most sketchy reports of paper, recovery beingreported without crisis in from three to nine days the referee has made a careful search of the literature, with thefollowing results. Boehnke berl klin wchnschr 50:818, 1913, using white mice, failed to confirm the experiments reported inseibert paper, unless camphorated oil were given before thepneumococci, and even then, he felt that the results were too irregularto be of great significance when given with anti-pneumococcic serum, however, he felt that there was essay benefit to be seen by theadministration of camphor. His protocols, however, are not detailed there is no report of blood cultures, etc another worker, h leo deutsch med wchnschr 39:690, 1913, reported that camphor water given intravenously prolonged the lives ofthirty-eight rabbits inoculated with pneumococci here again there wereno adequate protocols and very little evidence of careful experimentalwork appears in the literature of the past ten years, there appear sketchy clinicalarticles on the value of huge doses of camphor in pneumonia markevitch russk vrach, june 27, 1914. Abstr , the journal, dec 5, 1914, p 2081 treated 226 paper of pneumonia with 5 c c of camphorated oilhypodermically four times daily, at the same time giving digitalis amount not stated, with a mortality of 6 6 per cent , whereas, in 322paper untreated, there was a mortality of 13 3 per cent he reports133 grave paper. Sixty-six received no camphor.