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I desire all lovers of physic to compare them with theexplanation of these rules, so shall they see how they agree, so maythey be enabled to find out the properties of all simples to their ownbenefit in physic roots, bind cypress, bistort, tormentil, cinquefoil, bear breech, water-flag, alkanet, toothwort, &c discuss birthwort, asphodel, briony, capers, &c cleanse birthwort, aron, sparagus, grass, asphodel, celandine, &c open asarabacca, garlic, leeks, onions, rhapontick, turmerick, carline thistle, succory, endive, fillipendula, fennel, parsly, bruscus, sparagus, smallage, gentian, &c extenuate orris english and florentine, capers, &c burn garlick, onions, pellitory of spain, &c mollify mallows, marshmallows, &c suppur marshmallows, briony, white lillies, &c glutinate comfrey, solomon seal, gentian, birthwort, daisies, &c expel wind smallage, parsly, fennel, water-flag, garlick, costus, galanga, hog fennel, zedoary, spikenard indian, and celtic, &c breed seed waterflag, eringo, satyrian, galanga, &c provoke the menses birthwort, asarabacca, aron, waterflag, whitedittany, asphodel, garlick, centaury the less, cyperus long andround, costus, capers, calamus aromaticus, dittany of crete, carrots, eringo, fennel, parsly, smallage, grass, elicampane, peony, valerian, knee-holly, &c stop the menses comfrey, tormentil, bistort, &c provoke sweat carolina thistle, china, sarsaparilla, &c resist poison angelica, garlick, long birthwort, smallage, doronicum, costus, zedoary, cyprus, gentian, carolina thistle, bistort, tormentil, swallow-wort, viper bugloss, elicampane, &c help burnings asphodel, jacinth, white lilies, &c ease pains waterflag, eringo, orris, restharrow, &c purge choler asarabacca, rhubarb, rhapontick, fern, &c relieve melancholy hellebore, white and black, polipodium purge flegm and watery humours squills, turbith, hermodactils, jallap, mecoacan, wild cucumbers, sowbread, male asphodel, briony whiteand black, elder, spurge great and small i quoted essay of these properties to teach you the way how to findthe rest, which the explanation of these terms will give you ampleinstructions in online homework helper. I quoted not all because i would fain have youstudious. Be diligent gentle reader how to use your bodies in, and after taking purges, you shall be taughtby and by barks mentioned by the college are these college hazel nuts, oranges, barberries, birch-tree, caper roots, cassia lignea, chestnuts, cinnamon, citron pills, dwarf-elder, spurgeroots, alder, ash, pomegranates, guajacum, walnut tree, green walnuts, laurel, bay, lemon, mace, pomegranates, mandrake roots, mezereon, mulberry tree roots, sloe tree roots, pinenuts, fistick-nuts, poplartree, oak, elder, sassafras, cork, tamerisk, lime tree, frankincense, elm, capt winter cinnamon culpeper of these, captain winter cinnamon, being taken asordinary spice, or half a dram taken in the morning in any convenientliquor, is an excellent remedy for the scurvy. The powder of it beingsnuffed up in the nose, cleanses the head of rheum gallantly the bark of the black alder tree purges choler and flegm if you make adecoction with it agrimony, wormwood, dodder, hops, endive and succoryroots. Parsly and smallage roots, or you may bruise a handful of eachof them, and put them in a gallon of ale, and let them work together:put the simples into a boulter-bag, and a draught, half a pint, moreor less, according to the age of him that drinks it, being drunk everymorning, helps the dropsy, jaundice, evil disposition of the body;also helps the rickets, strengthens the liver and spleen. Makes thedigestion good, troubles not the stomach at all, causes appetite, andhelps such as are scabby and itchy the rest of the barks that are worth the noting, and the virtues ofthem, are to be found in the former writing of the book barks are hot in the first degree guajacum, tamarisk, oranges, lemons, citrons in the second cinnamon, cassia, lignea, captain winter cinnamon, frankincense, capers in the third mace cold in the first oak, pomegranates in the third mandrakes appropriated to writings of the body heat the head captain winter cinnamon the heart cinnamon, cassia, lignea, citron pills, walnuts, lemonpills, mace the stomach orange pills, cassia lignea, cinnamon, citron pills, lemon pills, mace, sassafras the lungs cassia lignea, cinnamon, walnuts the liver barberry-tree, bay-tree, captain winter cinnamon the spleen caper bark, ash tree bark, bay tree the reins and bladder bay-tree, sassafras the womb cassia lignea, cinnamon cool the stomach pomegranate pills purge choler the bark of barberry tree purge flegm and water elder, dwarf-elder, spurge, laurel woods college firr, wood of aloes, rhodium, brazil, box, willow, cypress, ebony, guajacum, juniper, lentisk, nephriticum, rhodium, rosemary, sanders, white, yellow, and red, sassafras, tamarisk of these essay are hot wood of aloes, rhodium, box, ebony, guajacum, nephriticum, rosemary, sassafras, tamarisk essay cold as cypress, willow, sanders white, red, and yellow rosemary is appropriated to the head, wood of aloes to the heartand stomach, rhodium to the bowels and bladder, nephriticum to theliver, spleen, reins and bladder, sassafras to the breast, stomach andbladder, tamarisk to the spleen, sanders cools the heart and spirits infevers for the writingicular virtues of each, see that writing of the book preceding herbs college southernwood male and female wormwood, common, roman, andsuch as bear wormseed, sorrel, wood sorrel, maiden-hair common, whiteor wall rue, black and golden maudlin, agremony, vervain, mallow, ladies mantle, chickweed, marshmallows, and pimpernel both male andfemale, water pimpernel, dill, angelica, smallage, goose-grass, orcleavers, columbine, wild tansie, or silver weed, mugwort, asarabacca, woodroofe, arach, distaff thistle, mousear, costmary, or alcost, burdock greater and lesser, brooklime, or water pimpernel, beetswhite, red, and black, betony of the wood and water daisies greaterand lesser, blite, mercury, borrage, oak of jerusalem, cabbages, sodonella, briony white and black, bugloss, buglesse, shepherdpurse, ox-eye, box leaves, calaminth of the mountains and fens, ground pine, wood-bine, or honey-suckles, lady-smocks, marygolds, ourlady thistle, carduus benedictus, avens, small spurge, horse-tail, coleworts, centaury the less, knotgrass, cervil, germander, camomile, chamepytis female southernwood, chelene, pilewort, chicory, hemlock, garden and sea scurvy-grass, fleawort, comfry great, middle, or bugle, least or daisies, sarasens, confound, buck-horn, plantain, may weed, or margweed, as we in sussex call it orpine, sampeer, crosewort, dodder, blue bottle great and small, artichokes, houndstone, cypressleaves, dandelion, dittany of treet, box leaves, teazles garden andwild, dwarff elder, viper bugloss, lluellin, smallage, endive, elecampane, horsetail, epithimum, groundsel, hedge-mustard, spurge, agrimony, maudlin, eye-bright, orpine, fennel, sampeer, fillipendula, indian leaf, strawberry leaves, ash tree leaves, fumitory, goat rue, lady bedstraw, broom, muscatu, herb robert, doves foot, cottonweed, hedge hyssop, tree ivy, ground ivy, or alehoof, elecampane, pellitoryof the wall, liver-wort, cowslips, rupture-wort, hawkweed, monkrhubarb, alexanders, clary garden and wild, henbane, st john-wort, horsetongue, or double tongue, hysop, sciatica cresses, small sengreen, sharewort, woad, reeds, schænanth, chamepitys, glasswort, lettice, lagobus, arch-angel, burdock great and small, lavender, laurel, bayleaves, english and alexandrian, duckweed, dittander, or pepper-wort, lovage, privet, sea bugloss, toad flax, harts-tongue, sweet trefoil, wood-sorrel, hops, willow-herb, marjoram, common and tree mallows, mandrake, hore-hound white and black, herb mastich, featherfew, woodbine, melilot, bawm garden and water, mints, horse-mints, mercury, mezereon, yarrow, devil-bit, moss, sweet chivil, mirtleleaves, garden and water cresses, nep, tobacco, money-wort, waterlilies, bazil, olive leaves, rest-harrow, adder tongue, origanum, sharp-pointed dock, poppy, white, black, and red, or erratick, pellitory of the wall, cinquefoil, ars-smart spotted and not spotted, peach leaves, thoroughwax, parsley, hart tongue, valeriak, mouse-ear, burnet, small spurge, plantain common and narrow leaved, mountain andcretick poley, knotgrass, golden maidenhair, poplar leaves and buds, leeks, purslain, silverweed, or wild tansy, horehound white and black, primroses, self-heal, field pellitory, or sneezewort, pennyroyal, fleabane, lungwort, winter-green, oak leaves and buds, docks, commonrue, wall rue or white maidenhair, wild rue, savin, osier leaves, garden sage the greater and lesser, wild sage, elder leaves andbuds, marjorum, burnet, sanicle, sopewort, savory, white saxifrage, scabious, chicory, schœnanth, clary, scordium, figwort, houseleek, orsengreen the greater and lesser, groundsel, senna leaves and pods, mother of time, solomon seal, alexanders, nightshade, soldanela, sow-thistles, smooth and rough, flixweed, common spike, spinach, hawthorn, devil-bit, comfry, tamarisk leaves, tansy, dandelyon, mullen or higcaper, time, lime tree leaves, spurge, tormentil, commonand golden trefoil, wood-sorrel, sweet trefoil, colt-foot, valerian, mullen, vervain, paul bettony, lluellin, violets, tansy, perewinkles, swallow-wort, golden rod, vine leaves, meadsweet, elm leaves, naval-wort, nettles, common and roman, archangel, or dead nettles, white and red culpeper these be the herbs as the college set down to look upon, wewill see if we can translate them in another form to the benefit of thebody of man herbs temperate in respect of heat, are common maiden-hair, wall-rue, black and golden maiden-hair, woodroof, bugle, goat rue, hart-tongue, sweet trefoil, flixweed, cinquefoil, trefoil, paulbettony, lluellin intemperate and hot in the first degree, are agrimony, marsh-mallows, goose-grass or cleavers, distaff thistle, borrage, bugloss, or ladythistles, avens, cetrach, chervil, chamomel, eyebright, cowslips, melilot, bazil, self-heal in the second common and roman wormwood, maudlin, lady mantle, pimpernel male and female, dill, smallage, mugwort, costmary, betony, oak of jerusalem, marigold, cuckooflowers, carduus benedictus, centaurythe less, chamepitys, scurvy-grass, indian leaf, broom, ale-hoof, alexanders, double-tongue, or tongue-blade, archangel, or dead nettles, bay leaves, marjoram, horehound, bawm, mercury, devil-bit, tobacco, parsley, poley mountain, rosemary, sage, sanicle scabious, senna, soldanella, tansy, vervain, perewinkle in the third degree southernwood male and female, brooklime, angelica, briony white and black, calaminth, germander, sullendine, pilewort, fleabane, dwarf elder, epithimun, bank-cresses, clary, glasswort, lavender, lovage, herb mastich, featherfew, mints, water-cresses, origanum, biting arsmart, called in latin hydropiper, the college confounds this with persicaria, or mild arsmart, whichis cold sneezewort, pennyroyal, rue, savin, summer and winter savory, mother of time, lavender, spike, time, nettles in the fourth degree sciatica-cresses, stone-crop, dittany, orpepper-wort, garden-cresses, leeks, crowfoot, rosa solis, spurge herbs cold in the first degree sorrel, wood-sorrel, arach, burdock, shepherd-purse, pellitory of the wall, hawk-weed, mallows, yarrow, mild arsmart, called persicaria, burnet, coltsfoot, violets cold in the second degree chickweed, wild tansy, or silverweed, daisies, knotgrass, succory, buck-horn, plantain, dandelyon, endive, fumitory, strawberry leaves, lettice, duck-meat, plantain, purslain, willow leaves in the third degree sengreen, or house-leek, nightshade in the fourth degree hemlock, henbane, mandrakes, poppies herbs dry in the first degree agrimony, marsh-mallows, cleavers, burdocks, shepherds-purse, our lady thistle, chervil, chamomel, eye-bright, cowslips, hawkweed, tongue-blade, or double tongue, melilot, mild arsmart, self-heal, senna, flixweed, coltsfoot, perewinkle dry in the second degree common and roman wormwood, sorrel, wood-sorrel, maudlin, lady mantle, pimpernel male and female, dill, smallage, wild tansy, or silverweed, mugwort, distaff thistle, costmary, betony, bugle, cuckooflowers, carduus benedictus, avens, centaury the less, chicory, commonly called succory, scurvy-grass, buckhorn, plantain, dandelyon, endive, indian leaf, strawberry leaves, fumitory, broom, alehoof, alexanders, archangel, or dead nettles, whiteand red, bay leaves, marjoram, featherfew, bawm, mercury, devil-bit, tobacco, parsley, burnet, plantain, rosemary, willow leaves, sage, santicle, scabious, soldanella, vervain dry in the third degree southernwood, male and female, brooklime, angelica, briony, white and black, calamint, germander, chamepitys, selandine, pilewort, fleabane, epithinum, dwarf-elder, bank cresses, clary, glasswort, lavender, lovage, horehound, herb mastic, mints, watercresses, origanum, cinquefoil, hot arsmart, poley mountain, sneezewort, penny-royal, rue, or herb of grace, savin, winter andsummer savory, mother of time, lavender, silk, tansy, time, trefoil in the fourth degree garden-cresses, wild rue, leeks, onions, crowfoot, rosa solis, garlic, spurge herbs moist in the first degree borrage, bugloss, marigolds, pellitory of the wall, mallows, bazil in the fourth degree chickweed, arach, daisies, lettice, duckmeat, purslain, sow thistles, violets, water-lilies herbs appropriated to certain writings of the body of man heat the head maudlin, costmary, betony, carduus benedictus, sullendine, scurvy-grass, eye-bright, goat rue, cowslips, lavender, laurel, lovage, herb mastich, feather-few, melilot, sneezewort, penny-royal, senna, mother of time, vervain, rosemary heat the throat archangel white and red, otherwise called deadnettles, devil-bit heat the breast maiden-hair, white, black, common and golden, distaff thistle, time, betony, calaminth, chamomel, fennel, indian-leaf, bay leaves, hyssop, bawm, horehound, oak of jerusalem, germander, melilot, origanum, rue, scabious, periwinkles, nettles heat the heart southernwood male and female, angelica, wood-roof, bugloss, carduus benedictus, borrage, goat rue, senna, bazil, rosemary, elecampane heat the stomach wormwood common and roman, smallage, avens, indianleaf, broom, schenanth, bay leaves, bawm, mints, parsley, fennel, time, mother of time, sage heat the liver agrimony, maudlin, pimpernel, male and female, smallage, costmary, or ale cost, our lady thistles, centaury theless, germander, chamepytis, selandine, sampier, fox gloves, ash-treeleaves, bay leaves, toad-flax, hops, horehound, water-cresses, parsley, poley mountain, sage, scordium, senna, mother of time, soldanella, asarabacca, fennel, hyssop, spikenard heat the bowels chamomel, alehoofe, alexanders heat the spleen all the four sorts of maiden-hair, agrimony, smallage, centaury the less, cetrach, germander, chamepitys, samphire, fox-glove, epithimum, ash-tree, bay leaves, toad-flax, hops, horehound, parsley, poley, mountain sage, scordium, senna, mother of time, tamarisk, wormwood, water-cresses, hart-tongue heat the reins and bladder agrimony, maudlin, marsh-mallows, pimpernel male and female, brooklime, costmary, bettony, chervil, germander, chamomel, samphire, broom, rupture-wort, clary, schenanth, bay-leaves, toad-flax, hops, melilot, water-cresses, origanum, pennyroyal, scordium, vervain, mother of time, rocket, spikenard, saxifrage, nettles heat the womb maudlin, angelica, mugwort, costmary, calaminth, flea-bane, may-weed, ormarg-weed, dittany of crete, schenanth, arch-angel or dead nettles, melilot, feather-few, mints, devil-bit, origanum, bazil, pennyroyal, savin, sage, scordium, tansy, time, vervain, periwinkles, nettles heat the joints cowslips, sciatica-cresses, hot arsmart, garden-cresses, costmary, agrimony, chamomel, saint john-wort, melilot, water-cresses, rosemary, rue, sage, stechas herbs cooling the head wood-sorrel, teazles, lettice, plantain, willow-leaves, sengreen or houseleek, strawberry-leaves, violet-leaves, fumitory, water lilies cool the throat orpine, strawberry leaves, privet, bramble leaves breast mulberry leaves, bramble leaves, violet leaves, strawberryleaves, sorrel, wood-sorrel, poppies, orpine, moneywort, plantain, colt-foot heart sorrel, wood sorrel, viper bugloss, lettice, burnet, violetleaves, strawberry leaves, and water-lilies stomach sorrel, wood sorrel, succory, orpine, dandelyon, endive, strawberry leaves, hawkweed, lettice, purslain, sow thistles, violetleaves liver sorrel, woodsorrel, dandelyon, endive, succory, strawberryleaves, fumitory, liverwort, lettice, purslain, nightshade, waterlilies bowels fumitory, mallows, buckthorn, plantain, orpine, plantain, burnet spleen fumitory, endive, succory, lettice reins and bladder knotgrass, mallows, yarrow, moneywort, plantain, endive, succory, lettice, purslain, water lilies, houseleek or sengreen the womb wild tansy, arrach, burdocks, willow herb, mirtle leaves, moneywort, purslain, sow thistles, endive, succory, lettice, waterlilies, sengreen the joints willow leaves, vine leaves, lettice, henbane, nightshade, sengreen or houseleek herbs altering according to property, in operation, essay bind, asamomus, agnus castus, shepherd purse, cypress, horsetail, ivy, bayleaves, melilot, bawm, mirtles, sorrel, plantain, knot-grass, comfry, cinquefoil, fleawort, purslain, oak leaves, willow leaves, sengreen orhouseleek, &c open, as, garlick, onions, wormwood, mallows, marsh-mallows, pellitory of the wall, endive, succory, &c soften mallows, marsh-mallows, beets, pellitory of the wall, violet leaves, strawberry leaves, arrach, cypress leaves, bay leaves, fleawort, &c harden purslain, nightshade, houseleek or sengreen, duckmeat, andmost other herbs that are very cold extenuate mugwort, chamomel, hysop, pennyroyal, stœchas, time, mother of time, juniper, &c discuss southernwood male and female, all the four sorts ofmaidenhair, marsh-mallows, dill, mallows, arrach, beets, chamomel, mints, melilot, pelitory of the wall, chickweed, rue, stœchas, marjoram draw pimpernel, birthwort, dittany, leeks, onions, garlick, and alsotake this general rule, as all cold things bind and harden, so allthings very hot are drying suppure mallows, marsh-mallows, white lily leaves, &c cleanse pimpernel, southernwood, sparagus, cetrach, arrach, wormwood, beet, pellitory of the wall, chamepitis, dodder, liverwort, horehound, willow leaves, &c glutinate marsh-mallows, pimpernel, centaury, chamepitis, mallows, germander, horsetail, agrimony, maudlin, strawberry leaves, woad-chervil, plantain, cinquefoil, comfry, bugle, self-heal, woundwort, tormentil, rupture-wort, knot-grass, tobacco expel wind wormwood, garlick, dill, smallage, chamomel, epithimum, fennel, juniper, marjoram, origanum, savory both winter and summer tansy is good to cleanse the stomach and bowels of rough viscous flegm, and humours that stick to them, which the flegmatic constitution of thewinter usually infects the body of man with, and occasions gouts andother diseases of like nature and lasting long this was the originalof that custom to eat tansys in the spring. The herb may be made intoa conserve with sugar, or boil it in wine and drink the decoction, ormake the juice into a syrup with sugar, which you will herbs breed seed clary, rocket, and most herbs that are hot andmoist, and breed wind provoke the terms southernwood, garlick, all the sorts of maidenhair, mugwort, wormwood, bishops-weed, cabbages, bettony, centaury, chamomel, calaminth, germander, dodder, dittany, fennel, st johnwort, marjoram, horehound, bawm, water-cresses, origanum, bazil, pennyroyal, poley mountain, parsley, smallage, rue, rosemary, sage, savin, hartwort, time, mother of time, scordium, nettles stop the terms shepherd purse, strawberries, mirtles, waterlilies, plantain, houseleek or sengreen, comfry, knotgrass resist poison southernwood, wormwood, garlick, all sorts of maidenhair, smallage, bettony, carduus benedictus, germander, calaminth, alexanders, carline thistle, agrimony, fennel, juniper, horehound, origanum, pennyroyal, poley-mountain, rue, scordium, plantain discuss swellings maiden-hair, cleavers, or goosegrass, mallows, marsh-mallows, docks, bawm, water-cresses, cinquefoil, scordium, &c ease pain dil, wormwood, arach, chamomel, calaminth, chamepitis, henbane, hops, hog fennel, parsley, rosemary, rue, marjoram, motherof time herbs purging choler groundsel, hops, peach leaves, wormwood, centaury, mallows, senna melancholy ox-eye, epithimum, fumitory, senna, dodder flegm and water briony, white and black, spurge, both work mostviolently and are not fit for a vulgar use, dwarf elder, hedge hyssop, laurel leaves, mercury, mezereon also purges violently, and so dothsneezewort, elder leaves, senna for the writingicular operations of these, as also how to order the bodyafter purges, the quantity to be taken at a time, you have been in writinginstructed already, and shall be more fully hereafter flowers college wormwood, agnus castus, amaranthus, dill, rosemary, columbines, orrenges, balaustins, or pomegranate flowers, bettony, borrage, bugloss, marigolds, woodbine or honeysuckles, clovegilliflowers, centaury the less, chamomel, winter gilliflowers, succory, comfry the greater, saffron, blue-bottle great and small, synosbatus, tragus, and dedonæus hold our whitethorn to be it, cordus and marcelus think it to bebryars, lugdunensis takes it for the sweet bryar, but what ourcollege takes it for, i know not cytinus, dioscorides callsthe flowers of the manured pomegranates, cytinus, but plinycalls the flowers of the wild kind by that name, fox-glove, vipersbugloss, rocket, eye-bright, beans, fumitory, broom, cowslips, st john wort, hysop, jessamine or shrub, trefoil, archangel, or deadnettles white and red, lavender, wall-flowers, or winter-gilliflowers, privet, lilies white, and of the valley, hops, common and tree mallows, feather-few, woodbine, or honeysuckles, melilot, bawm, walnuts, water-lilies white and yellow, origanum, poppies white and red, orerraticks, poppies, or corn roses, so called because they grow amongstcorn, peony, honeysuckles, or woodbine, peach-flowers, primroses, self-heal, sloe bush, rosemary flowers, roses, white, damask and red, sage, elder, white saxifrage, scabious, siligo, i think they meanwheat by it, authors are not agreed about it steches, tamarisk, tansy, mullen or higtaper, limetree, clove gilliflowers, colt-foot, violets, agnus castus, dead nettles white and red culpeper that these may be a little explained for the public good:be pleased to take notice essay are hot in the first degree, as borrage, bugloss, bettony, ox-eye, melilot, chamomel, stœchas hot in the second degree amomus, saffron, clove-gilliflowers, rocket, bawm, spikenard, hops, schenanth, lavender, jasmine, rosemary in the third degree agnus castus, epithimum, winter-gilliflowers, or wallflowers, woodbine, or honey-suckles cold in the first degree mallows, roses, red, white, and damaskviolets in the second anemom, or wind-flower, endive, succory, water-lilies, both white and yellow in the third balaustins, or pomegranate flowers in the fourth henbane, and all the sorts of poppies, only whereasauthors say, field poppies, which essay call red, others erratick andcorn roses, are the coldest of all the others. Yet my opinion is, thatthey are not cold in the fourth degree moist in the first degree borrage, bugloss, mallows, succory, endive in the second water-lilies, violets dry in the first degree ox-eye, saffron, chamomel, melilot, roses in the second wind-flower, amomus, clove-gilliflowers, rocket, lavender, hops, peony, rosemary, spikenard in the third woodbine, or honey-suckles, balaustines, epithimum, germander, chamepitis the temperature of any other flowers not here mentioned are of the sametemperature with the herbs, you may gain skill by searching there forthem, you can loose none for the writings of the body, they are appropriated to, essay heatthe head. As, rosemary flowers, self-heal, chamomel, bettony, cowslips, lavender, melilot, peony, sage, stœchas the breast bettony, bawm, scabious, schœnanth the heart bawm, rosemary flowers, borrage, bugloss, saffron, spikenard the stomach rosemary-flowers, spikenard, schœnanth the liver centaury, schænanth, elder, bettony, chamomel, spikenard the spleen bettony, wall-flowers the reins and bladder bettony, marsh-mallows, melilot, schœnanth, spikenard the womb bettony, squinanth or schenanth, sage, orris orflower-de-luce the joints rosemary-flowers, cowslips, chamomel, melilot flowers, as they are cooling, so they coolthe head violets, roses, the three sorts of poppies, andwater-lilies the breast and heart violets, red roses, water-lilies the stomach red roses, violets the liver and spleen endive, and succory violets, borrage, and bugloss, moisten the heart, rosemary-flowers, bawm and bettony, dry it according to property, so they bind balaustins, saffron, succory, endive, red-roses, melilot, bawm, clove-gilliflowers, agnus castus discuss dill, chamomel, marsh-mallows, mallows, melilot, stœchas, &c cleanse damask-roses, elder flowers, bean flowers, &c extenuate orris, or flower-de-luce, chamomel, melilot, stœchas, &c mollify saffron, white lilies, mallows, marsh-mallows, &c suppure saffron, white lilies, &c glutinate balaustines, centaury, &c provoke the terms bettony, centaury, chamomel, schœnanth, wall-flowers, bawm peony, rosemary, sage stop the terms balaustines, or pomegranate flowers, water lilies expel wind dill, chamomel, schœnanth, spikenard help burnings white lilies, mallows, marsh-mallows resist poison bettony, centaury ease pain dill, chamomel, centaury, melilot, rosemary flowers purge choler peach flowers, damask roses, violets flegm broom flowers, elder flowers if you compare but the quality of the flowers with the herbs, and withthe explanation of these terms at the latter end, you may easily findthe temperature and property of the rest the flowers of ox-eye being boiled into a poultice with a little barleymeal, take away swellings and hardness of the flesh, being applied warmto the place chamomel flowers heat, discuss, loosen and rarify, boiled in clysters, they are excellent in the wind cholic, boiled in wine, and thedecoction drunk, purges the reins, break the stone, opens the pores, cast out choleric humours, succours the heart, and eases pains andaches, or stiffness coming by travelling the flowers of rocket used outwardly, discuss swellings, and dissolvehard tumors, you may boil them into a poultice, but inwardly taken theysend but unwholeessay vapours up to the head hops open obstructions of the bowels, liver, and spleen, they cleansethe body of choler and flegm, provoke urine jasmine flowers boiled in oil, and the grieved place bathed with it, takes away cramps and stitches in the sides the flowers of woodbine, or honeysuckles, being dryed and beateninto powder, and a dram taken in white wine in the morning, helpsthe rickets, difficulty of breathing. Provoke urine, and help thestranguary the flowers of mallows being bruised and boiled in honey two ouncesof the flowers is sufficient for a pound of honey.

Relating to living persons in the second andthird volumes the applications of the microscope to forensic medicinewill be treated of in the second volume the fourth volume will containthe division relating to toxicology r a w medical jurisprudence the legal relations of physicians and surgeons, including their acquirement of the right to practise medicine and surgery. Their legal duties and obligations. Their right to compensation. Their privileges and duties when summoned as witnesses in courts of justice, and their liability for malpractice by tracy c becker, a b , ll b , counsellor-at-law. Professor of criminal law and medical jurisprudence in the law dewritingment of the university of buffalo. Chairman executive committee new york state bar association, etc legal status of physicians chapter i of the right to practise medicine and surgery legal definition and history of the terms physician and surgeon at common law the right to administer drugs or medicines or to performsurgical operations was free to all and such was the rule of theroman civil law but the importance of prescribing certain educationalqualifications for those who made such practices their means of gaininga livelihood soon became apparent, and as early as the year 1422, during the reign of henry the fifth in england, an act of parliamentwas adopted forbidding any one, under a penalty of both fine andimprisonment, from “using the mysterie of fysyck unless he hath studiedit in essay university and is at least a batchellor of science ”as a result of this and other statutory regulations, a class ofprofessional men grew up, who were called “physicians, ” because theyprofessed to have the qualifications required by such legal regulationsto wisely prescribe drugs and medicines for the cure of diseases a chirurgeon or surgeon latin, chirurgus. Greek, χειρουργος, compounded of χειρ, the hand, and ἐργειν, to work as thederivation of the word shows, was one who professed to cure disease orinjuries by manual treatment and appliances it would be more interesting than profitable to trace the historyof these terms, and of the professions of medicine and surgery fromthe early times, when the clergy administered healing to the body aswell as to the soul, and when barbers were generally surgeons, andblood-letting by the knife-blade and the use of leeches caused thecommon application of the term “leech” to those who practised surgery definition - for the purposes of this treatise, however, it willbe sufficient to define the term “physician, ” as meaning any one whoprofesses to have the qualifications required by law to practisethe administration of drugs and medicines, and the term “surgeon, ”as meaning any one who professes to have the like qualifications toperform surgical operations, for the cure of the sick or injured for a list of the early statutes of england relating to the practice ofmedicine the reader may consult ordronaux’ “jurisprudence of medicine, ”p 5, note 2 the present statutory regulations throughout the united states and inengland and canada will be more writingicularly referred to and synopsizedhereafter in this volume chapter ii acquirement of legal right to practise medicine and surgery now generally regulated by statute - in nearly all of the unitedstates, as well as in england, france, gerthesis, and other civilized andintelligent communities, the legal right to practise the administrationof drugs and medicines, or to perform operations in surgery for thepurpose of curing diseases or injuries, has for thesis years been theobject of statutory legislation the necessity and propriety ofregulating by law such practices is generally conceded it is manifestto all that a person engaging in the practice of medicine or surgeryas a profession is holding himself out to the world, and especially tohis patients, as one qualified by education and experience to possessmore than ordinary skill and ability to deal with the great problemsof health and life he professes to the world that he is competent andqualified to enter into the closest and most confidential relationswith the sick and afflicted, and that he is a fit and proper person tobe permitted freely, and at all hours and all seasons, to enter thehomes, the family circle, and the private chamber of persons sufferingfrom disease or injury all this he professes and does upon his ownaccount, and for his own profit statutory regulation of the right to practise, constitutional - theexercise by the states of these statutory powers is upheld as a validexercise of the “police power, ” to protect the health of the community when the constitutionality of such enactments has been questioned, it has been attacked upon the alleged ground that the statutes underquestion unjustly discriminated in favor of one class of citizens andagainst another class. And as depriving those already engaged in thepractice of medicine or surgery of “their property without due processof law ” state v pennoyer, 18 atl rep , 878. Ex writinge spinney, 10 nev , 323.

Nor doesit prevent online homework helper a druggist, apothecary, or storekeeper from suing for andrecovering the price of drugs or chemicals supplied or sold by him42 the act does not prevent a person not holding a medical degree, license, or diploma from a university or college from practisingmedicine, surgery, or midwifery provided he was engaged in suchpractice in the province for five years immediately before the passageof the act, nor from recovering with costs his reasonable charges forprofessional aid, advice, and visits and the cost of medicine or othermedical or surgical appliances rendered or supplied by him to hispatients 43 appeal on prosecution - appeal from the decision on prosecution may betaken to the supreme court 44 schedule a. University of pennsylvania, philadelphia, pa jefferson medical college, philadelphia, pa bellevue medical college, new york, n y university of new york, new york, n y college of physicians and surgeons, new york, n y harvard university university of michigan schedule b specifies at length the requirements for the examinationmentioned in sec 13 fees - persons registered under sec 2 are not required to pay a fee for registration under secs 11 and 12, not exceeding $20, to be fixedby the society to the council, for a license under sec 15, $5 an annual fee is required to be paid by members of the society, notmore than $5 annually, as levied by the council 17 for registration under sec 19, such fees as the council may appoint quebec college of physicians, etc - all persons residing in the provinceauthorized to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery therein, andregistered under this law, are constituted a corporation by the name of“the college of physicians and surgeons of the province of quebec” r s , 1888, art 3, 969 the affairs of the college are conducted by a board of governors, fortyin number, chosen as provided in the act and known as the “provincialmedical board” art 3, 972 to 3, 975 qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine, surgery, ormidwifery unless he has obtained a license from the said board andunless he be registered art 3, 976 every person who obtains a medical degree or diploma in any universityor college mentioned in art 3, 972 is entitled to such license withoutexamination as to his medical knowledge or skill, provided such diplomahas only been given after four years of medical study from the dateof admission to study and according to the requirements of the act;provided, the said board has power to grant the same privileges toholders of degrees or diplomas of medicine and surgery from otherbritish colonial or french universities or colleges art 3, 977 the colleges referred to in art 3, 792 are. Laval university at quebec, laval university at montreal, university of mcgill college, universityof bishops college, the incorporated school of medicine and surgery ofmontreal affiliated with the university of victoria college or with anyother british university the privilege above conferred on holders ofdegrees or diplomas from british colleges and universities is extendedto every person whose name is entered upon the medical register underthe imperial medical act of 1886 49-50 vict , c 48 or of any actamending the same art 3, 977 a, as added by act 1889, c 39 the law prescribes the preliminary qualifications for admission tostudy medicine, surgery, or midwifery to be ascertained by examination no one is entitled to the license of the college on presentation ofa diploma unless previously admitted to study in accordance withthese conditions, or unless he has passed an equivalent preliminaryexamination before a college, school or board authorized by law torequire and cause such preliminary examinations to be passed in herbritish majesty other possessions arts 3, 978, 3, 979 a candidate for a license to practise desiring to be registered, and who has not obtained a degree or diploma in medicine from anyinstitution mentioned in art 3, 972 supra must, before beingentitled to such license and to register, pass an examination beforethe board as to his knowledge and skill for the efficient practiceof medicine, surgery, and midwifery upon passing the examinationand proving to the satisfaction of the examiners that he has, in aninstitution for the teaching of medicine in her majesty possessions, complied with the rules and regulations made by the provincial board, and on payment of such fees as the board may by general by-lawestablish, such person shall be entitled to a license art 3, 980 all persons coming from any recognized college outside of hermajesty possessions desirous of obtaining a license from the collegeof physicians and surgeons of the province must previously pass apreliminary examination before the examiners appointed by the boardor establish to the satisfaction of the board that they have alreadypassed equivalent examinations, and they must moreover follow in oneof the schools of medicine in the province a complete course for sixmonths of lectures, and such other course or courses as shall benecessary to complete the curriculum required by the board they maypass their professional examination immediately after their preliminaryexamination art 3, 981 powers of medical board - the board of governors of the college ofphysicians and surgeons has among other powers the power to examineall credentials and documents purporting to entitle the bearer to alicense to practise and all diplomas, degrees, or other qualificationssought to be registered, and to require the bearer to attest on oath, to be administered by the chairman, that he is the person whose name ismentioned therein, and that he became legally possessed thereof. And toregister in the books of the college the name, age, place of residenceand birth of every member of the profession practising in the province, the date of his license and the place where he obtained it art 3, 982 the provincial medical board, among other powers, has the power tomake regulations respecting the tariffs or rates to be charged intowns and counties for medical, obstetrical, or surgical advice, orfor attendance or for the performance of any operation or for anymedicines prescribed or supplied the tariff must be approved by thelieutenant-governor in council, and can only come into force six monthsafter its publication once in the quebec official gazette, and thatof the order in council approving the same the tariff does not, incase of suit, obviate the necessity of proof of giving the advice, care, prescriptions, medicines, and other things therein mentioned art 3, 983 the said board has power to fix the fees for license and registration art 3, 984 qualifications of candidate - the qualifications of a candidate for alicense are:1 that he holds a certificate of study from a licensed physician forthe period intervening between the courses of lectures which he hasfollowed 2 that he has reached the age of twenty-one years 3 that he has followed his studies during a period of not less thanfour years, commencing from the date of his admission by the board tostudy medicine 4 that during said four years he attended at essay university, college, or incorporated school of medicine within her majesty possessions notless than two six-months’ courses of general or descriptive anatomy, of practical anatomy, of surgery, of the practice of medicine, ofmidwifery, of chemistry, of materia medica and general therapeutics, ofthe institutions of medicine or physiology and general pathology, ofclinical medicine, and of clinical surgery. One six-months’ course ortwo three-months’ courses of medical jurisprudence, one three-months’course of botany, one three-months’ course of hygiene, and a courseof not less than twenty-five demonstrations upon microscopic anatomy, physiology, and pathology 5 that he attended the general practice of a hospital in which arecontained not less than fifty beds under the charge of not less thantwo physicians or surgeons, for not less than one and one-half years orthree periods of not less than six months each 6 that he has attended six paper of labor and compounded medicines forsix months each six-months’ course shall have consisted of one hundred and twentylectures except in the case of clinical medicine, clinical surgery, andmedical jurisprudence of four years’ study required by this section, three six-months’sessions, at least, must be passed in attending upon lectures at auniversity, college, or incorporated school of medicine recognized bythe board the first of such courses must have been attended during the sessionimmediately succeeding the preliminary examination, and the lastduring the fourth year of study, and the candidates must undergo anexamination on the final subjects of the curriculum at the end of thesession in the fourth year of study art 3, 985 members of college - all persons obtaining a license to practise fromthe college of physicians and surgeons of the province are members ofthe college, but are not eligible for governors within four years fromthe date of their admission as members art 3, 986 women - the provincial medical board has power to make regulationsrespecting the admission of women to the study and practice ofmidwifery women who were legally qualified on the 31st of october, 1879, to practise as midwives in the province, while required toconform to the rules of said college, retain their right nothing inthe act or the regulations shall prevent women in the country frompractising midwifery or assisting at accouchements without beingadmitted to the study or practice of midwifery. But they must obtain acertificate from a duly licensed physician certifying that they havethe necessary knowledge art 3, 987 register - the medical board is required to cause to be kept by theregistrar a register of persons duly licensed and registered, andwho have complied with the law and the regulations of the board, andthose persons only whose names are inscribed therein are deemed to bequalified and licensed art 3, 988 the registrar is required from time to time to make the necessaryalterations in the register art 3, 989 evidence - the registrar, under the direction of the board ofgovernors, causes to be printed, published, and distributed to themembers, from time to time, a copy, called the quebec medicalregister, of the register, containing names, surnames, residences, medical titles, diplomas, and qualifications conferred by a collegeor other medical body, with the dates of the same a printed copy, certified under the hand of the registrar as such, is prima facieevidence that the persons named and entered have been registered inaccordance with this law the absence of the name of any person fromsuch copy is prima facie proof that such person has not been lawfullyregistered. Provided always in case a person name does not appearon such printed copy, a copy or extract from the register certifiedby the registrar of the college of the entry of such person name onthe register is proof that such person is duly registered art 3, 990 a certificate under the hand of the registrar of the payment of theannual contribution of members of the college is prima facie evidencethat such payments have been made art 3, 991 neglect to register - a person entitled to register who neglects toregister is not entitled to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, or to claim any of the rights and privileges conferred, and is liablefor all penalties imposed for practising without registration, savingthe right of certain members holding a license from the college ofphysicians and surgeons of lower canada art 3, 992 established practitioner - a person who has attended medical lecturesduring three sessions of a medical school in the british possessions, and who has actually been engaged in the practice of medicine forover thirty years in the province, may, on proof of these facts tothe satisfaction of the provincial medical board, and producing acertificate signed by two resident medical practitioners in theneighborhood where he has practised that he has succeeded in hisprofession, and is entitled to the consideration of the board, beentitled to a license and to registration without an examination art 3, 993 unregistered persons - no person unless otherwise authorized isentitled to recover any charge for medical or surgical advice, orprofessional service, or for the performance of any operation, or forany medicines prescribed or supplied, nor is he entitled to any of therights or privileges conferred, unless he has registered accordingto law and paid his annual contribution to the college art 3, 994 no certificate required from any physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer is registered art 3, 995 persons guilty of felony - any registered member of the medicalprofession convicted of felony forfeits his right to registration, and the medical board causes his name to be erased from the register art 3, 996 if a person known to have been convicted of felony presents himselffor registration, the registrar is required to refuse him registration art 3, 997 offences and penalties - a person not entitled to register convicted ofhaving practised in contravention of this law, for reward or the hopeof reward, is liable to a penalty of $50 a like penalty is incurred by every person assuming the title ofdoctor, physician, or surgeon, or any other name implying that he islegally authorized to practise, if unable to establish the fact bylegal proof, and by every person who in an advertisement in a newspaperor in a written or printed circular, or on business cards or on signs, assumes a designation so as to lead the public to believe that he isduly registered or qualified. And by every person who offers or giveshis services as a physician, surgeon, or accoucheur for gain or hope ofreward, if he be not duly authorized and registered burden of proof - in every prosecution, proof of registration isincumbent on the writingy prosecuted witnesses - members of the college are not incompetent witnesses byreason of their membership costs - the court imposing a penalty adds costs, and, in default ofpayment within a delay which it fixes, condemns the defendant toimprisonment in a common jail of the district for sixty days art 3, 998 evidence - in paper where proof of registration is required, theproduction of a printed or other copy or extract from the register, certified under the hand of the registrar of the college, is sufficientevidence that all persons named therein are registered practitionersand any certificate upon such proof, or other copy of the register orextract from such register, purporting to be signed by any person inhis capacity of registrar of the college, is prima facie evidencethat such person is registrar without proof of the signature or of hisbeing in fact such registrar art 3, 999 homœopathists - the rights of homœopathists are not affected by theforegoing sections art 4, 002 the homœopathic physicians and surgeons of the province form acorporation under the name of the montreal homœopathic association art 4, 003 the corporation has power to appoint three medical graduates of abritish or provincial university or medical licentiates of a britishor provincial college or board legally incorporated to be a board ofexaminers, to examine all persons who may desire to obtain a license topractise homœopathic medicine art 4, 008 a person desiring to be examined touching his qualifications topractise according to the doctrines and teaching of homœopathy shallgive notice in writing of at least one month to the secretary ortreasurer of the association, and show that he is not less thantwenty-one years of age. Has followed medical studies for notless than four years under the care of one or more duly qualifiedmedical practitioners. Has attended at essay recognized university orincorporated school of medicine not less than two six-months’ coursesof anatomy, physiology, surgery, theory and practice of medicine, midwifery, chemistry, materia medica, and therapeutics respectively, and not less than one six-months’ course of clinical medicine andmedical jurisprudence respectively, or their equivalents in time;and shall have complied with the regulations of such university orincorporated school of medicine with regard to such courses, andshall have followed such other course or courses as may hereafter beconsidered by the board of examiners requisite for the advancement of amedical education all such persons shall, at a regularly appointed time and place, beexamined on all the aforesaid branches by the board of examiners art 4, 009 if the board be satisfied by examination that a person is dulyqualified to practise either or all of said branches of medicine, astaught and practised by homœopathists, they shall certify the sameunder the hands and seals of two or all of such board the lieutenant-governor, on receipt of such certificate, may, ifsatisfied of the loyalty, integrity, and good morals of the applicant, grant to him a license to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery, oreither of them, conformably to the certificate, and all such licenseesare entitled to all the privileges enjoyed by licentiates of medicine art 4, 010 the corporation appoints a secretary who keeps a register of names ofall persons duly licensed to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery, or either of them, according to the doctrines and teachings ofhomœopathy only those whose names are inscribed in said register are qualifiedand licensed to practise according to the doctrines and teachings ofhomœopathy art 4, 015 the said secretary is required to make the necessary alterations inthe addresses or qualifications of the persons registered art 4, 016 offences and penalties - a person practising according to thehomœopathic doctrines for reward in contravention of this act, orassuming a title implying that a person is legally authorized topractise according to homœopathic doctrines, if unable legally toestablish such authorization. Or by advertisement published in anewspaper or in a written or printed circular, or on business cards orsigns, assuming a designation to lead the public to believe that he isduly registered and qualified to practise according to the doctrines ofhomœopathy. Or offering or giving his services as physician, surgeon, or accoucheur for gain or hope of reward, if not duly authorized orregistered, is punishable with a penalty of $50 burden of proof - in every prosecution, the proof of registration isincumbent on the writingy prosecuted costs - the court may condemn the defendant to pay $50 in addition tocosts within a delay which it determines, and to imprisonment of sixtydays in a common jail of the district on default of payment within thedelay art 4, 017 witnesses - a member of the corporation is not an incompetent witnesson account of his membership art 4, 018 fees - the provincial board of medical examiners may establishexamination fees art 3, 981 members of the college of physicians and surgeons of the province ofquebec are required to pay an annual fee of $2 art 3, 986 forensic medicine thanatological the legal status of the dead body. The disposal and obligation to dispose of the same. How and by whom it may be exhumed or removed. Autopsies, by whom ordered. The rights of relatives and accused persons including an appendix containing a synopsis of the statutes of the different united states and territories concerning same by tracy c becker, a b , ll b , etc , counsellor at law, etc.

“dr rahtjen studied in heidelberg, berlin, munich, marburg, and rostock, gerthesis, from which latter school in 1904, he graduated in chemical pathology as doctor of philosophy he became assistant professor of pathology at the imperial biological station at heligoland, and was later appointed assistant to dr piorkowsky, head of the deutsche schutz und heilserum gesellschaft ”the same circular summarizes the potentialities of “rahtjen cure fortuberculosis” thus. “the remedy seems to cure tuberculosis in all its forms with equal celerity and certainty the evidences indicate that it does not matter how far the disease has progressed, if there be tissue of the attacked organ remaining sufficient to sustain life, the disease can be wholly eradicated and the patient restored to health this is indicated alike in tuberculosis of the lungs, of the throat, of the bladder, of the kidneys ”the booklet stated further that patients might be treated at one of twoplaces. At the offices of the sanatorium in the city of san francisco, or at the sanatorium itself near glenwood the cost of treatment atthe sanatorium was to be $1, 000, which would entitle “the patientto residence and attention there for four months ” according to theleaflet, “this is regarded as a period sufficient to restore thepatient to health whatever be the stage of his disease. Provided only, as we remark, that he has enough left of the infected organ to sustainlife with the t b expelled ” “at the end of four months the patient is sent to his home, not alone relieved of his disease, but in a highly vigorous state of health ”all this, as stated previously, was in 1917 and yet people are stilldying of tuberculosis!.

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In eight paper, women, the thyroid cartilage was injured three times, the cricoid online homework helper four. In eight, men, the thyroid eight and cricoid five whence he concluded that the larynx is better protected in women in the sixteen paper the hyoid bone was fractured ten times the proof of death by strangulation tidy787 says that “nothing short of distinct external marks wouldjustify the medical jurist in pronouncing death to be the resultof strangulation ” on the other hand, taylor788 considers thecondition of the lungs described as characteristic liman789 didnot think there were any internal appearances which could distinguishsuffocation, strangulation, and hanging from each other in estimating the value of testimony it will be well to consider thefollowing facts:a victim may be strangled without distinct marks being found thepractice of the thugs shows that this may be done with a soft cloth andcarefully regulated pressure without making marks taylor, 790 whileadmitting the possibility, states that this admission “scarcely appliesto those paper which require medico-legal investigation ”the subject while intoxicated or in an epileptic or hysterical paroxysmmay grasp his neck in gasping for air, and leave finger-marks different constricting agents may make quite similar marks marks maybe made on the neck within a limited time after death, similar tothose made during life tidy experiments led him to fix this limitat three hours for ecchymoses and six hours for non-ecchymosed marks taylor, 791 however, doubts if such marks could be made one hourafter death he says that the period cannot be stated positively, andprobably varies according to the rapidity with which the body cools it is, however, unlikely in such post-mortem attempts at deceptionthat the other conditions usual in strangulation would be found suchas lividity and swelling of face. Prominence and congestion of eyes;protrusion of tongue. Rupture of surface air-vesicles and apoplexies inthe lung. Congestion of larynx and trachea, etc no conclusion can be drawn from the presence or absence of any singleappearance a cord may be found near a body or even around its neck. There may evenbe a mark around the neck these may be attempts at deception marks much like those of violence may be made by tight collars andhandkerchiefs remaining until the body is cold paper are reported of bodies having been first strangled and thenburnt or hung to cover the crime. And of writingial suffocation by gags, followed by or coincident with strangulation see paper 18, 20, 24 in apoplectics with short and full neck we may find at the borders ofthe folds of skin in the neck one or more depressions, red or livid, that bear essay resemblance to the marks of a ligature. But on sectionthere are no ecchymoses froth, tinged with blood, in the air-passages is considered bytardieu792 one of the most constant signs of strangulation the marks of topical medical applications, as plasters, sinapisms, etc , must not be confounded with marks of violence in strangulation by ligature the marks are usually horizontal. Inhanging, oblique in hanging too they are usually dry and parchmenty ecchymoses are more marked in strangulation the dotted markings of face, neck, and conjunctivæ described by tardieuare more characteristic of strangulation the principal distinctions between strangulation and suffocation wouldbe the absence in the latter of marks on the neck taylor793 quotes the case of marguerite dixblanc, in which thequestion was raised whether she had strangled her mistress, madameriel, or whether the body had been dragged by a rope around the neck the question was left unsettled by the medical evidence the only motive for attempting to simulate strangulation on a corpsewould seem to be to inculpate an innocent person 794both suicides and murderers are usually more violent than is necessaryto destroy life. Murderers more than suicides putrefaction may cause external marks to disappear all marks on a body should be carefully noted.