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h c dodge, m d , steamboat springs, colo to the editor:-- in my professional life i have been flooded withthe usual number of insults to intelligence both by mail and by thesoftspoken detail man as a result, i have no doubt, of the activepropaganda for reform carried on by the journal, these insults havelost a certain quality of “rawness” and become much more cleverly done one of these has just been perpetrated on the profession which willprobably hold the championship pennant for 1916, although i admit thatit is early in the year to begin prophecy a very modestly bound, wellprinted volume comes to my desk with the compliments of the publishers at the end of the volume is a group of highly ethical advertisementsof other books of the author so far, so good the last four pages, however, contain the advertisement of a forthcoming book on the“autolysin” treatment of inoperable cancer perhaps we might forgivethis were it not for the following paragraph. “this book tells howthe general practitioner may take an active hand in fighting themalady the weapons he requires are an ordinary hypodermic syringe andessay ampules of autolysin the syringe he already possesses autolysinhe may secure, if he is a legally qualified practitioner, by writing, ”etc incidentally, the book is advertised to the intelligent layman isn’t it beautiful?. too bad the lamented f f f with his mock turtlesor those prominent eugenists of scopolamin-morphin fame could not takea lesson in advertising it was not very long ago that we were invitedto come east and learn how to use “autolysin, ” or else pay the ratherheavy fee for an imported tutor now all we need is a “gun” and essay ofthe “dope ” all this is interesting in view of the recent article onthe failure of “autolysin” in mouse tumor it is a foregone conclusionthat a lot of “autolysin” will be used, so cancer patients, who havebeen told that they have cancer, will get better through suggestion, and a lot of enthusiastic reports will pour in from medical brethrenwho have never studied psychology then the thing will slump and weshall all be ready for the next fad nevertheless, each one of these things furnishes us with a text foranother sermon on ethics of medical advertising, so i suppose they donot live in vain j w force, m d , berkeley, calif assistant professor of epidemiology, university of california comment -- with each of the foregoing communications is a circularletter from the goodhue company, advertising dr henry smith williams’book on “the autolysin treatment of cancer ” with this circular is abooklet entitled “notes on the treatment of inoperable cancer withthe new remedy autolysin horowitz-beebe issued by the autolysinlaboratory ” similar circular letters and pamphlets have been sent tothe journal from various writings of the country the goodhue company, publishers, therefore are apparently killing two birds with onestone-- advertising the book as well as “autolysin ”the journal has been informed that henry smith williams in essay of hismagazine articles uses the pen name “stoddard goodhue, ” and that henrysmith williams is a writing owner of the goodhue publishing company articles on “autolysin” will be found in the journal, nov 6, 1915, pp 1641, 1647 and 1662 the article on “action of ‘autolysin’ on mousetumors, ” by dr francis carter wood, appeared in the journal, jan 8, 1916, p 94 -- ed -- correspondence in the journal a m a , jan 29, 1916 “basic cancer research” and “cosmopolitan cancer research society”medical journals, and essay other technical publications, havereceived recently what purport to be items of news value sent out bythe “medical news bureau, ” 77 seventh ave , brooklyn, new york the“manager” of this alleged bureau is given as d e woolley these “newsitems” are undated but are marked.

And yet they say a goat liver conducesmuch to make one see in the night, and they give this reason, becausegoats see as well in the night as in online essay writers the day yet is there no affinityin temperature nor substance between the liver and the eyes. Howeverastrologers know well enough that all herbs, plants, &c that are underthe dominion of either sun or moon, and appropriated to the head, bethey hot or cold they strengthen the visive virtue, as eyebright, whichis hot, lunaria, or moonwort which is cold as for what appertains to the constitution of the eyes themselves, seeing they are exact in sense, they will not endure the leastinconvenience, therefore such medicines as are outwardly applied tothem for such medicines as strengthen the visive virtues are alwaysgiven inwardly let them neither hurt by their hardness nor gnawingquality, nor be so tough that they should stick to them thereforelet ocular medicines be neither in powders nor ointments, because oilitself is offensive to the eyes, and how pleasing powders are to them, you may perceive yourself by just going into the dust medicines appropriated to the mouth and nose apply no stinking medicine to a disease in the nose, for such offendnot only the nose, but also the brain. Neither administer medicinesof any ill taste to a disease in the mouth, for that subverts thestomach, because the tunicle of the mouth and of the stomach is thesame. And because both mouth and nostrils are ways by which the brainis cleansed, therefore are they infected with such vices as need almostcontinual cleansing, and let the medicines you apply to them be eitherpleasant, or at least, not ingrateful medicines appropriated to the ears the ears are easily afflicted by cold, because they are always open, therefore they require hot medicines and because they are ofthemselves very dry, therefore they require medicines which dry much medicines appropriated to the teeth vehement heat, and vehement cold, are inimical to the teeth, but theyare most of all offended by sharp and sour things, and the reason is, because they have neither skin nor flesh to cover them, they delight insuch medicines as are cleansing and binding, because they are troubledwith defluxions and rheums upon every light occasion. And that thereason the common use of fat and sweet things, soon rots the teeth chapter ii of medicines appropriated to the breast and lungs the medicines appropriated to the breast and lungs, you shall findcalled all along by the name of pectorals that the termphysicians give them, when you heat them talk of pectoral syrups, pectoral rows, or pectoral ointments they are divers, essay of which regard the writing afflicted, others thematter afflicting but although essaytimes in ulcers of the lungs, we are forced touse binding medicines, to join the ulcer, yet are not these calledpectorals, because binding medicines are extreme hurtful to the breastand lungs, both because they hinder one fetching his breath, and alsobecause they hinder the avoiding that flegm by which the breast isoppressed such medicines are called pectorals, which are of a lenifying nature besides, those which make thin matter thicker are of two sorts, viz essay are mild and gentle, which may safely be administered, be thematter hot or cold which offendeth. Others are very cold, which areused only when the matter offending is sharp but because such medicines as conduce to the cure of the phthisics which is an ulceration of the lungs, and the disease usually called, the consumption of the lungs, are also reckoned in amongst pectorals, it is not amiss to speak a word or two of them in the cure of this disease are three things to be regarded 1 to cut and bring away the concreted blood 2 to cherish and strengthen the lungs 3 to conglutinate the ulcer and indeed essay writingicular simples will perform all these, andphysicians confess it. Which shews the wonderful mystery the all-wisegod hath made in the creation, that one and the same simple shouldperform two contrary operations on the same writing of the body. For themore a medicine cleanses, the more it conglutinates to conclude then, pectoral medicines are such as either cut and cleanseout the compacted humours from the arteries of the lungs, or make thindefluxions thick, or temper those that are sharp, help the roughness ofthe wind-pipe, or are generally lenitive and softening, being outwardlyapplied to the breast chapter iii of medicines appropriated to the heart these are they which are generally given under the notion of cordials;take them under that name here the heart is the seat of the vital spirit, the fountain of life, theoriginal of infused heat, and of the natural affections of man so then these two things are proper to the heart 1 by its heat to cherish life throughout the body 2 to add vigour to the affections and if these be proper to the heart, you will easily grant me, thatit is the property of cordials to administer to the heart in thesewritingiculars of cordials, essay cheer the mind, essay strengthen the heart, andrefresh the spirits thereof, being decayed those which cheer the mind, are not one and the same. For as the heartis variously disturbed, either by anger, love, fear, hatred, sadness, &c so such things as flatter lovers or appease the angry, or comfortthe fearful, or please the hateful, may well be called cordials. Forthe heart, seeing it is placed in the middle between the brain and theliver, is wrought upon by reason, as well as by digestion, yet these, because they are not medicines, are beside my present scope and although it is true, that mirth, love, &c are actions, or motionsof the mind, not of the body. Yet thesis have been induced to think suchaffections may be wrought in the body by medicines the heart is chiefly afflicted by too much heat, by poison, andby stinking vapours, and these are remedied by the second sort ofcordials, and indeed chiefly belong to our present scope according to these three afflictions, viz 1 excessive heat 2 poison 3 melancholy vapours are three kinds of remedies which succour the afflicted heart such as 1 by their cooling nature mitigate the heat of fevers 2 resist poison 3 cherish the vital spirits when they languish all these are called cordials 1 such as cool the heart in fevers, yet is not every thing thatcooleth cordial, for lead is colder than gold, yet is not lead cordialas gold is, essay hold it cordial by a hidden quality, others by reason 2 such as resist poison. There is a two-fold resisting of poison 1 by an antipathy between the medicine and poison 2 by a sympathy between the medicine and the heart of the first we shall speak anon, in a chapter by itself the latterbelongs to this chapter, and they are such medicines, whose nature isto strengthen the heart, and fortify it against the poison, as rue, angelica, &c for as the operation of the former is upon the poison, which afflicteth the heart, so the operation of the latter is upon theheart afflicted by the poison to this class may be referred all such medicines as strengthen theheart either by astral influence, or by likeness of substance, if therebe such a likeness in medicines, for a bullock heart is of likesubstance to man, yet i question whether it be cordial or not 3 and lastly, such as refresh the spirits, and make them lively andactive, both because they are appropriated to the office, and alsobecause they drive stinking and melancholy vapours from the heart, foras the animal spirit be refreshed by fragrant smells, and the naturalspirits by spices, so are the vital spirits refreshed by all suchmedicines as keep back melancholy vapours from the heart, as borrage, bugloss, rosemary, citron pills, the compositions of them, and thesisothers, which this treatise will amply furnish you with chapter iv of medicines appropriated to the stomach by stomach, i mean that ventricle which contains the food till it beconcocted into chyle medicines appropriated to the stomach are usually called stomachicals the infirmities usually incident to the stomach are three 1 appetite lost 2 digestion weakened 3 the retentive faculty corrupted when the appetite is lost, the man feels no hunger when his body needsnourishment when digestion is weakened it is not able to concoct the meat receivedinto the stomach, but it putrifies there when the retentive faculty is spoiled the stomach is not able to retainthe food till it be digested, but either vomits it up again, or causesfluxes such medicines then as remedy all these, are called stomachicals andof them in order 1 such as provoke appetite are usually of a sharp or sourish taste, and yet withal of a grateful taste to the palate, for although loss ofappetite may proceed from divers causes, as from choler in the stomach, or putrefied humours or the like, yet such things as purge this choleror humours, are properly called orecticks, not stomachicals. Theformer strengthen appetite after these are expelled 2 such medicines help digestion as strengthen the stomach, either byconvenient heat, or aromatic viz spicy faculty, by hidden property, or congruity of nature 3 the retentive faculty of the stomach is corrected by bindingmedicines, yet not by all binding medicines neither, for essay of themare adverse to the stomach, but by such binding medicines as areappropriated to the stomach for the use of these use 1 use not such medicines as provoke appetite before you havecleansed the stomach of what hinders it use 2 such medicines as help digestion, give them a good time beforemeat that so they may pass to the bottom of the stomach, for thedigestive faculty lies there, before the food come into it use 3 such as strengthen the retentive faculty, give them a littlebefore meat, if to stay fluxes, a little after meat, if to stayvomiting chapter v of medicines appropriated to the liver be pleased to take these under the name of hepatics, for that is theusual name physicians give them, and these also are of three sorts 1 essay the liver is delighted in 2 others strengthen it 3 others help its vices the palate is the seat of taste, and its office is to judge what foodis agreeable to the stomach, and what not, by that is both the qualityand quantity of food for the stomach discerned. The very same officethe meseraik veins perform to the liver essaytimes such food pleases the palate which the liver likes not butnot often and therefore the meseraik veins refuse it, and that isthe reason essay few men fancy such food as makes them sick after theeating thereof 1 the liver is delighted exceedingly with sweet things, draws themgreedily, and digests them as swiftly, and that is the reason honey isso soon turned into choler 2 such medicines strengthen the liver, as being appropriated to itvery gently bind, for seeing the office of the liver is to concoct, it needs essay adstriction, that so both the heat and the humour to beconcocted may be stayed, that so the one slip not away, nor the otherbe scattered yet do not hepatical medicines require so great a binding faculty asstomachicals do, because the passages of the stomach are more openthan those of the liver by which it either takes in chyle, or sendsout blood to the rest of the body, therefore medicines that are verybinding are hurtful to the liver, and either cause obstructions, orhinder the distribution of the blood, or both and thus much for the liver, the office of which is to concoct chyle, which is a white substance the stomach digests the food into intoblood, and distributes it, by the veins, to every writing of the body, whereby the body is nourished, and decaying flesh restored chapter vi of medicines appropriated to the spleen in the breeding of blood, are three excrements most conspicuous, viz urine, choler, and melancholy the proper seat of choler is in the gall the urine passeth down to the reins or kidneys, which is all one the spleen takes the thickest or melancholy blood to itself this excrement of blood is twofold. For either by excessive heat, itis addust, and this is that the latins call atra bilis. Or else itis thick and earthly of itself, and this properly is called melancholyhumour hence then is the nature of splenical medicines to be found out, andby these two is the spleen usually afflicted for atra bilis, i knownot what distinct english name to give it thesis times causes madness, and pure melancholy causeth obstructions of the bowels, and tumours, whereby the concoction of the blood is vitiated, and dropsies thesistimes follow medicines then peculiar to the spleen must needs be twofold also, essayappropriated to atra bilis, others to pure melancholy.

The circular submitted to the referee isa reprint of a paper by sir malcolm morris on “the treatment offurunculosis and other deep-seated coccogenic infections by collosolmanganese ” it reports four paper of furunculosis, each of whichcleared up after the intramuscular injection of a online essay writers few doses of collosolmanganese the author seems to attribute the cure to the manganesebut the evidence is not convincing even the author admits that, inthe treatment of furunculosis in general “when at last the dismalprocession ends, this often appears to be less the result of treatmentthan because the disease has run its natural course ” unless muchbetter evidence is in existence, the preparation must be consideredto conflict with rule 6, which requires therapeutic claims to besubstantiated collosol argentum. The evidence submitted as to actions consists ofa single reprint by roe, which is not convincing, and this fantasticstatement by boys. “a young girl, aged 18, came to my house with acute inflammation of one eye with an ulcer on the cornea two drops of collosol argentum were dropped in the eye at 7 p m , and a pad placed over the eye when she came next morning the eye was quite well. The ulcer had disappeared, and there was no inflammation ”there is no evidence that this preparation acts as catalyzer andassists the natural resisting bodies of the tissues. Or that these are“oxygen carriers ” unless the claims are supported by better evidence, they, in the opinion of the referee, could not be accepted there have been submitted to the council samples of the followingmetallic collosols. Collosol argentum collosol ferrum collosol arsenicum collosol hydrargyrum collosol cuprum collosol manganesealso collosols of iodine and sulphur, and finally collosols of cocainand quinin of all the above, except sulphur, only three small ampuleshave been submitted this does not admit of any chemical examinationbut a statement of the physical appearance may be of interest collosol arsenicum, 0 2 per cent. Very turbid with large quantitiesof a lemon yellow flocculent precipitate on shaking does not becomehomogeneous and rapidly separates again collosol argentum, 1-2000. The liquid has a slight opalescence thereis considerable deposit of a heavy black precipitate does not becomehomogeneous on shaking and the black substance quickly separates again collosol cuprum, 0 5 per cent. Dark red essaywhat opalescentliquid no precipitate may be colloidal collosol ferrum, 1-2000. Liquid clear large quantities of dark brownflocculent precipitate the precipitate is not distributed evenly whenthe mixture is shaken and settles out quickly on standing collosol hydrargyrum, 5 per cent. Milky liquid large quantities ofwhite deposit mixed with considerable black the deposit mixes fairlywell but the greater writing settles out after standing an hour or two collosol manganese, 2 5-1000. Clear reddish-brown liquid withoutdeposit of any kind is not opalescent or fluorescent collosol iodin, 1-500. Very pale straw colored liquid withoutdeposit has a slight opalescence collosol sulphur, 1-100. Liquid is opalescent there is essay depositof yellow writingicles a four ounce bottle was also submitted the liquidin this bottle is milky with considerable deposit of yellow crystalslike ordinary crystalline sulphur collosol cocain, 1-100. Transparent, colorless liquid with nodeposit chemical examination showed 0 4 per cent of what may havebeen cocain this residue gave alkaloidal tests collosol quinin, 1-100. Slightly opalescent, colorless liquid, withno deposit gives alkaloidal reactions -- from the journal a m a , june 7, 1919 pulvoids calcylates compound report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report, notso much because the preparation with which it deals is of any greatimportance, but as a protest against the large number of similarirrational complex mixtures which are still offered to physicians w a puckner, secretary pulvoids calcylates compound the drug products co , inc are tabletseach of which is claimed to contain. “calcium and strontium disalicylate, 5 grs.

Its coronaryarteries may undergo an alteration. The pericardium thickens, and infact arterial atheroma and degeneration generally may begin betweenthirty-five and forty years it should, however, be borne in mind thatthese signs of senility may come much later or even not at all in aman of eighty-four years tourdes found no notable tissue lesion. Inanother of one hundred and four lobstein found no trace of ossificationof the arteries of the trunk and upper extremities, and in thomasparr, aged one hundred and fifty-two years, harvey found absolutely nolesion of this kind although toward eighty years the heart increasesin weight in both sexes, the opposite has been observed in exceptionalpaper placing the average weight of this organ in the adult at 266grams for men, 220 for women, it will be found that progress in weightgives toward the eightieth year an increase of 90 grams for men and60 for women yet a case of cardiac atrophy is reported in a woman ofeighty whose heart weighed but 170 grams diminished weight of the lungs becomes accentuated with years especially is this the case after pseudo-melanosis and senileemphysema the state of the lungs of stone-cutters and miners andvarious thoracic and abdominal diseases may likewise become signs ofidentity a cirrhosed liver, an enlarged spleen, a senile kidney, andthe like, are sufficiently obvious in their bearings on this question like the trunk, the arms and legs, in paper of the class underconsideration, show but few traces of disfigurement other than thefact of their having been disjointed the manner in which the sectionswere made and the proceedings employed for the disarticulation wouldequally affirm an experienced hand or the reverse such facts have oflate years assisted in the discovery and condemnation both of a farmerand of a medical student, and also in the case of the cook alreadymentioned, who cut off her child arm after the manner of carving thewing of a fowl the existence of deformity, injury, and disease in thelimbs should, of course, claim attention, but their relativity in aninvestigation of the kind is too apparent to require further comment mutilation of the genital organs is not so common persons familiarwith border warfare have observed the savage custom of cutting offthe victim penis and placing it in his mouth in more civilizedcommunities the culprits are generally women in whom hatred andferocity prompt an act that marks the evident satisfaction sought bythe destructive instinct essaytimes, however, the genital organs havebeen cut from the cadaver of a woman, presumably for the purpose ofconcealing traces of rape that may have preceded the murder the signsfurnished by the female genital organs as to virginity, maternity, and the menopause are so easily demonstrated at the necropsy as tobecome positive proofs of identity the uterus loses both in sizeand weight with age this along with hard, atrophied, and germlessovaries attests the stoppage of menstruation the question of identitymay turn on the age at which menstruation ceases, as happened in anaction of ejectment in the case of doe on the demise of clark vs tatom the period known as change of life, when the uterus and ovarieslose their function, though placed at forty-five and fifty years, isquite uncertain in spite of averages, menstruation is occasionallycontinued to seventy and upward 585the signs furnished by the genital organs of the male are of lessimportance atrophy and diminished weight of the testicles and rarityor absence of the spermatozoids are indications of senility. Althoughspermatozoids have been observed at ninety-four years the structureof the spermatic cord at different periods of life from the lastof intra-uterine to the first of extra-uterine life, in puberty, and in old age, is accompanied by characteristic modifications ofdevelopment and regression, which are of interest on the question ofmedico-forensic diagnosis of identity, as shown by dr pellacani 586congenital deformity of the genital writings, as epispadias orhypospadias. Marks of circumcision, useful in india to identifymussulmans above eleven years. Traces of disease that may have leftextensive cicatrices, as phagadenic chancre, suppurating buboes, etc , may also furnish characteristics of evidential value entire cadaver dead but a short time in the case of a body that has been dead a short time only, recognitionfrom the features, even by the nearest relatives, is often a matterof the greatest difficulty the change produced in the color and formof the body, especially after drowning, is a formidable obstacle toidentification by likeness and general type of face pages could befilled with the mere mention of the multiplied instances of mistakenidentity of the living, thesis of whom have been punished because theyhad the misfortune to resemble essay one else how much more careful, then, should be the medical examination of the remains in the progressof decay, with the distortion and discoloration of the features, andthe consequent change or destruction of the peculiar expression ofthe countenance by which human features are usually distinguished andidentified among the innumerable instances of mistaken personal identity and paperof resemblance mentioned in history and fable, from the time of ulyssesdown to the days of rip van winkle dog schneider, it appears thatthis animal is credited with more sagacity than man in the matter ofrecognizing his master even after years of absence indeed, recognitionby animals may be considered a proof of identity thesis persons canrecall instances of the kind, though perhaps not so dramatic as the oneof the dog in the odyssey, who recognized his master after twenty yearsof absence and died immediately thereafter as a matter of fact, time and circumstances will so alter resemblanceas to account for essay of these most striking proofs of the fallibilityof human testimony that we see illustrated in chapters on mistakenidentity we easily forget the true image of persons and things, and time promptly modifies them the evidence of the senses may beso little trusted in this regard that father, mother, husband, andnurse may attest a false identity in the case of their own children a nurse has been known to testify to the identity of the severed headof a woman whom thirteen other persons were sure they recognized fromcharacteristic signs, when the supposed victim put in an appearance andthus attested her own existence the head of the unrecognized victim ofthis strange controversy is preserved in the museum of the strassburgfaculty in another case of historical notoriety in france, forty witnesses oneach side swore to the personality. While in the celebrated tichbournetrial no less than eighty-five witnesses maintained positively, underthe most rigid and scrutinizing cross-examination, that a certainperson was sir roger charles doughty tichbourne, a baronet. At the sametime a corresponding number were equally unshaken in their convictionthat he was a wapping butcher, arthur orton resemblances often bring about remarkable coincidences a case is saidto have occurred in covington, ky , where two men met, each the doubleof the other in form, stature, and feature, each having lost a rightleg, amputated at the knee, and each being blind in the left eye fromaccident puzzle and perplexity are not confined to remarkable paper and judicialerrors. For so thesis people are unskilled in correct observation thatit is a matter of common occurrence for two individuals to be mistakenthe one for the other the writer for essay years has frequently beenmistaken for a certain naval officer he is said to resemble, while theofficer in question has become so accustomed to being called “doctor”that he answers to the title without protest a case that has of late been much quoted in the journals is that oftiggs what was supposed to be his mangled body was identified byhis wife, and further identification was forthcoming from one of hischildren and the employer of the deceased the coroner had granteda certificate for burial, and as the hearse neared the door, to thesurprise of all writingies the real tiggs entered the house and gave asatisfactory account of his absence most mistakes of this kind are the result of existing imperfectionsin the average human mind or in its use so few people are skilled inminute observation that lord mansfield dictum regarding the “likenessas an argument of a child being the son of a parent” should be receivedwith a certain degree of reserve, especially in the question ofidentity from likeness after death in ogston “medical jurisprudence”a case is related of a father who could not recognize the body of hisson drowned at sea ten days previously the mother, however, identifiedher boy from the existence of two pimple-looking projections on thefront of the chest, which proved to be supplementary mammæ as a rule, the changes in the face and countenance two weeks afterdeath are such that it is well-nigh impossible to establish identityfrom the features alone yet in exceptional paper the external resultsof putrefactive decomposition have been so delayed or modified asto produce very small changes in the features even after thesis yearsof burial bodies have been known to retain a remarkable state ofpreservation for long periods in such circumstances as burial in apeat bog, in the sand of the desert, and in the frozen ground of coldcountries even photography in the matter of identity is not to be trusted though an important accessory to other evidence, it is often, and veryproperly, objected to by lawyers on the ground of being incompetent, irrelevant, and immaterial the picture presented for comparison maynot be an original one or it may have been taken years previously thedifficulty in recognizing one own most intimate friends from picturestaken only a few years back is a matter of common knowledge besides, the negative from which the picture was taken may have been retouchedor altered, consequently it would not be the same as produced by thecamera, and is, therefore, valueless as evidence it is held to beincompetent to prove a photograph by merely asking a witness whether ornot he recognizes the picture in question as that of a certain person in all paper where photographic pictures are required in a court oflaw the authorities are that the artist who took the picture must beproduced and show that he took the picture, and that it is a correctrepresentation of the original of which it claims to be a picture ifpossible the negatives themselves should be called for and reproduced dr tidy states that he has known a volume of smoke appear in a printas issuing from a chimney, and used as evidence of the existence of anuisance, when no smoke existed in the original negative only slightfamiliarity with the method of taking photographic pictures and thechemistry involved in the process suffices to show that thesis littledetails of sensitizing, exposing, developing, and printing greatlychange the general appearance of the face essay of the tricks that maybe played with photography, illustrating its comparative incompetencyas evidence in the matter of personal identification, i have seen in aseries of pictures at the dewritingment of justice in washington all werephotographs of the same person taken in such varying circumstances thatno two are alike or recognizable as the same person, until scrutinyis brought to bear on the profile of the nose 587 in consideringphotography in its bearing on this branch of medicine, it must also beborne in mind that a certain degree of imperfection arises from wantof uniformity in the lenses of cameras i have already mentioned thewant of precision in photographing the skull, the common defect beingcentral not orthogonal projection such as anthropometry requires surface signs of identity examination of the surface of the skin and of its appendages may incertain paper take decisive importance valuable medical proof is oftenfurnished by scars, nævi, growths on the skin, pock-marks, traces ofskin disease or of scrofula, and by the so-called professional stigmatawhich would suggest the trade, character of work, or occupation ofthe deceased thus cigarette-stains on the fingers of smokers, orsilver-stains on the hands of photographers, the horny palm of thelaborer, or the soft, delicate hand of one not accustomed to work, would be indicative the alterations in the hand make it, so tospeak, the seat of election. For in the majority of trades that maybe mentioned it is the hand alone that bears the principal marks ofdaily work that indicate the calling a case is recorded of a personwho previously to his assassination was lame and walked with a crutch although the body was cut into fragments, an examination revealed inthe palm of the hands characteristic callosities, showing prolonged useof support of this kind in another instance of criminal mutilation atattoo-mark found on the arm proved an overwhelming charge against theassassin and drew forth his confession an accused was also convictedof murder after establishing the only missing link, the question ofidentity, which turned on the finding of cupping-marks and a tattooon the body of the murdered man personal identity of the bodies ofinfants has, moreover, been proved by means of a small blister. By apatch of downy hair. By the similarity existing between two piecesof thread used to tie the umbilical cord. And by the severed end ofthat writing of the funis attached to the infant fitting precisely to thecorresponding portion attached to the after-birth in addition to thesea methodical examination may put in evidence other facts that may bederived from diverse influences that leave characteristic traces signs furnished by marks, scars, stains, etc , on the skin but of all the surface signs, whether congenital or acquired, thatmay throw light on the antecedents of the decedent, birth-marks, freckles, cicatrices, tattooes, and the professional signs furnish thebest indications birth-marks nævi materni, from their supposedindelibility, have given rise to discussion at thesis celebratedtrials as a rule, these marks are permanent and seldom lose theirdistinctness, though in exceptional paper they may undergo atrophyin the first years of life hence testimony as to the existence ofbirth-marks may often be uncertain when it has reference to a period along way back in a recorded case of supposed recognition of a personhaving a mark of this kind on her face, the alleged victim turned upand established her identity as well as the fact that she did not havethe birth-mark attributed to her before the introduction of the electrolytic method it was customaryto resort to cauterization, excision, vaccination, and tattooing thepigmentary spot in order to modify or remove these congenital marks such proceedings usually left more or less of an indelible scar whichoccasion might utilize in the matter of medico-legal diagnosis thetraces of nævi may, however, be entirely removed by electrolysis ihave recently seen a nævus of large dimension on the face of a youngwoman so completely destroyed as to leave no trace of the operation the possibility of the disappearance of a scar in such circumstancesdepends here, as it does in other instances, on the depth of the wound a cicatrix being the result of a solution of continuity in the derma, the question arises whether a wound that has divided the derma withoutloss of substance and healed by first intention leaves any perceptiblescar essay are of the opinion that a cicatricial line persists, butgrows fainter with time histological examination in a question ofthis kind might prove conclusive by showing the structure of thefibrocellular tissue that constitutes the cicatrix in the case of verysuperficial burns or wounds, the scar may completely disappear if theepidermis alone or the superficial writing of the derma is attacked. Onthe other hand, if there has been long suppuration or loss of substancefrom ulcers, chancres, or buboes, especially on the neck, groins, legs, or genital writings, traces of their lesion will be found it may, therefore, be asserted as a general rule that all scars resulting fromwounds and from skin diseases which involve any loss of substance areindelible a scar on the face is one of the points at issue in thecelebrated hillmon case already mentioned as the matter of cicatrices is treated in the section on wounds, further mention here would be superfluous tattooing of all the scars that speak, none in judiciary medicine affords bettersigns of identity by their permanency and durable character and thedifficulty of causing their disappearance than those furnished bytattoo-marks the custom of tattooing having existed from the earliest historicalepochs is of interest not only from an ethnological but from a medicaland pathological point of view, while it is of great importance inits relation to medical jurisprudence in paper of contested personalidentification which may be either established or refuted by thissign so trustworthy is it in thesis instances as to become a veritableideograph that may indicate the personal antecedents, vocation, socialstate, certain events of one life, and even their date without going into the history of a subject mentioned by hippocrates, plato, cæsar, and cicero, it may be pertinent to say that tattooing isprohibited by the bible leviticus xix , 28 and is condemned by thefathers of the church, tertullian among others, who gives the followingrather singular reason for interdicting its use among women. “certumsumus spiritum sanctum magis masculis tale aliquid subscribere potuissesi feminis subscripsisset ” de virginibus velandis lutetiæparisorum, 1675, fº, p 178 in addition to much that has been written by french, german, 588 anditalian authors, who have put tattooing in an important place in legalmedicine, the matter of tattoo-marks a few years since claimed theattention of the law courts of england, the chief justice, cockburn, inthe tichbourne case, having described this species of evidence as of“vital importance, ” and in itself final and conclusive this celebratedtrial has brought to light about all the knowledge that can be used inthe investigation of this sign as a mark of identity absence of thetattoo-marks in this case justified the jury in their finding that thedefendant was not and could not be roger tichbourne, whereupon thealleged claimant was proved to be an impostor, found guilty of perjury, and sentenced to penal servitude 589the practice of tattooing is found pretty much over the world, notablyin the polynesian islands and in essay writings of japan it is, however, not found in russia, being contrary to the superstitions of the people, who regard a mark of this kind as an alliance or contract with evilspirits its use appears to be penal only, and is limited to siberianconvicts the degrading habit, confined to a low order of development, exists at the present time as a survival of a superstitious practice ofpaganism, probably owing to perversion of the sexual instinct, and isstill common among school-boys, sailors, soldiers, criminals, and thelowest order of prostitutes living in so-called civilized communities indeed, unanimity of opinion among medical and anthropological writersassigns erotic passion as the most frequent cause of tattooing, andshows the constant connection between tattoo-marks and crime penalstatistics show the greater number of tattooed criminals among thelowest order, as those who have committed crimes against the person;while the fewest are found among swindlers and forgers, the mostintelligent class of criminals even amid intellectual advancementand æsthetic sensibility far in advance of the primitive man, such asexists in london and new york, for instance, are to be found personswho make good incomes by catering to this depraved taste for savageornamentation persons who have been to jerusalem may remember thetattooers, who try to induce travellers to have a cross tattooed on thearm as a souvenir of the pilgrimage if a writer in the revue des deuxmondes, 15th june, 1881, is to be believed, it appears that the princeof wales on his journey to the holy land had a jerusalem cross tattooedon his arm, april 2d, 1862 the “cruise of the bacchante” also tellshow the duke of york was tattooed while in japan the process is now rapidly done, an edison electric pen being utilizedfor the purpose, and essay of the wretched martyrs have the hardihoodto be tattooed from head to foot with grotesque designs in severalcolors i know of several instances. One of a man in providence, r i. Another of a portuguese barber, who has striped poles, razors, brushes, and other emblems of his calling over the entire body anotherman has likenesses of abe lincoln and of kaiser wilhelm of gerthesis onhis respective shins a nova scotian, tattooed from head to foot, hasamong other designs that of “st george and the dragon” on his back;while a texas ranchman, six feet two inches tall, underwent the tortureof eight weeks’ profanation of his body in order to appear in blue, brown, and red, with an irreverent image on his back of the immaculateconception and thirty-one angels 590a singular mixture of erotic and religious emblems is often found amongthe varied and fantastic signs used in tattooing i recall the caseof a man who had represented on his back a fox-hunt, in which ridersfollowed the hounds in full pursuit of a fox about to take cover inthe anus in another case of a man accused of criminal attempt on twolittle girls, examination of the sexual organs revealed a tattoo on theback of the penis representing the devil with horns and red cheeks andlips when the little girls were asked if the accused had shown themhis virile member, they answered, “this man unbuttoned himself and saidto us.

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while their presence affordsreason for an affirmative answer, careful examination of the blistersas to their online essay writers character and contents must be made in order to decide. Thepresence of apparent blisters is not alone sufficient paper 20, 18;plate ii elaborate experiments have been made in order to decide the possibilityof producing blisters post mortem leuret, 711 in experiments upon dropsical subjects twenty-four hoursafter death, shows the possibility of raising a blister post-mortem, but one which can be distinguished from one of ante-mortem production, in that it contains a reddish serum very slightly albuminous he urgesextreme care in deciding this question christison712 found it impossible to produce a blister a few hoursafter death in a patient unconscious from narcotic poison, heatapplied four hours before death produced a blister and a red line wasformed around the burns in the burns produced half an hour afterdeath, in the same patient, blisters formed in two places only, andthese were covered by dry skin and contained air no redness appearedaround them champouillon713 agrees with leuret in his conclusions, fromexperiments upon dropsical subjects kosack714 considers blisters with albuminous contents diagnostic ofburns during life, but states the necessity for care in deciding in theabsence of other signs of reaction wright715 was able to produce blisters three and a half hoursafter death containing a small quantity of pale serum on the samebody, similar experiments fifteen hours after death produced blisterscontaining no serum caspar716 states, as a result of experiments, that blisters may beproduced by flame after death. That they result from vaporization ofthe fluid beneath the cuticle by the heat employed. That they are notfound to contain serum and no line of redness is found at their base the presence after death of vesications containing serum and surroundedby a reddish base is an evidence that the burn was inflicted antemortem he distinctly says. “it is quite impossible to confound a burninflicted during life with one inflicted after death ”woodman and tidy, 717 in an extended series of experiments, concludethat while blisters can be produced post mortem, they are readilydistinguished from those formed ante mortem in containing no serum. Andeven in dropsical subjects, where blisters containing essay fluid wereformed, the presence of but a mere trace of albumin was shown.