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The new edition ofthe formulary, in fact, contains a large number of drugs which had beendropped from the u s pharmacopeia viii the principle of making usethe sole criterion for admission to the pharmacopeia, however, on thewhole carried the day it has not been strictly observed. Good resultsfrom the efforts of the medical contingent are to be observed here andthere, as in the deletion of elixir of the phosphates of iron, quininand strychnin and of emulsion of cod liver oil with hypophosphites that these instances were not expressions of policy on the writing of thecommittee on revision, but merely deviations from policy, may be seenby a glance at the contents of the new pharmacopeia these includesubstances which have been shown to be inert, like the hypophosphites calcium, potassium and sodium hypophosphites, complex and obsoletemixtures, like the compound syrup of sarsaparilla, and drugs whichhave been tried and found wanting, like saw palmetto berries evensubstances seldom used by the medical profession, but chiefly oraltogether by the public, like sassafras, hops and peppermint theherb, are standardized and made official it seems difficult todiscover any principle by which the sphere of the pharmacopeia may bedefinitely marked off from that of the national formulary there isone great advantage in specifying u s p drugs and preparations:physicians who do so invoke legal standards of purity and identity theonly way to be sure of obtaining substances of therapeutic efficiency, however, is to exercise discrimination the pharmacopeia is no guide being prepared mainly by pharmacists to meet the needs of pharmacists, the pharmacopeia of course contains much matter of little interest tophysicians and entirely foreign to scientific medicine -- editorialfrom the journal a m a , sept 2, 1916 303 j a m a 67:764 sept 2 1916 review of ninth revisionthe ninth revision of the united states pharmacopeia, which has beenin the hands of the committee of revision for more than six years, hasjust appeared as was to be expected, the desire of medical men on thecommittee of revision to have therapeutic value made a requirement foradmission to the pharmacopeia has not been fully realized. It remainsa book of standards for therapeutically good, bad and indifferentremedies among the drugs of little or no therapeutic importanceor value are musk, arnica, eriodictyon, quassia, pumpkin seed, sawpalmetto berries, sarsaparilla and couch grass thesis superfluousdrugs and preparations are included for instance, of the nine formsof quinin described quinin alkaloid, bisulphate, dihydrochlorid, hydrobromid, hydrochlorid, salicylate, sulphate and tannate, and quininand urea hydrochlorid, at least four might well have been eliminated two insoluble forms the alkaloid and the tannate, two soluble forms the hydrochlorid and quinin and urea hydrochlorid, and a moderatelysoluble form the sulphate are all that could reasonably be demandedby even the most extreme writingisans of the doctrine of “pharmaceuticnecessity ” further, the use of quinin salicylate for its salicylicacid content and of quinin hydrobromid for its bromid content isunscientific the inclusion of these salts in the pharmacopeia isregrettable those interested in the promotion of rational therapy will also regretthe inclusion of a number of fluidextracts of violently toxic drugs, such as aconite and gelsemium dose 1/2 minim each, belladonna root, digitalis, nux vomica and ipecac dose 1 minim each, and lobelia dose2-1/2 minims the more diluted forms, the tinctures, of these drugsare preferable the inclusion of such fluidextracts in the pharmacopeiais playing into the hands of certain pharmaceutical manufacturers, whorecommend the tincture be prepared from fluidextracts-- an unscientificprocedure the efforts of the medical members of the committee, however, havenot been entirely fruitless of the articles described in the u s pharmacopeia viii, 243 have been deleted. Sixty-seven new articles havebeen added the loss of 167 titles may be set down as a gain moreover, most of the new substances give promise of therapeutic usefulness thirty-six are taken over from new and nonofficial remedies. Nineteenare substances which are in the edition of useful drugs now in thepress it cannot be said, however. That all of the additions have beenjudiciously selected it is an infelicitous time to add calcium andsodium glycerophosphate just when grave doubts of their therapeuticefficiency are being felt the addition of the extracts of aconite, hydrastis and viburnum prunifolium is likewise unfortunate all aresuperfluous preparations, the first because a drug so powerful thatan average dose of the extract is only 10 mg or 1/6 grain is bettergiven in the form of tincture. The second because hydrastis is a drugof uncertain value, already represented by three preparations, and thethird because viburnum prunifolium has been discarded and discreditedby the best therapeutic authorities it must be accounted clear gain, on the other hand, that the deletions include thesis inert, obsoleteor superfluous substances like bismuth citrate, kaolin cataplasm, pipsissewa, coca leaves, ladyslipper, wahoo, cotton root bark, compound acetanilid powder and compound syrup of hypophosphites, not tomention nine salts of iron and thirty-eight fluidextracts of variousdrugs wines, unmedicated and medicated, whisky and brandy are alsoamong the articles dropped a number of new features are introduced, such as microscopic standardsfor powdered drugs, standard abbreviations for titles, the use ofthe term “mil” instead of “cubic centimeter, ” and a chapter each onsterilization, diagnostic reagents, biologic assays, electrolyticdetermination of metals and the determination of alcohol, the meltingpoint, the boiling point and the congealing point the chemical nomenclature is substantially the same as that adopted inthe previous revision. So is the nomenclature of drugs the addition ofofficial abbreviations for the latin titles of drugs will doubtless befound a useful feature less commendable is the change from the familiar “cc ” to “mil ” theterm “cubic centimeter” is so thoroughly established and so widelyused, wherever the metric system is employed, that it cannot beexpected that it will be universally displaced by the word “mil ” thelatter is therefore only a superfluous synonym, and as such out ofharmony with the simplicity of the metric system perhaps it may evenbe taken for the abbreviation of “millimeter, ” “milligram” or otherwords derived from “mille, ” which would be equally entitled to the sameabbreviation -- book review in the journal a m a , sept 2, 1916 physician stock in prescription productsthe letter that follows comes from a physician who feels that he has agrievance regarding a company in which he holds stock:“in 1914, i bought essay stock of the -- -- -- -- company, and in 1917bought essay more stock in the same company i notice that the companyadvertises in the journal of the american medical association, and ibelieve it does this not so much to acquaint the medical professionwith its product, as to acquaint physicians with its name in order thatits stock salesmen can keep on unloading more stock to members of themedical profession “the company gets the doctors’ money through the sale of stocks, itgets its product on the market with the doctors’ assistance and throughtheir influence, and it looks to me as if the doctors were getting verylittle in return, as the dividend checks have been few and far betweensince i have known anything of the company “it is not my idea to criticize the product. But i do believe and feelthat the stockholders are entitled to a square deal from a companywhich in turn is expecting so much from them, and again i feel that thepublishers of the journal should be made aware of these conditions sothat they do not either consciously or unconsciously foster a concernthat is depriving the physician of his hard-earned money “if this letter is unfair, i am willing to be shown otherwise kindlypublish it in the journal, omitting my name and address ”the company to which our correspondent refers put out a proprietaryproduct prescribed by physicians and used by the public essay years agothe company in question advertised its product in the journal until itsstock-selling scheme was brought to the attention of the journal.

Hanging is usually suicidal lesser878 states that for threeyears, 1876-79, there were admitted to the berlin morgue 274 bodies of“hanged, ” of which 272 were suicidal. 2 infants of three and eighteenmonths, homicidal one man had first tried to kill himself withsulphate of copper. Another by cutting his throat. A woman by cuttingher arm the other paper were uncomplicated pellier states that thenumber of suicides in france from 1876-1880 was 13, 445, and nearlyall were by hanging taylor879 states that 2, 570 persons committedsuicide by hanging in england in five years, 1863-67.

Pharmakol u order custom essay therap rundschau, 1904, no 14. Quoted byde santi note 2 daus18 reports successful treatment of tonsillitis, mumps and middleear diseases in these paper no other gargles or mouth washes wereused he states that no indication of irritant or other injuriousaction made its appearance even after large doses in the same article, f levy reports experiments as follows. Agar plates were prepared witha culture of streptococcus from a severe case of quinsy one half ofthe plate was rubbed with saliva containing formamint in solution the strength of the solution used is not given in twenty-four hoursstreaks of growth had appeared on one portion of the plates while thewriting on which the formamint saliva had been rubbed remained sterile daus also found that agar and broth cultures of streptococcus shakenwith formamint saliva remained sterile 18 daus. Med klin 2:4110, 1906 rheinboldt, 19 investigating the effects of formamint and of ordinaryformaldehyd on animals, concludes that formaldehyd is toxic in actionwhile formamint is not 19 rheinboldt. Deutsch med wchnschr 32:587, 1906 illustration. How the exploiters of formamint capitalize the medicalprofession miniature reproductions of typical formamint advertisementsappearing in the newspapers rosenberg20 corroborates this statement he also found that agarplates of bacillus prodigiosus were killed by formamint solutionsin about four hours he fails, however, to give the strength of hisformamint solutions 20 rosenberg. Therap d gegen 7:55, 1905 wingrave21 suggests the use of formamint for infants!. he recommendsthat a tablet be crushed and wrapped in “butter cloth ” the ends of thecloth are to be tied with thread, the formamint is to be moistened, andthe packet is to be held in the mouth of the baby several times eachday 21 wingrave. Lancet, london 2:1067, 1906 young22 published the results of essay experiments by himself anddelépine on the human throat they dissolved a tablet in the mouth andmade swab cultures with the following results. Immediately after taking the tablet 0 colonies 10 minutes after taking the tablet 35 colonies 30 minutes after taking the tablet 150 colonies22 young. Lancet, london 1:975, 1908 they found no staphylococci at any time other results of swabbingvarious writings of the throat before and after the use of formamint, reported by these investigators, show enormous reductions in the count, claimed to be due to the action of formamint the count was made onagar at 37 c , but they fail to state the time elapsing between takingthe formamint and making the swab young also reports favorableclinical results in paper of scarlet fever, diphtheria, sore throat, and the like it must be noted, however, that they state that the mouthand fauces must first be thoroughly cleansed by swabbing and douchingbefore formamint is used the “chemical compound” claimthe claims made in the advertising literature of formamint are veryextravagant thesis are highly improbable these statements will bediscussed later the statement is made that formamint is a new chemical compound. “formamint is pentamethanallactose, 5 choh c₁₂h₂₂o₁₁ it is an original combination of formaldehyde with lactose, a definite chemical compound the formaldehyde molecule is locked up in it until solution in the saliva takes place, when the formaldehyde is liberated in its nascent state and is therefore active without being irritant ”furthermore the makers contend that this new chemical compound isentirely harmless for example, daus, 5 in an article on “thedisinfectant action of formic aldehyde on mucous membranes, ” declares. “no indication of irritant or other injurious action made its appearance even after large doses the urine remained free from albumin and sugar ”such statements as these are found in the advertising literature. “formamint tablets are absolutely harmless and innocuous, even to little children ” “when dissolved in the saliva, formamint tablets liberate slowly nascent formaldehyde in a most active yet non-irritant form ”they maintain that formamint is not only absolutely harmless, butactually beneficial to the tissues it may be used “to tone up andstrengthen the tissues, prevent hoarseness, and allay irritation insingers, public speakers, ” etc the claims urged as to its germicidal power are indeed glittering this“new chemical compound” is claimed to liberate formaldehyd in essay newand peculiar condition which, while it has a soothing and tonic effecton the cells of the human tissues, can at the same time quickly killany form of bacterial life “dissolving readily, it releases its germicidal, antiseptic qualities, which impregnate the saliva and are carried naturally and easily around the mouth and in the deepest crevices of the throat-- destroying the germs where they are causing the mischief formamint prevents and destroys infectious germ life in a soothing grateful way ” “in the saliva it frees a germicide, fatal to germs but harmless to the most delicate membranes and flowing into every tiny corner of the gums, tonsils and throat, into places where no gargle ever reaches, it most effectively disinfects the throat ”the claims as to the preventive and curative effects of the preparationcover a large portion of the category of human ailments and distresses the following quotations indicate essay of its supposed properties.

At x, intravenous injection of 50 c c elixir secretogen tracing e. At x, intravenous injection of 100tablets of duodenin dissolved in 0 9 per cent sodium chlorid duodenin -- this is a preparation manufactured by armour & company, which purports to be “secretin plus enterokinase ” the claims forthis product are similar to those for secretogen, but essaywhat lesssweeping according to the manufacturers, “duodenin armour isrecommended in the treatment of intestinal disorders where an increasedflow of pancreatic, hepatic and intestinal secretion is desired it isof specific value in proteid digestion on the theory that secretin andenterokinase stimulate the pancreas and activate its secretion ”illustration. Fig 3 -- tracings reduced one-half showing practicallycomplete destruction of secretin by the gastric juice dog under lightether anesthesia. Cannula in the pancreatic duct. A, carotid bloodpressure. B, record of flow of pancreatic juice in drops time, twenty-five minutes tracing a. Intravenous injection of 10 c c secretin prepared fresh from dog duodenal mucosa at x tracing b:intravenous injection at x of 10 c c of the same secretin as intracing a, after being digested in normal human gastric juice at 37 c for two hours we bought a quantity of duodenin in the open market, and carried out onthis product the same series of experiments as that used in the case ofsecretogen the results were similarly negative table 8 table 8 -- summary of typical experiments showing the absence ofsecretin in “duodenin”dogs under ether anesthesia | | secretion of pancreatic juice in drops, | | following intravenous injection exp | number -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - no |duodenin| control| duodenin in | control | tablets| 10 c c -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 10 c c | used |secretin|distilled| 0 4% | 70% | 0 9% | secretin | | | water | hcl |alcohol| nacl | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 3 | 29 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 ?.

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