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For venesection online essay writer occupied an entirely differentposition among therapeutic measures during that period than it doesto-day whereas modern medicine does not consider blood-lettingnecessary, except in the rarest paper, ancient as well as medievalprofessors of medicine believed that they could under no circumstancesdispense with it. In fact, it is probable that until the seventeenthcentury there was scarcely any form of disease the treatment of whichwould have been possible without withdrawal of blood an actualsystem of blood-letting had been elaborated under the influence ofhumoro-pathological opinions every vein that could be reached withthe lancet was acted upon, and the school of medicine of the periodwas punctiliously careful in teaching which vessel presented the mostsuitable point of attack for the hand of the physician in this or thatform of disease the therapeutic subtleties which were thus brought tolight are beyond description thus, a withdrawal of blood from veins onthe right side of the body was said to yield an essentially differenteffect from left-sided venesection, and each individual vein of thebody promised a special advantage which was peculiar to this one vein the physician of that period surely had enough to do to bear in mindall the numerous therapeutic effects which he was to achieve by theopening of the various veins to facilitate this difficult art to acertain degree special figures were designed so-called venesectionmanikins, in which the numerous points for bleeding were most carefullyannotated fig 5 page 175 shows such a picture it indicates no lessthan 53 different localities for venesection, and as each and everyone of them again implied four or five, or possibly even more, methodsof blood-letting, we may consider that there were thesis hundreds ofdifferent possibilities for phlebotomy if it was easy to become lostin the labyrinth of this blood-thirsty therapy, the difficulty of amethodical application of venesection was very materially increased byastrology. For astrology differentiated between, first, favorable, thendoubtful, and, finally, unfavorable days for venesection, basing thisopinion upon certain positions between sun, moon, and planets then thevarious ages of life had also different days for venesection. Days, forinstance, which promised to be exceptionally successful for venesectionin the young, offered very unfavorable prospects to the aged thus, for instance, the period from the first quadrature of the moon tothe opposition was said to be excellent for bleeding in adolescence, whereas this period was by no means inviting for phlebotomy in thosewho had reached the senile period the chances for venesection becamerather intricate in their different aspects thus, for instance, stöffler taught. {the sun prohibits venesection two {days before and one day after conjunction of { the moon with { }prohibits venesection one {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after quadrature of {sun }prohibits venesection the moon with {saturn }twelve hours before and {mars }twelve hours after opposition of {sun }prohibits venesection one the moon with {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after we see, therefore, that the physician of that time was compelled tobe well-versed in astronomy unless he meant to commit grave mistakesagainst the doctrines of medicina astrologica such sins couldeventually become rather dangerous to the physician, for the code ofhammurabi about 2200, b c , ruler of babylon threatens the operator, for not quite unobjectionable surgical procedures, with the loss of hishands winckler, page 33, § 218 in order to satisfy the astrological requirement of the physician mostthoroughly, there arose in the middle ages a very peculiar literature under the name of an almanac or calendarium, thick folio volumesappeared, which enumerated, in long tables, the various positions ofthe planets and of the signs of the zodiac, so that the astrologer wasenabled to note the fate of mankind rapidly and easily the contentsof such calendaria are beyond description awriting from remarks whichreferred to all occurrences of civil life, was stated the exact periodwhen to have the hair cut, when venesection was to be performed, whento draw teeth, when to take a bath, etc even the proper time forprayer was indicated by such a calendarium according to the experienceof peter of abano, the conjunction of the moon with jupiter in thedragon was sure to effect an answer to prayer hieronymus cardanushad discovered, with the aid of astrology, that a request was sure tobe complied with if a prayer was offered to the virgin mary on thefirst day of april, at 8 a m möhsen, vol ii , page 423 physiciansexcelled in the compilation of such calendaria, especially during thefifteenth and sixteenth centuries professors, forensic physicians, surgeons in fact, all representatives of medical art were equallyintent upon instructing the public by calendaria in regard to the mostvarious branches of medicina astrologica. Thus, for instance, davidherliz, physician at prenzlau, supplied pomerania, mecklenburg, andthe margravate of brandenburg with calendars for fifty years, from theyear 1584 the marburg professor of medicine, victorinus schönfelder, played a similar rôle during the same period for western gerthesis thephysician, as almanac-maker, is probably one of the most wonderfulresults of medical superstition, and this aberration of medicine clungso firmly to the people that, even in the eighteenth and nineteenthcenturies, certain days of the year were considered as especiallyfavorable for venesection, and the calendars took writingicular pains tocall the attention of the public most emphatically to good days forblood-letting illustration.

Mitt d wien med doct colleg , 1878, iv , online essay writer pp 97-112 - 1st woman, age about 25. Found dead sitting in bed, ahandkerchief around her neck fastened to the bed-curtain the policethought she had been killed and then hung, but the physician concludedthat she had committed suicide an examination of the stomach showedthat she had previously tried to poison herself with arsenic 19 2d woman, age 51. Found hanging in half-lying position 20 3d man, age 50 first tried to kill himself with phosphorus, thensulphuric acid. Finally hung himself in a half-kneeling position 21 müller-beninga. Berlin klin woch , 1877, xiv , p 481 - man, age 40. Hung himself there was no swelling of genitals and no soilingof clothing necroscopy showed death from asphyxia, and in urethra nearmeatus quite a quantity of seminal fluid, as shown by microscopicalexamination 22 tardieu. Op cit , p 18 - the prince of condé was found hangingin his room, august 27th, 1830 he was suspended by two handkerchiefsto a window fastening, his feet, however, touching the floor the knotwas at the back of the neck as shown by the illustration, the faceturned slightly to the left, the tongue protruding. Face discolored;mucus at the mouth and nose. Arms hanging and stiff. Fists shut. Heelsraised. Knees half bent the text says that the knot was nearly underthe right ear, but the illustration shows a different position seefig 22, p 743 23 allison. Lancet, 1869, i , p 636 - three paper of suicide byhanging, in which there was no mark.

A portion of the ointment which had been made for nearly three months was shaken in a separator with chloroform and a dilute mixture of potassium iodide and sodium thiosulphate solutions after all of the free iodine had been removed the chloroformic solution of the fats was washed several times with a very dilute solution of sodium thiosulphate the chloroformic solution was filtered, evaporated and the residue dried over sulphuric acid 197197 the resultant fatty residue was of a brownish-green color itno longer had either the taste, color or odor of lard it was notedthat the fats, after removal by this method from the freshly preparedointment, were nearly white as the ointment aged the fat becamesuccessively darker in color the separated fat was then tested for iodine by kendall method 198it was found to contain iodine in considerable amounts, butquantitative determinations were not made 198 the method depends upon the conversion of all of the iodinecompounds into iodate by fusion with sodium hydroxide and oxidationwith potassium nitrate the melt is dissolved in water, a little sodiumbisulphite added, the solution cooled and neutralized with phosphoricacid, using methyl orange as indicator an excess of bromine wateris added, and the mixture boiled to expel carbon dioxid and bromine a little sodium salicylate is added, the solution cooled, an excessof potassium iodid added, and the liberated iodine titrated withtenth-normal sodium thiosulphate in the usual way one sixth of theiodine found is obtained from the material assayed, the balance beingfurnished by the potassium iodide added -- jour biochem , 1914, 19, 251 the pharmacopeia of the netherlands directs that iodine ointment shallcontain 3 per cent of potassium iodide and 2 per cent of iodineinstead of equal proportions 4 per cent of each as prescribed bythe u s pharmacopeia likewise the french pharmacopeia directs that10 per cent of potassium iodide and only 2 per cent of iodine shallbe used both of these pharmacopeias use water instead of glycerin asthe solvent loose combinations of iodine and potassium iodide, suchas are represented by the compound having the formula ki₃, have beendescribed the quantity of potassium iodide prescribed by the u s pharmacopeia for the preparation of iodine ointment is not sufficientto form such a compound as ki₃ with all of the iodine directed tobe used since essay of the pharmacopeias use larger proportions ofpotassium iodide more than sufficient to form the compound, ki₃, it seemed worth while to determine whether an ointment containinga greater proportion of potassium iodide than that required by theu s pharmacopeia would be more stable than the official article accordingly a specimen was prepared to contain 4 per cent of iodine, 8per cent of potassium iodide twice the u s p requirement, 12 percent of glycerin and 76 per cent of lard this was assayed for itsfree iodine content immediately after preparation, and found to contain3 68 per cent nine days later it contained 3 70 per cent anotherspecimen of the same iodine strength prepared from grade no 2 ofcommercial lard assayed 3 69 per cent at the initial assay, and sevendays later 3 40 per cent from these experiments it seems likely thatthe free iodine content of the u s pharmacopeia iodine ointment couldbe raised essaywhat by increasing the proportion of potassium iodide the results of these studies confirm the findings of pullen and offried online essay writer in all essential writingiculars it appears that during the processof manufacture of iodine ointment about 20 per cent of the free iodinegoes into combination with the fatty constituents of the ointment on standing for a month approximately an additional 5 per cent goesinto combination, after which there is practically no loss in freeiodine content in other words iodine ointment which is a month oldis a relatively stable preparation it appears to make no noticeabledifference upon the rate and amount of iodine absorption whetherthe lard from which the ointment is made has a high or a low iodineabsorption value the composition of iodine ointment, which has beenmade sufficiently long to have reached equilibrium, is approximately asfollows. Free iodine 3 per cent iodine combined with fat 1 per cent potassium iodide 4 per cent benzoinated lard containing iodine 80 per cent the u s pharmacopeia requirement that iodine ointment shall befreshly prepared when wanted appears to be unnecessary probably mostpharmaceutical manufacturers are aware of this, for thesis of theminclude the preparation in their trade lists the presence of an iodideappears to be necessary, to prevent practically all of the iodine fromentering into combination with the fat 199-- from the americanjournal of pharmacy, august, 1917 199 in order to determine whether the iodine which is in combinationwith fat is absorbed through the skin, a few experiments were carriedout the dark-colored iodine-containing fat obtained from the ointmentand washed free from potassium iodide by the method described abovewas rubbed thoroughly into the skin of the forearm it was allowed toremain for four hours, after which the limb was scoured with soap suds beginning at the time of the application the urine was collected forforty-eight hours this was evaporated to small bulk and the residuetested for iodine by kendall method small amounts of iodine werefound these findings were taken to indicate that the iodine-containingfat is absorbed to essay extent by the skin it is generally believedthat potassium iodide is not absorbed by the unbroken skin thereforeit seems reasonable to suppose that the principal iodine effectsobtainable from iodine ointment are those due to the free iodinecontained in the preparation, supplemented to a slight extent bythe iodine which is contained in the fatty ointment base -- jour biochem , 1914, 19, 251 iodolene and the solubility of iodin in liquid petrolatumthe council on pharmacy and chemistry was asked to examine apreparation submitted with the statement that it was “iodin crystalsincorporated in a petroleum product ” the name “iodolene” was proposedby the promoters, providing the product was found eligible for new andnonofficial remedies iodolene was stated to have been prepared by treating a liquidpetrolatum, obtained from gulf coast petroleum, with an excess ofiodin. The mixture was subsequently “placed in an oven for threehours ” the claim was made that this method of procedure produced apreparation containing more iodin than market specimens which had beenexamined, namely. “over 1 50 per cent free iodine ”two specimens of the product were submitted, one stated to have beenunfiltered, and the other filtered both of the specimens emitted astrong odor of hydrogen sulphide upon removing the stopper from therespective containers iodin content of iodolene -- the iodin content of the filteredspecimen was determined thus. A weighed amount-- 3 to 5 gm -- wastransferred to a separator by means of 20 c c of ligroin, used inportions twenty c c of 10 per cent potassium iodid solution wasadded and the free iodin titrated with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphatesolution with agitation, the end point being the absence of a yellowcolor in the aqueous layer the amount of free iodin was found to be1 32 per cent the solubility of iodin in liquid petrolatum -- to determinethe solubility of iodin in liquid petrolatum, 200 c c of liquidpetrolatum-squibb said to be composed of hydrocarbons of the naphtheneseries and 200 c c of stanolind liquid paraffin said to be composedchiefly of marsh gas hydrocarbons were each treated with 5 gm ofiodin crystals the two mixtures were maintained for a week at atemperature essaywhat above that of the room and agitated occasionally each was then cooled to room temperature about 22 c , agitated fora day and then filtered the amount of iodin in the preparation madewith liquid petrolatum-squibb was found to be 1 42 per cent the iodincontent of the preparation made with stanolind liquid paraffin was 1 30per cent in view of these findings the prospective manufacturer was advised thatthe council cannot countenance a proprietary name for an unofficial, simple solution of iodin in liquid petrolatum -- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1917, p 87 american-made synthetic drugs-- i examination of american-made acetylsalicylic acid paul nicholas leech, ph d at the request of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, the a m a chemical laboratory has undertaken examinations of american-madesynthetic drugs the most extensively used synthetic is acetylsalicylicacid and hence an investigation of this product was deemed expedient for seventeen years acetylsalicylic acid was protected by a unitedstates patent the proprietors were not given a patent in othercountries and sold under the name “aspirin ” in february, 1917, thepatent expired, and since then a number of firms have engaged in themanufacture of acetylsalicylic acid, selling it either as such oras aspirin, modified, of course, by a distinctive firm designation during this period the former manufacturers the bayer co , new york, in past years called farbenfabriken of elberfeld co , new york havebeen extensively advertising, both to physicians and the public, thealleged superior qualities of their product the chemical examination, therefore, was concerned chiefly with tests of purity, and thecomparison of the american brands with the formerly patented product in european countries, acetylsalicylic acid200 is described in thevarious pharmacopeias as a condensation product of acetic anhydrideor acetyl chloride with salicylic acid o-hydroxybenzoic acid generally the test of identification is hydrolysis of acetylsalicylicacid and qualitative tests for acetic acid and salicylic acid forpurposes of purity the requirements are essentially that the specimenshould have a certain melting point, should show absence of salicylicacid by means of ferric chloride the manipulations for the tests arevariously described and leave no appreciable ash the two tests ofpurity most generally employed, however, are the melting point and thereaction with ferric chloride 200 unfortunately, the nondescriptive name “aspirin” has been usedextensively in european literature and has even got into europeanpharmacopeias, instead of the scientific name “acetylsalicylic acid ” melting pointthe melting point of acetylsalicylic acid has been given at varioustemperatures from 118 to 137 c 201.

Has attended at essay recognized university orincorporated school of medicine not less than two six-months’ coursesof anatomy, physiology, surgery, theory and practice of medicine, midwifery, chemistry, materia medica, and therapeutics respectively, and not less than one six-months’ course of clinical medicine andmedical jurisprudence respectively, or their equivalents in time;and shall have complied with the regulations of such university orincorporated school of medicine with regard to such courses, andshall have followed such other course or courses as may hereafter beconsidered by the board of examiners requisite for the advancement of amedical education all such persons shall, at a regularly appointed time and place, beexamined on all the aforesaid branches by the board of examiners art 4, 009 if the board be satisfied by examination that a person is dulyqualified to practise either or all of said branches of medicine, astaught and practised by homœopathists, they shall certify the sameunder the hands and seals of two or all of such board the lieutenant-governor, on receipt of such certificate, may, ifsatisfied of the loyalty, integrity, and good morals of the applicant, grant to him a license to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery, oreither of them, conformably to the certificate, and all such licenseesare entitled to all the privileges enjoyed by licentiates of medicine art 4, 010 the corporation appoints a secretary who keeps a register of names ofall persons duly licensed to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery, or either of them, according to the doctrines and teachings ofhomœopathy only those whose names are inscribed in said register are qualifiedand licensed to practise according to the doctrines and teachings ofhomœopathy art 4, 015 the said secretary is required to make the necessary alterations inthe addresses or qualifications of the persons registered art 4, 016 offences and penalties - a person practising according to thehomœopathic doctrines for reward in contravention of this act, orassuming a title implying that a person is legally authorized topractise according to homœopathic doctrines, if unable legally toestablish such authorization. Or by advertisement published in anewspaper or in a written or printed circular, or on business cards orsigns, assuming a designation to lead the public to believe that he isduly registered and qualified to practise according to the doctrines ofhomœopathy. Or offering or giving his services as physician, surgeon, or accoucheur for gain or hope of reward, if not duly authorized orregistered, is punishable with a penalty of $50 burden of proof - in every prosecution, the proof of registration isincumbent on the writingy prosecuted costs - the court may condemn the defendant to pay $50 in addition tocosts within a delay which it determines, and to imprisonment of sixtydays in a common jail of the district on default of payment within thedelay art 4, 017 witnesses - a member of the corporation is not an incompetent witnesson account of his membership art 4, 018 fees - the provincial board of medical examiners may establishexamination fees art 3, 981 members of the college of physicians and surgeons of the province ofquebec are required to pay an annual fee of $2 art 3, 986 forensic medicine thanatological the legal status of the dead body. The disposal and obligation to dispose of the same. How and by whom it may be exhumed or removed. Autopsies, by whom ordered. The rights of relatives and accused persons including an appendix containing a synopsis of the statutes of the different united states and territories concerning same by tracy c becker, a b , ll b , etc , counsellor at law, etc. Professor of civil law and medical jurisprudence, law dewritingment, university of buffalo legal status of the dead body disposal and obligations to dispose of the same - there is no rightof property, in the ordinary sense of the word, in a dead human body;but for the health and protection of society it is a rule of the commonlaw, and which has been confirmed by statutes in civilized statesand countries, that public duties are imposed upon public officers, and private duties upon the husband or wife and the next of kin ofthe deceased, to protect the body from violation and see that it isproperly interred, and to protect it after it is interred a parent isbound to provide christian burial for a deceased child, if he has themeans, but if he has not the means, though the body remains unburiedso long as to become a nuisance, he is not indictable for the nuisancealthough he could obtain money for the burial expenses by borrowing itof the poor-law authorities of the parish, for he is not bound to incura debt reg v vann, 2 div c c , 325. 15 jur , 1, 090 on theother hand it has been held in england, that every householder in whosehouse a dead body lies is bound by the common law, if he has the meansto do so, to inter the body decently, and this principle applies wherea person dies in the house of a parish or a union reg v stewart, 12 a & d , 1, 272 and the expense may be paid out of the effects ofthe deceased tugwell v hayman, 3 camp , 298, and note in pierce v the proprietors swan point cemetery, 10 r i , 227, s c , 14 am rep , 667, the court said. “that there is no rightof property in a dead body, using this word in its ordinary sense, may be well admitted, yet the burial of the dead is a subject whichinterests the feelings of mankind to a much greater degree than thesismatters of actual property there is a duty imposed by the universalfeelings of mankind to be discharged by essay one toward the dead. Aduty, and we may also say a right, to protect from violation. It may, therefore, be considered as a sort of quasi property, and it wouldbe discreditable to any system of law not to provide a remedy in sucha case. but the person having charge of it cannot be considered asthe owner of it in any sense whatever, he holds it only as a sacredtrust for the benefit of all who may from family or friendship havean interest in it ” see also wyncoop v wyncoop, 42 pa st , 293. 4albany law jour , 56. Snyder v snyder, 60 how prac , 368. Weld v walker, 130 mass , 422. Guthrie v weaver, 1 mo apps , 136. Johnsonv marinus, 18 abb n c , 72, and note 493the law casts the duty of burial of the wife upon the husband, andof the husband upon the wife in secord v secord cited in note 1above, the court said. “there are cogent reasons connected with publicpolicy and the peace of families, where in the absence of testamentarydisposition the possession of a corpse and the right to determine itsburial should follow the administration of the estate ” inasmuch asthe husband has the first right to administer upon the estate of thewife, and the wife upon the estate of the husband, the law imposes thecorrelative duty of burial upon the person having such right.

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The flowers are so small they can hardly beseen, and the seed as small as may be place it is a common herb throughout the nation, and rejoicesin barren, sandy, moist places it may be found plentifully abouthampstead heath, hyde park, and in tothill-fields time it may be found all the summer-time, even from the beginningof april to the end of october government and virtues its online essay writer operation is very prevalent to provokeurine, and to break the stone it is a very good sallad herb it weregood the gentry would pickle it up as they pickle up samphire fortheir use all the winter i cannot teach them how to do it. Yet thisi can tell them, it is a very wholeessay herb they may also keep theherb dry, or in a syrup, if they please you may take a dram of thepowder of it in white wine. It would bring away gravel from the kidneysinsensibly, and without pain it also helps the stranguary parsnips the garden kind thereof is so well known the root being commonlyeaten that i shall not trouble you with any description of it but thewild kind being of more physical use, i shall in this place describe itunto you descript the wild parsnip differs little from the garden, butgrows not so fair and large, nor hath so thesis leaves, and the root isshorter, more woody, and not so fit to be eaten, and therefore moremedicinal place the name of the first shews the place of its growth theother grows wild in divers places, as in the marshes in rochester, and elsewhere, and flowers in july.