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Yet it must be remembered, to pronouncethe time which has elapsed can only be done approximately, for verythesis conditions will have to be considered, which will vary in eachindividual case the importance of considering the minutest detail iswell illustrated by the death of prince de condé, duke of bourbon, who was found dead in his bedroom in the chateau of st cyr whendiscovered at 8 o’clock in the morning, the deceased was found writinglyundressed, hanging by his cravat to one of the window shutters thebody was cold and the lower extremities rigid as in asphyxia fromhanging the warmth of the body is usually preserved longer than undercommon circumstances, viz , from twelve to fifteen hours, before whichperiod rigidity is seldom complete, the medical examiner inferred thatthe deceased must have died very soon after he retired to his bedroomon the previous night as this was proven to have been 10 p m , itfollowed that only ten hours had elapsed a short time for cooling andrigidity to have taken place it was thus rendered probable that thehanging took place soon after deceased reached his bedroom it wasalleged that the duke had been murdered, and that his body had beenafterward suspended to create a suspicion of suicide the condition ofthe body was, among other things, adverse to this opinion from 10 to12 o’clock it was proved there were numerous attendants moving aboutnear the duke awritingments they would have heard any unusual noise theduke must have made in resisting his assailant but no noise was heardin the room at that or any other time, and the presumption of thisbeing a homicide was thus strongly rebutted cadaveric rigidity, while often it will aid to, is not a reliableguide when once it is established it may remain two, three, or fourdays, according to the season of the year and other circumstances, andwhen it exists there is no rule by which it can be determined whether abody has been in this state three hours or three days putrefaction, while appearing on an average, under a meantemperature, in from three to six days, is yet influenced by thesiscircumstances the heat and moisture of the surroundings, the age, sex, amount of flesh on the body, mode of death, position and coverings ofbody, all must be considered the temperature of the body aids us, yet the retention of warmth bythe abdominal viscera may be met with in a marked degree twenty hoursafter death. In one case, personally known to me, the thermometerregistered 76° f seventeen hours after death the temperature of the body, its rigidity, and the evidences ofputrefaction all furnish data from which we can estimate the probabletime which has elapsed since death it must be remembered that no oneof them furnishes any positive proof essay medical jurists have attempted to give a more definite characterto these changes in the recently dead body by dividing the intervalbetween the stopping of the heart action and the beginning ofputrefaction into three periods in the first, the warmth, pliability, and muscular irritability remain in the second, these conditions arelost and the body is cold and rigid in the third, the body is coldand pliant, the muscles are relaxed, and the joints are flexible, thecadaveric rigidity having entirely ceased there can be no doubt about the existence of these stages, but when wecome to define the precise time at which one begins and the other ends, we find it impossible for example, the first stage embraces a periodwhich cannot be more closely defined than by stating that the personmay have been dead from a few minutes to twenty hours a statement toovague to be upheld by a counsel who defends a prisoner the changes which take place in these periods and the average time theylast have been given as follows by devergie:first period, few minutes to twenty hours - characterized by warmthof the body and general or writingial relaxation of the voluntary muscles to what portion of this period the special case belongs must beestimated according to the degree of heat in the trunk and extremitiesand the degree of rigidity in the muscles, the neck and the jawscommonly showing this condition first, the legs last warmth of thebody rarely remains as long as twenty hours. In general it is sensiblycold in from ten to twelve hours during this period the muscles aresusceptible of contraction under the galvanic current, and in the earlystage under the stimulus of blows second period, ten hours to three days - the body is perfectly coldthroughout and rigidity is well marked the muscles no longer respondto stimuli the duration of this period seems long, yet in one instancethe body will be found cold and rigid nine hours after death again, cooling and rigidity may not come on for three or four days third period, three to eight days - the body is perfectly cold thelimbs and trunk pliant and free from cadaveric rigidity the musclesare not capable of contracting in summer this period is much shorter;often it will come on before three days putrefaction commences when a body is kept under the most favorableconditions, in from six to twelve days, as a slight greenishdiscoloration of the abdomen which gradually spreads throughout thebody the time at which putrefaction shows itself and the rapidity withwhich it advances is dependent upon so thesis factors, thesis of whichit is impossible often for the medical examiner to ascertain, thattoo much reliance must not be placed upon it casper estimates thefollowing to be the average changes generally found in the periods oftime given:twenty-four to seventy-two hours after death a slight green color isvisible over the centre of the abdomen the eyeballs are soft and yieldto external pressure three to five days after death the green color of the abdomen becomesintensified and general, spreading if the body be exposed to the air orburied in the ground in the following order. Genitals, breast, face, neck, upper and lastly lower extremities eight to ten days after death the discoloration becomes moreintense, the face and neck presenting a shade of reddish-green theramifications of the superficial veins on the neck, breast, and limbsbecome very apparent finally the patches congregate gases begin to bedeveloped and distend the abdomen and hollow organs and to form underthe skin in the subcutaneous and intermuscular tissue the cornea fallsin and becomes concave the sphincter ani relaxes fourteen to twenty-one days after death the discoloration over thewhole body becomes intensely green, with brownish-red or brownish-blackpatches the body is bloated and appears greatly increased in sizefrom the development of gases within the abdomen, thorax, and scrotum, and also in the cellular tissue of the body generally the swollencondition of the eyelids, lips, nose, and cheeks is usually of suchextent as to obliterate the features and to destroy the identity of thebody the epidermis peels off in patches, while in certain writings, morewritingicularly the feet, it will be raised in blisters filled with red orgreenish liquid, the cuticle underneath frequently appearing blanched the color of the iris is lost the nails easily separate and the hairbecomes loosened fourth to sixth month after death the thorax and abdomen burst and thesutures of the skull give way from the development of gases within thehead the viscera appear pulpy, or perhaps disappear, leaving the bonesexposed the bones of the extremities separate at the joints at anadvanced stage the soft writings gradually disappear in giving an opinion as to how long a time has elapsed since death whena body has undergone marked putrefactive changes, we must considercarefully not only the conditions of the organs, but the mode of deathand the “surroundings ” by these i mean the quantity of clothing worn, the depth of the grave in which the body has been interred, the seasonof the year, the heat and moisture of the atmosphere the questionessaytimes presents itself to the medical examiner, of two personsfound dead, which died first?. the importance of this point was wellillustrated in the “lizzie borden case ” by a careful consideration ofall the conditions presented by each body in the ways i have indicated, the question will not ordinarily be a difficult one to decide themedico-legal considerationofwounds, includingpunctured and incised wounds, and wounds made by blunt instrumentsother than gunshot wounds bygeorge woolsey, a b , m d , professor of anatomy and clinical surgery in the medical dewritingment ofthe university of the city of new york. Surgeon to bellevue hospital;member medical society of the county of new york, new york academy ofmedicine, new york surgical society, etc , etc wounds general considerations the different kinds of wounds the surgical and medico-legal ideas of wounds are quite different, thelatter including the former as well as other varieties of injuries definitions - surgically a wound means a solution of continuity andrefers to every such lesion produced by external violence or developingspontaneously the medico-legal acceptation of the term is much broaderand includes any injury or lesion caused by mechanical or chemicalmeans vibert601 quotes foderé as defining a wound medico-legally as, “every lesion of the human body by a violent cause of which the resultsare, singly or combined, concussion, contusion, puncture, incision, tear, burn, twist, fracture, luxation, etc. Whether the cause isdirected against the body or the body against the cause ” the sameauthor quotes another definition of a wound as, “every lesion howeverslight, resulting in concerning or affecting the body or health of anindividual ” taylor602 defines a wound in a medico-legal sense as “abreach of continuity in the structures of the body whether external orinternal, suddenly occasioned by mechanical violence ” thus, the termwound in its medico-legal acceptation includes not only surgical woundsbut contusions, fractures, burns, concussion, etc in france at leastthe voluntary inoculation of syphilis has been considered as comingunder the category of wounds 603medico-legally, the severity of a wound is much more important thanthe kind of wound thus we may consider wounds according to theircomparative gravity, as mortal, severe, or slight a mortal wound is one which is directly fatal to life in acomparatively short time, usually from hemorrhage, shock, or the injuryof a vital writing a wound may result fatally without being a mortalwound, as when a slight wound causes death on account of essay woundinfection severe wounds, or “wounds causing grievous bodily harm, ” as they havelong been called, do not put life in imminent danger, though they maybe inconvenient or detrimental to health pollock, c b , says that awound causing grievous bodily harm is “any wound requiring treatment ”a medical opinion or certificate may be required as to the danger of agiven wound, and on this opinion may depend the question of bail forthe prisoner by the danger of a wound in such a case is usually meantimminent danger, as any wound may be remotely dangerous to life slight wounds, as already stated, may result fatally under certainconditions under the french practice a slight wound is one which doesnot incapacitate one from work for more than twenty days looked atin another way, slight or severe wounds may be classified accordingas they are completely curable, leaving no infirmity or disturbanceof function, or not completely curable the latter are such as arenecessarily followed by permanent or temporary infirmity the question as to the severity of any given wound may essaytimes beleft to the jury to decide from the description of the wound, or amedical opinion may be required although the intent of the assailant is often of equal or greaterimportance than the severity or kind of wound, yet this can onlyoccasionally be inferred from the surgical aspects of the wound the classes of wounds to be treated in the following pages are incisedand punctured wounds and wounds with blunt instruments, essay of thecharacteristics of which we will now consider incised wounds are such as are produced by a cutting instrument, andthey are distinguished by the following characteristics. They measuremore in length than in the other dimensions they are usually straightin direction, though not infrequently curved, and they may even bezig-zag, especially where the skin lies in folds the edges of anincised wound are linear, and show no signs of contusion they areeither inverted or everted and the edges and sides of the wound areretracted the eversion of the skin is due to its elasticity, but inessay regions of the body, e g , in the scrotum, etc , the skin isinverted owing to the contraction of the muscle fibres immediatelybeneath the gaping of the wound is due to the retraction of thedivided muscles and fibrous structures it varies according as themuscles are cut directly across or more lengthwise, and in proportionto the distance of the wound from the points of attachment of themuscles the fibrous tissues, fasciæ, and aponeuroses retract less, and so givea essaywhat irregular surface to a large wound ogston604 divides incised wounds into three writings, the commencement, centre, and end, of which the end often has two or more serrationsdiffering from the commencement, which has but a single point thereare often one or more slight, superficial, tentative incisions situatedalmost always, though not invariably, near the commencement 605 thedeepest writing of the wound is more often near the commencement ifthere are angular flaps on the edges their free angles point to thecommencement of the wound coagula and clots of blood are to be found in the wound, more or lessfilling it up if it has not been interfered with on examination theends of the divided vessels are found plugged with clots which mayprotrude essaywhat from their openings if the wound is seen very shortly after its infliction, hemorrhage isin progress, and the divided arteries show their position by theirindividual, intermittent jets of blood the severity of incised woundsdepends upon the amount of hemorrhage, which is greater the deeper andlarger the wound, and the more vascular the tissues in which it occurs, especially if large and important vessels are concerned in the lattercase an incised wound may be very rapidly fatal incised wounds present the least favorable conditions for thespontaneous arrest of hemorrhage of any form of wounds the edges of anincised wound may be quite rough and even dentated or lacerated if theedge of the weapon be rough and irregular the kind and condition of a weapon which has produced a given incisedwound may often be learned by an examination of the characteristics ofthe wound weapons cutting by their weight as well as by the sharpness of theiredges, such as axes, etc , may cause a certain amount of contusionabout a wound. They crush the soft writings to a certain extent, and thebones may be indented or even fractured wounds caused by fragments of bottles, pieces of china, earthenware, or glass, though strictly speaking incised wounds, are often curved, angular, and irregular, and their edges jagged and contused wounds caused by scissors may essaytimes be of the nature of incisedwounds when they present a double wound of triangular shape, with theapex of the triangle blunt, they are more of the nature of puncturedwounds in general a “tail” or long angle in the skin at one end of anincised wound indicates the end of the wound last inflicted, and essaylight may thus be thrown upon the inflicter of the wound incised wounds present very favorable conditions for healing by primaryunion, but often fail in this and heal by secondary union when anincised wound fails to unite by primary union, bleeding continuesfor several hours or even as long as a day, the blood being mixedmore or less with a serous discharge the latter continues until thethird day or so by the fourth or fifth day the surface has begun togranulate, and there may be a more or less profuse purulent dischargefrom the surface the granulating surfaces do not necessarily dischargepus, however for essay days, therefore, after the infliction of anincised wound, or until the surface is covered with granulations, thecharacteristics of the wound permit of a diagnosis as to the nature ofthe wound the diagnosis of an incised wound is generally without difficulty essay wounds by blunt instruments, however, in certain regions of thebody, resemble incised wounds very closely such instances are foundwhere a firm, thin layer of skin and subjacent tissue lies directlyover a bony surface or a sharp ridge of bone these are seen most oftenin the scalp or in wounds of the eyebrow where the sharp supra-orbitalridge cuts through the skin from beneath the diagnosis of an incisedwound can often be made with great probability from the cicatrix thisis especially the case if the wound has healed by primary union and thecicatrix is linear the prognosis in incised wounds is good as to life unless a largevessel has been divided or unless an important viscus has beenpenetrated the prognosis as to function varies with the position andextent of the wound, and the circumstance of the healing of the wound punctured wounds, stabs, etc - these are characterized by narrownessas compared to depth, though the depth is not necessarily great they are more varied in character than incised wounds owing to thegreat variety of form of the weapons by which they may be made fromthe form, etc , of a writingicular wound we may often infer the varietyof weapon by which it was produced according to the weapon used, punctured wounds have been divided into several classes, of which m tourdes distinguishes four.

The examinationmust be both scientific and practical, and of sufficient thoroughnessand severity to test the candidate fitness to practise medicine andsurgery the examination may be held in the presence of the dean of anymedical school or of the president of any medical society of the state after the examination, the board must grant to a candidate who is foundqualified, a certificate to practise medicine and surgery the boardmay refuse or revoke a certificate for unprofessional, dishonorable, or immoral conduct, or may refuse a certificate to any one who maypublicly profess to cure or treat diseases, injuries, or deformitiesin such manner as to deceive the public in paper of refusal orrevocation, the aggrieved applicant may appeal to the district court ofthe county of his application 4 certificates must be recorded within sixty days after their date in theoffice of the county recorder in the county where the holder resides;or in case of removal certificates must be recorded in the county towhich the holder removes the county recorder must indorse on thecertificate the date of its record 5 exceptions - the act does not apply to midwives of skill and experienceattending paper of confinement, nor to commissioned surgeons of theunited states army or navy in the discharge of their official duties, nor to physicians or surgeons in actual consultation from other statesand territories, nor to students practising medicine under the directsupervision of a preceptor, nor to gratuitous services in paper ofemergency 6 penalty - violation of the act is a misdemeanor, punishable with a fineof from $100 to $500, or imprisonment in the county jail from thirty toninety days, or both definition - any person is regarded as practising within the meaning ofthe act who appends “m d ” or “m b ” to his name, for a fee prescribesmedicine, operates in surgery, attends in obstetrics, or recommends forthe use of any sick person the use of any drug or medicine or otheragency of treatment, cure, or relief of any wound, fracture, or bodilyinjury or disease, as a physician or surgeon 7 re-examination - any one failing to pass the examination is entitled toa second examination within six months without fee 8 fees - to the treasurer of the board, for examination, $15 s 4 to the secretary of the board, for examination, in advance, $15 s 8 to the county recorder, for recording, the usual fee 5 to the county attorney, for prosecuting a violation, to be charged ascosts, $5 7 nebraska qualification - it is unlawful for any person to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or any of their branches, without havingobtained and registered a certificate no person is entitled to acertificate unless he be a graduate of a legally chartered medicalschool or college in good standing the qualifications are determinedby the state board of health the act does not prevent physiciansresiding in other states from visiting patients in consultation withresident physicians who have complied act of 1891, c 35, s 7 a medical school is defined as a medical school or college whichrequires a previous examination for admission to its courses of study, and which requires for granting the degree of “m d ” attendance onat least three courses of lectures of six months each, no two ofsaid courses to be held within one year, and having a full faculty ofprofessors in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, toxicology, pathology, hygiene, materia medica, therapeutics, obstetrics, gynæcology, principle sic and practice of medicine and surgery, and clinicalinstruction in the last two named but the three-year clause does notapply to degrees granted prior to july, 1891 8 a person intending to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics mustpresent his diploma to the said board, with his affidavit that he isthe lawful possessor of the same and has attended the full course ofstudy required for the degree of “m d , ” and that he is the persontherein named such affidavit may be taken before any person authorizedto administer oaths, and it shall be attested under the hand andofficial seal of the official, if he have a seal false swearing isperjury 9 if investigation of the diploma and affidavit proves the applicantentitled to practise, the board issues its certificate, which must befiled in the office of the county clerk of the county where he resides, or intends to practise 10 the act gave physicians entitled to practise at the time of itsenactment six months in which to comply with its provisions withreference to them 11 the secretaries of the board may issue certificates, without a vote ofthe board, when the proof upon which certificates are granted may havebeen on file in its office for ten days without a vote of the board, when no protest has been filed, and if, in their opinion, the proofcomplies with the act 12 when the holder of a certificate removes to another county, he mustfile and record it in the office of the county clerk in the county towhich he removes 13 the board may refuse certificates to persons guilty of unprofessionalor dishonorable conduct, and may revoke for like causes provided theygive the person an opportunity to be heard 14 penalty - no person is entitled to receive any sum of money formedical, surgical, or obstetrical service unless he shall have compliedwith the act 15 violation of the act is a misdemeanor, punishable with a fine of from$50 to $300 and costs of prosecution, and a person convicted shallstand committed till the fine and costs are paid 16 definition, exceptions - to operate on, profess to heal, prescribe for, or otherwise treat any physical or mental ailment of another, is topractise medicine under this act but it does not prohibit gratuitousservices in paper of emergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeonsin the united states army or navy, nor to nurses in their legaloccupation, nor to the administration of ordinary household remedies17 itinerant vender - to be an itinerant vender of any drug, nostrum, ointment, or appliance for the treatment of disease or injury, or forsuch an one to publicly profess to cure or to treat disease or injuryor deformity by any drug, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient, is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $100, orimprisonment in the county jail from thirty days to three months, orboth, for each offence 18 fees - to the secretaries of the board of health, for certificate attime of application, $5 to the secretaries of the board of health, for taking testimony, samefees as a notary public is allowed for same service 19 to county clerk, for recording, usual register fees for recording10 nevada qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine or surgery whohas not received a medical education and a diploma from essay regularlychartered medical school having a bona fide existence when thediploma was granted act of 1875, c 46, s 1 a copy of the diploma must be filed for record with the county recorderof the county in which the person practises, and at the same time theoriginal, or a certificate from the dean of the medical school of whichhe is a graduate, certifying to his graduation, must be exhibited2 the person filing a copy of a diploma or a certificate of graduationmust be identified as the person named therein, by the affidavit of twocitizens of the county, or his affidavit taken before a notary publicor commissioner of deeds for this state, which affidavit must be filedin the office of the county recorder 3 penalty - practising without complying with this act is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of from $50 to $500, or imprisonment in thecounty jail from thirty days to six months, or both, for each offence filing a diploma or a certificate of another or a forged affidavit ofidentification is a felony 4 exceptions - the act does not apply to a person who in an emergency mayprescribe or give advice in medicine or surgery in a township whereno physician resides, or when no physician or surgeon resides withinconvenient distance, nor to those who had practised medicine or surgeryin the state for ten years next preceding the passage of the act, norto persons prescribing in their own family 6 new jersey board of examiners - the state board of medical examiners, appointedby the governor, consists of nine members, persons of recognizedprofessional ability and honor, five of the old school, three of thehomœopathic, and one of the eclectic, among whom can be no member ofany college or university having a medical dewritingment act 1890, c 190, s 1 the board must hold meetings for examination at the capital on thesecond thursday of january, april, july, and october of each year andat such other times as they deem expedient. They shall keep a registerof all applicants for examination, showing the name, age, and lastplace of residence of each candidate, the time he has spent in medicalstudy in or out of a medical school, the names and locations of allmedical schools which have granted the said applicant any degree orcertificate of attendance upon lectures in medicine, and whether theapplicant has been rejected or licensed, and it shall be prima facieevidence of all matters contained therein 2 qualification - all persons commencing the practice of medicine orsurgery in any of its branches must apply to the board for a license applicants are divided into three classes:1 persons graduated from a legally chartered medical school not lessthan five years before the application 2 all other persons graduated from legally chartered medical schools 3 medical students taking a regular course of medical instruction applicants of the first class are examined in materia medica, therapeutics, obstetrics, gynæcology, practice of medicine, surgery, and surgical anatomy. Those of the second and third classes areexamined in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, materia medica, therapeutics, histology, pathology, hygiene, practice of medicine, surgery, obstetrics, gynæcology, diseases of the eye and ear, medicaljurisprudence, and such other branches as the board may deem advisable;questions for applicants of the first and second classes are the samein the branches common to both the board after january 1st, 1892, cannot license applicants of the second or third classes withoutsatisfactory proof that the applicant has studied medicine and surgerythree years, is of good moral character, and over twenty-one yearsof age. Applicants of the third class, after they shall have studiedmedicine and surgery at least two years, can be examined in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, histology, pathology, materia medica, andtherapeutics. If the examination is satisfactory to all the members ofthe board, it may issue a certificate that the applicant has passed afinal examination in these branches, and such certificate, if presentedby the applicant when he shall make application for a license topractise, shall be accepted by the said board in lieu of examinationin those branches all examinations shall be both scientific andpractical, but of sufficient severity to test the candidate fitnessto practise medicine and surgery 3 all examinations shall be in writing. The questions and answers, except in materia medica and therapeutics, must be such as can beanswered in common by all schools of practice, and if the applicantintends to practise homœopathy or eclecticism, the member or membersof the said board of those schools shall examine the said applicant inmateria medica and therapeutics. If the examination is satisfactory, the board shall issue a license entitling the applicant to practisemedicine a license shall not be issued unless the applicant passes anexamination satisfactory to all members of the board.

If hedo, he does no more than he can cure. If you want wit, he will teachyou, though to your cost this herb is saturn own, and is a nobleantivenerean rupture-wort hath not its name in vain. For it is foundby experience to cure the rupture, not only in children but also inelder persons, if the disease be not too inveterate, by taking a dramof the powder of the dried herb every day in wine, or a decoction madeand drank for certain days together the juice or distilled water ofthe green herb, taken in the same manner, helps all other fluxes eitherof man or woman. Vomitings also, and the gonorrhea, being taken any ofthe ways aforesaid it doth also most assuredly help those that havethe stranguary, or are troubled with the stone or gravel in the reinsor bladder the same also helps stitches in the sides, griping painsof the stomach or belly, the obstructions of the liver, and cures theyellow jaundice. Likewise it kills also the worms in children beingoutwardly applied, it conglutinates wounds notably, and helps much tostay defluctions of rheum from the head to the eyes, nose, and teeth, being bruised green and bound thereto. Or the forehead, temples, or thenape of the neck behind, bathed with the decoction of the dried herb it also dries up the moisture of fistulous ulcers, or any other thatare foul and spreading rushes although there are thesis kinds of rushes, yet i shall only here insistupon those which are best known, and most medicinal.

Make them into a plaister according to art culpeper i shall commend this for a good plaister to strengthenthe brain as any is in the dispensatory, the hair being shaved off, and it applied to the crown. Also being applied to the stomach, itstrengthens it, helps digestion, stays vomiting and putrefaction ofthe meat there emplastrum e cymino or, a plaister of cummin college take of cummin-seed, bayberries, yellow wax, of each onepound, per-rozin two pounds, common rozin three pounds, oil of dillhalf a pound. Mix them, and make them into a plaister culpeper it assuages swellings, takes away old aches coming ofbruises, and applied to the belly, is an excellent remedy for the windcholic this i have often proved, and always with good success emplastrum diacalciteos college take of hog grease fresh and purged from the skins twopounds, oil of olives omphacine, litharge of gold beaten and sifted, of each three pounds, white vitriol burnt and purged four ounces. Letthe litharge, grease, and oil boil together with a gentle fire, witha little plantain water, always stirring it, to the consistence of aplaister, into which being removed from the fire put in the vitrioland make it into a plaister according to art culpeper it is a very drying, binding plaister, profitable in greenwounds to hinder putrefaction, as also in pestilential sores after theyare broken, and ruptures, and also in burnings and scaldings diachylon simple college take of mussilage of linseed, fenugreek seed, marsh-mallowroots, of each one pound, old oil three pounds. Boil it to theconsumption of the mussilage, strain it, and add litharge of gold infine powder, one pound and an half. Boil them with a little water overa gentle fire always stirring them to a just thickness culpeper it is an exceeding good remedy for all swellings withoutpain, it softens hardness of the liver and spleen, it is very gentle diachylon ireatum college add one ounce of orris in powder to every pound ofdiachylon simple diachylon magnum college take of mussilage of raisins, fat figs, mastich, mallow-roots, linseeds, and fenugreek-seeds, bird-lime, the juice oforris and squills, of each twelve drams and an half, œsypus or oilof sheep feet an ounce and an half, oil of orris, chamomel, dill, of each eight ounces, litharge of gold in fine powder one pound, turpentine three ounces, per-rozin, yellow wax, of each two ounces, boil the oil with the mussilages and juices to the consumption of thehumidity, strain the oil from the faces, and by adding the lithargeboil it to its consistence. Then add the rozin and wax. Lastly, itbeing removed from the fire, add the turpentine, œsypus and birdlime, make of them a plaister by melting them according to art culpeper it dissolves hardness and inflammations diachylon magnum cum gummi college take of bdellium, sagapenum, amoniacum, of each two ounces, dissolved in wine, and added to the mass of diachylon magnum. Firstboil the gums being dissolved, to the thickness of honey culpeper this is the best to dissolve hard swellings of all thethree diachylon compositum, sive emplaistrum e mussilaginibus or, a plaister of mussilages college take of mussilages of the middle bark of elm, marsh-mallowroots, linseed, and fenugreek seed, of each four ounces and an half, oil of chamomel, lilies, and dill, of each an ounce and an half, ammoniacum, galbanum, sagapen, opopanax, of each half an ounce, new waxtwenty ounces, turpentine two ounces, saffron two drams, dissolve thegums in wine, and make it into a plaister according to art culpeper it ripens swellings, and breaks them, and cleanses themwhen they are broken it is of a most excellent ripening nature emplaistrum diaphœnicon hot college take of yellow wax two ounces, per-rozin, pitch, of eachfour ounces, oil of roses and nard, of each one ounce, melt themtogether, and add pulp of dates made in wine four ounces, flesh ofquinces boiled in red wine an ounce, then the powders following. Takeof bread twice baked, steeped in wine and dried, two ounces, mastich anounce, frankincense wormwood, red roses, spikenard, of each two dramsand an half, wood of aloes, mace, myrrh, washed aloes, acacia, trochesof gallia moschata, and earth of lemnos, calamus aromaticus, of eachone dram, labdanum three ounces, mix them and make them into a plaisteraccording to art culpeper it strengthens the stomach and liver exceedingly, helpsfluxes, apply it to the places grieved diaphœnicon cold college take of wax four ounces, ship pitch five ounces, labdanumthree ounces and an half, turpentine an ounce and an half, oil of rosesone ounce, melt these, and add pulp of dates almost ripe, boiled inaustere wine four ounces, flesh of quinces in like manner boiled, breadtwice baked often steeped in red wine and dried, of each an ounce, styrax calamitis, acacia, unripe grapes, balaustines, yellow sanders, troches of terra lemnia, myrrh, wood of aloes, of each half an ounce, mastich, red roses, of each an ounce and an half, austere wine asmuch as is sufficient to dissolve the juices, make it into a plaisteraccording to art culpeper it strengthens the belly and liver, helps concoction inthose writings, and distribution of humours, stays vomiting and fluxes emplastrum divinum or, a divine plaster college take of loadstone four ounces, ammoniacum three ounces andthree drams, bdellium two ounces, galbanum, myrrh, of each ten drams, olibanum nine drams, opopanax, mastich, long birthwort, verdigris, of each an ounce, litharge, common oil, of each a pound and an half, new wax eight ounces. Let the litharge in fine powder be boiled withthe oil to a thickness, then add the wax, which being melted, take itfrom the fire, add the gums dissolved in wine and vinegar, strain it, then add the myrrh, mastich, frankincense, birthwort, and loadstone inpowder, last of all the verdigris in powder, and make it into a plasteraccording to art culpeper it is of a cleansing nature, exceeding good againstmalignant ulcers, it consumes corruption, engenders new flesh, andbrings them to a scar emplastrum epispasticum college take of mustard seed, euphorbium, long pepper, of each onedram and an half, stavesacre, pellitory of spain of each two drams, ammoniacum, galbanum, phellium, sagapen, of each three drams, wholecantharides five drams, ship pitch, rozin, yellow wax, of each sixdrams, turpentine as much as is sufficient to make it into a plaster culpeper thesis people use to draw blisters in their necks for thetooth ache, or for rheums in their eyes. If they please to lay aplaster of this there, it will do it emplastrum a nostratibus, flos unguentorum dictum or, flower of ointments college take of rozin, per rozin, yellow wax, sheep suet, of eachhalf a pound, olibanum four ounces, turpentine two ounces and an half, myrrh, mastich, of each an ounce, camphire two drams, white wine half apound, boil them into a plaster culpeper i found this receipt in an old manuscript written in theyear 1513, the quantity of the ingredients very little altered a plaster of gum elemi college take of gum elemi three ounces, per rozin, wax, ammoniacum, of each two ounces, turpentine three ounces and an half, mallaga wineso much as is sufficient. Boil it to the consumption of the wine, thenadd the ammoniacum dissolved in vinegar culpeper the operation is the same with arceus liniment a plaister of lapis calaminaris college take of lapis calaminaris prepared an ounce, litharge twoounces, ceruss half an ounce, tutty a dram, turpentine six drams, whitewax an ounce and an half, stag suet two ounces, frankincense fivedrams, mastich three drams, myrrh two drams, camphire a dram and anhalf, make it up according to art emplastrum ad herniam college take of galls, cypress nuts, pomegranate pills, balaustines, acacia, the seeds of plantain, fleawort, water-cresses, acorn cups, beans torrified, birth-wort long and round, myrtles of eachhalf an ounce let these be powdered, and steeped in rose vinegar fourdays, then torrified and dried, then take of comfrey the greater andlesser, horsetail, woad, cetrach, the roots of osmond royal, fearn, ofeach an ounce, frankincense, myrrh, aloes, mastich, mummy, of each twoounces, bole-ammoniac washed in vinegar, lap, calaminaris prepared, litharge of gold, dragon blood, of each three ounces, ship pitch twopounds, turpentine six ounces, or as much as is sufficient to make itinto a plaster according to art culpeper the plaster is very binding and knitting, appropriated toruptures or burstens, as the title of it specifies, it strengthens thereins and womb, stays abortion, it consolidates wounds, and helps alldiseases coming of cold and moisture emplastrum hystericum college take of bistort roots one pound, wood of aloes, yellowsanders, nutmegs, barberry kernels, rose seeds, of each one ounce, cinnamon, cloves, squinanth, chamomel flowers, of each half an ounce, frankincense, mastich, alipta moschata, gallia moschata, styraxcalamitis, of each one dram, mosch half a dram, yellow wax one poundand an half, turpentine half a pound, moschæleum four ounces, labdanumfour pounds, ship pitch three pounds.

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“please give me essay information concerning dr abrams and his diagnostic and therapeutic devices known as reflexaphore and oscilloclast if this is published please withhold my name order a paper essay ”a physician in massachusetts writes. “can you give me any information concerning dr ?. san francisco, california, who reports himself able to diagnose syphilis from a drop of blood sent him on a blotting paper?. he has caused a patient of mine a great deal of needless worry ”and from rhode island a physician facetiously inquires. “i am interested to know of the ‘reactions of abrams ’ have you any information that you can give me in regard to this matter?. they apparently do wonderful things in the west ”while a new york physician acknowledges his failure to keep up with thetimes thus. “to-day i had occasion to see a patient who mentioned having an abrams test for gonorrheal infection of the prostate he also stated he wished to have abrams’ treatment for the same condition could you enlighten me as to what these are?. i thought i had kept myself up to date as to all new tests and treatments in my line. But evidently i have been delinquent ”according to our records, albert abrams, a m , m d , ll d , f r m s , was born in san francisco in 1864 he was graduated in medicine by theuniversity of heidelberg, gerthesis, in 1882 dr abrams is a member ofhis local medical society and through that holds fellowship in theamerican medical association dr abrams has written voluminously in1910, his book on “spondylotherapy” “physio-therapy of the spine” wasreviewed in the journal “spondylotherapy” is a neologic creation ofdr abrams according to its disciples, it concerns itself “only withthe excitation of the functional centers of the spinal cord” and hasbeen called “the science of evoking the reflexes of the body both todiagnose and to cure disease ” in bringing its review of abrams’ bookon “spondylotherapy” to a close, the journal said. “ one wonders whether this is an attempt to explain osteopathy and chiropractic to the understanding of the regular practitioner, or to exploit the very ingenious percussion devices of the author, or whether it is really true that medical men really know practically nothing about the cure of disease through treatment of the spine let us hope that it is the latter and that a careful study of this unique volume may open new avenues of therapy heretofore undreamed of ”while the review was obviously critical, yet in advertising the book, the publisher picked out writing of the closing sentence, omitted thecontext, and quoted the journal as having said. “let us hope that a careful study of this unique volume may open new avenues of therapy heretofore undreamed of ”when this matter was brought to the attention of dr abrams, hereplied, “i fail to see any real difference in the two quotations” and“only one with an astigmatic mentality” could “see any incongruitybetween the context and the concluding sentence ” yet, in this sameletter which attempted to justify the garbling of a quotation so asto make a critical review appear a laudatory one, dr abrams declaredthat the review in question was “conceived and executed in a maliciousspirit ”between 1912 and 1914 dr abrams gave “clinical courses” on“spondylotherapy” in various writings of the country-- price $50 these“courses” were widely advertised by an ohio concern that seems to makea specialty not only of handling the advertising campaigns of thosemembers of the medical profession who have unusual or bizarre methodsto exploit, but also of acting as an agent for the sale of such devicesand publications as may be necessary to the proper practice of thewritingicular brand of therapy that is being exploited at the time thisconcern was featuring abrams’ course it called attention to the allegedfact that “no class were sic!. so busy as those employing mechanicaltreatment such as osteopathy, chiropractic, mechanotherapy, etc ”says dr abrams.