History

Online Chemistry Homework Help


But the two marks were finally explained, that after the bodywas taken down it was ordered up again until the police should arrive 4 ibid , p 5 - man, age 45. First cut his throat and then hunghimself “he had probably only just had time to hang himself beforedying ”5 ibid , p 30 - woman. Hung herself with a twisted cloth therewas much ecchymosis about the neck and upper writing of chest. Lungs muchcongested. Fibrin clot in left mitral orifice. Liver, spleen, andstomach congested. Transverse ligament of atlas ruptured 6 ibid - man, age 39 distinct mark of cord around neck. No othermark of violence.

the law as applied to these paper has beenstated by lord hale. “it is sufficient to prove that the death of aperson was accelerated by the malicious acts of the person, althoughthe former labored under a mental disease at the time of the act theintent of the accused may often be judged by the character of the woundand the means of its infliction drunkenness of the victim admits ofno excuse when his assailant is aware, or ought to have been aware, of the condition of his victim it is held that the assailant oughtto have known that violence of any kind to such a person is likely tobe attended by dangerous results it is known also that a wound whichaccelerates death causes death ” the commissioners who were appointedto define criminal law on the subject of homicide have thus expressedthemselves. “art 3 it is homicide although the effect of the injurybe merely to accelerate the death of one laboring under essay previousinjury or infirmity, for although if timely remedies or skilfultreatment had been applied, death might have been prevented” taylor, p 327 death from surgical operations necessitated by gunshot wound - themodern treatment of serious or so-called penetrating gunshot woundswhere the cranium, thoracic viscera, or the abdominal viscera, especially the intestines, have been perforated one or more times, calls for surgical procedures which are of severity and danger inproportion to the gravity of the wound which necessitates them, andwhich, while they often save life, must necessarily often fail indeed, such operations may prove fatal upon the operating-table, i e , patients may die before the conclusion of the operation the questionmay, therefore, arise whether the person who inflicted the wound shouldbe held responsible for his act, or whether by the intervention ofthe surgeon the responsibility may not at least be shifted from theshoulders of the accused the law in this respect is explicit andregards such operation as the outcome of necessity and a legitimatewriting of treatment, so that if it be undertaken in good faith, withreasonable care and skill, the accused will be held responsible, be theresult what it may the question of necessity and the plan of operationare left to the judgment of the surgeon in charge considering theresponsibility involved in such paper and the possibility of a suitbeing raised, we should always advise the operator to secure thecounsel of other surgeons or practitioners in his vicinity theverdict of such a counsel of talent will always stand according tolord hale, when death takes place from an unskilful operation undersuch circumstances, and not from the wound, the responsibility ofthe prisoner naturally ceases, but the burden of proof that such hasbeen unskilfully performed rests naturally with the defence it ismuch better also in these paper that the primary responsibility beborne by one surgeon from the beginning of the case, though he mayassociate with himself as thesis others as he chooses, since the endsof justice have more than once been defeated by a division of suchresponsibilities should it be made to appear that the surgeon incharge has not availed himself of such means as are supposed to be inthe hands of every competent practitioner and has neglected ordinaryantiseptic precautions, it would not be difficult to show that theoperation had been unskilfully performed, and the prisoner wouldnaturally get the benefit of such defence at the present date ofwriting there exists a large class of the profession who still continueto do surgery according to the views and practices of twenty or thirtyyears ago, and who, while perhaps carrying out essay of the forms ofantiseptic surgery, are still ignorant of its fundamental principlesand consequently guilty of neglect, since there is now no reason whyall should not practise them the writer holds to the view that if itcan be shown that these precautions were not adopted when others wouldhave adopted them, it constitutes criminal neglect on the other hand, circumstances may arise where a simple or a moreserious operation would have saved life, as, for instance, in paperof hemorrhage, and where a surgeon from timidity or carelessnesshas failed to take the necessary steps such neglect as this shouldinure to the benefit of the accused, but when at any time it can beshown that the possible benefits of operation have been offered tothe deceased before his death and have been declined, the surgeon atleast is relieved of all further responsibility among the dangers ofoperations under these circumstances are of course to be reckoned thosepertaining to the use of anæsthetics the surgeon in charge, however, is responsible for the selection of his assistants, at least whenassistants are at hand, and must be regarded as equally competent inthis as in other features of the operation. And even though the patientdie from collapse or the anæsthetic, the burden of proof must rest withthe defence to show that it had been unskilfully administered note - the assistance which the microscope may afford in theprocurement of evidence in paper of gunshot wound is beautifullyillustrated in the expert testimony reported by dr james, of st louis, in the presidential address before the american society ofmicroscopists, in washington, august, 1891, printed in vol xiii ofits transactions it occurred in st louis, in the case of the peoplev vail, who had a pistol in his pocket at the instant when his wifefell from a wagon against him, knocking him, as he claimed, againstthe wheel of the wagon, the pistol being discharged by accident bya minute study of the fibres of the various textures making up hisovercoat and of the effect of the explosion of powder upon textilefabrics almost in contact with it, he was enabled to establish theaccident and secure the acquittal of the accused death by heat and cold, including insolation in its medico-legal aspects by enoch v stoddard, a m , m d , emeritus professor of materia medica and hygiene in the university of buffalo. Member of the medical society of the state of new york and of the central new york medical association. Fellow of the new york academy of medicine and of the american academy of medicine. Late surgeon 65th regt n y vols. Late health commissioner, rochester, n y. Etc , etc death by heat and cold temperature of the body the production and regulation of heat in the body is a problem byno means elucidated we consider heat production to be of internalorigin, by a complex process involving tissue metamorphosis, chemicalchanges in nutrient elements, muscular movements, etc heat regulationis accomplished, not only by variation in the loss of heat by thebody, but by what is more important, variations in the amount of heatgenerated it is an accepted physiological conclusion that there existsin the body a thermotaxic nervous mechanism which controls its normal, as well as its abnormal, manifestations of heat the average temperature of the body in health is 37° c 98 6° f , inthe axilla taken in the vagina or rectum, 9° c 1 3° f higher isnoted the daily average range of variation is about 1° c 1 8° f in disease or injury considerable variations occur. Very high, as wellas very low, temperatures are met in severe neuroses and essay forms ofmalarial disease a temperature of 42 2° c 115° f has been recorded, and after an injury 71° c 122° f 688very low temperatures are reported in several paper of acutealcoholism, accompanied by exposure to cold, where a temperature of28 8° c 75° f in the rectum was noted, recovery following 689such extreme temperatures, though authentic, are exceptional very high temperatures in febrile conditions are borne becauseremitting. And low temperatures, subject to periods of elevation, are met in wasting and other conditions very high and very lowtemperatures are also noted, just before death, in acute diseases andconditions specially involving the nervous system the degree to which the temperature may be raised without destroyinglife has been investigated by berger, bernard, chossat, and others 690their experiments show that if an elevation of temperature of the body7 20° c 13° f be maintained for any length of time in warm-bloodedanimals, death ensues depression of the temperature of warm-bloodedanimals 12° c 20° f , or even less than these degrees below thenormal, results fatally portions of the body may be frozen and yet, under appropriate treatment, recover but freezing of the whole bodymust necessarily prove fatal great differences in ability to endure extremes of heat and coldappear among different nations and in different individuals the veryyoung and the very old are unable to bear exposure to extreme cold in both, the capacity for heat production is low and the vital powersare soon enfeebled to a critical degree the healthy adult can, withproper precautions, safely endure great extremes of heat and cold the experience of arctic explorers in the expeditions of kane, nares, greely, and others has demonstrated the power of endurance, for aconsiderable period, of a temperature from 90° to 100° f below thefreezing-point on the other hand, laborers employed in pottery andother establishments, using ovens raised to 148° to 315° c 300° to600° f or higher, are often exposed for essay time without injury totemperatures approaching these intense figures effects of extreme cold legal inquiry into the conditions of death from cold occurs almostentirely in paper of unintentional exposure cold has been employed, however, with homicidal intent the depressing influence of continuedlow temperatures is observed in the death-rates of cities, in wintersof protracted severity, where the proportionate mortality amonginfants, the aged and enfeebled shows marked increase while age is aprominent predisposing and contributing factor, other causes exist exhaustion from severe and prolonged exertion, deprivation of food, intoxication, former illness, and other conditions of depression lessenthe powers of the body to resist cold thus an exposure which might besafely borne in perfect health might result fatally in the same personin conditions of depression just referred to case 1 investigation may be demanded in case of the death ofa young children b the injured c the insane a in young children - this may be in the new-born or older children in the new-born exposure to cold soon causes death, as warmth isessential to the life of the young being the length of time necessaryto a fatal issue is modified by several conditions in the immature orprematurely born infant the resisting power is much less than in thechild born at full term and otherwise healthy in paper of suspectedinfanticide by exposure the question of the maturity of the child atbirth is to be decided careful examination of the place in which thebody was discovered should be made as to its lack of warmth. And thedegree of external cold at the time of probable exposure should berecorded the circumstances as to whether the exposure was inadvertentor accidental, as in paper of premature or unexpected delivery, orwhether from intentional and deliberate purpose or from culpableneglect, should be carefully considered the post-mortem examinationshould decide whether the appearances and conditions of the body arethose peculiar to death from cold case 2 death may occur from culpably careless exposure to cold, as acontributory if not as a direct cause, in such conditions ofenfeeblement criminal neglect to provide medical attendance, food, andother essentials has been proven in essay paper of the so-called “faithcure” or “prayer cure ” exposure may be resorted to with deliberatehomicidal intent it may, in essay paper of death, become an importantlegal question to decide whether a studied and persistent neglect ofthis nature may not have been followed, with the purpose of getting ridof a troubleessay care paper 2 and 3 b exposure of the injured or wounded, thereby inducing essaygrave condition or complication which under proper care would havebeen avoided, may raise an important question in injuries inflictedby another, with or without criminal intent it is undeniable thatserious or fatal results may follow a slight wound, otherwise trivial, where the injured person was subjected, accidentally or intentionally, to extreme cold for a considerable period while such paper arecomparatively rare, they may demand investigation c exposure of the insane - while it must be admitted that theinsane subject is usually indifferent to matters of temperature, deathfrom exposure to cold may call for special examination carelessness, incompetence, or wilful neglect on the writing of nurses or keepers ofinsane hospitals, or deliberate criminal intent in such or othershaving the care of or an interest in the death of an insane person maylead to a judicial inquiry sudden death has been reported as occurring, in several paper, afterthe ingestion of large quantities of cold water when the person wasgreatly heated it is essaywhat difficult to explain all such paperreported on a single line of causation essay observers have attributeddeath to syncope or asthenia by the shock produced, in the suddeneffect of the cold upon the sympathetic nervous system inducing heartfailure this seems the most natural explanation others consider the causative factor to be the formation of thrombosesin the capillaries of the brain, lungs, and other organs, inducingactive and obstructive congestions causing death by apnœa or coma others regard these paper as similar to “heat apoplexy ”symptoms under the influence of external cold, the vessels of the skin arecontracted and the internal splanchnic areas dilated thus the surfaceof the body contains less blood and the internal organs a largerproportion this vascular change is one of the important factors inmaintaining the uniform temperature of the body the thermometer, placed in the mouth, in such conditions frequently indicates a rise oftemperature this is probably due, not only to the increased volumeof blood collected in the internal organs, but also to an increasedproduction of heat through a thermogenic action in exposure for a time to severe cold the nose, ears, cheeks, hands, feet, and other portions of the body, after the first appearance ofdusky lividity, become bloodless and white, lose sensation, and becomecongealed.

Being worn, stops bleeding, eases the labour in women, stopslust, resists fevers and dropsies mathiolus atites, or the stone with child, because being hollow in the middle, it contains another little stone within it, online chemistry homework help is found in an eaglenest, and in thesis other places. This stone being bound to the left armof women with child, stays their miscarriage or abortion, but whenthe time of their labour comes, remove it from their arm, and bind itto the inside of their thigh, and it brings forth the child, and that almost without any pain at all dioscorides, pliny lapis lazuli, purges melancholy being taken inwardly. Outwardly wornas a jewel, it makes men cheerful, fortunate and rich and thus i end the stones, the virtues of which if any thinkincredible, i answer. 1 i quoted the authors where i had them 2 iknow nothing to the contrary but why it may be as possible as the soundof a trumpet is to incite a man to valour. Or a fiddle to dancing. Andif i have added a few simples which the colledge left out, i hope myfault is not much, or at a leastwise, venial a catalogue of simples in the new dispensatory roots college sorrel, calamus aromaticus, water-flag, privet, garlick, marsh-mallows, alcanet, angelica, anthora, smallage, aron, birth-wortlong and round, sowbread, reeds, asarabacca, virginian snakeweed, swall-wort, asparagus, asphodel, male and female burdocks great andsmall, behen, or bazil, valerian, white and red daisies, beets, white, red, and black marsh-mallows, bistort, barrage, briony, white and black, bugloss, garden and wild calamus aromaticus, our lady thistles, avens, coleworts, centaury the less onions, chameleon, white and black celandine, pilewort, china, succory, artichokes virginian snakeroot, comfry greater and lesser contra yerva, costus, sweet and bitter turmerick, wild cucumbers, sowbread, hound-tongue, cypres, long and round toothwort, whitedittany, doronicum, dragons, woody nightshade, vipers bugloss, smallage, hellebore, white and black, endive, elicampane, eringo, colt-foot, fearn, male and female, filipendula or drop-wort, fennel, white dittany, galanga, great and small, gentian, liquorice, dog-grass, hermodactils swallow wort, jacinth, henbane, jallap, master-wort, orris or flower-de-luce, both englishand florentine, sharp pointed dock, burdock greater and lesser, lovage, privet, white lilies, liquorice, mallows, mechoacan, jallap, spignel, mercury, devil bit, sweet navew, spikenard, celtic andindian, water lilies, rest-harrow, sharp pointed dock, peony, male andfemale parsnips, garden and wild, cinquefoil, butter-bur, parsley, hog fennel, valerian, greater and lesser, burnet, land and waterplantain, polypodium of the oak, solomon seal, leeks, pellitory ofspain, cinquefoil, turnips, raddishes, garden and wild, rhapontick, common rhubarb, monk rhubarb, rose root, madder bruscus sopewort, sarsaparilla, satyrion, male and female, white saxifrage, squills, figwort, scorzonera, english and spanish, virginian snake weed, solomon seal, cicers, stinking gladon, devil bit, dandelion, thapsus, tormentil, turbith, colt-foot, valerian, greater and lesser, vervain, swallow-wort, nettles, zedoary long and round, ginger culpeper these be the roots the college hath named, and but onlynamed, and in this order i have set them down it seems the collegeholds a strange opinion, viz that it would do an englishman a mischiefto know what the herbs in his garden are good for but my opinion is, that those herbs, roots, plants, &c which grownear a man, are far better and more congruous to his nature than anyoutlandish rubbish whatsoever, and this i am able to give a reasonof to any that shall demand it of me, therefore i am so copious inhandling of them, you shall observe them ranked in this order 1 the temperature of the roots, herbs, flowers, &c viz hot, cold, dry, moist, together with the degree of each quality 2 what writing of the body each root, herb, flower, is appropriated to, viz head, throat, breast, heart, stomach, liver, spleen, bowels, reins, bladder, womb, joints, and in those which heat those places, andwhich cool them 3 the property of each simple, as they bind, open, mollify, harden, extenuate, discuss, draw out, suppure, cleanse, glutinate, break wind, breed seed, provoke or stop the menses, resist poison, abate swellings, ease pain this i intend shall be my general method throughout the simples, which, having finished i shall give you a paraphrase explaining theseterms, which rightly considered, will be the key of galen way ofadministering physic temperature of the roots roots hot in the first degree marsh-mallows, bazil, valerian, spattling, poppy, burdocks, borrage, bugloss, calamus aromaticus, avens, pilewort, china, self-heal, liquorice, dog-grass, white lilies, peony, male and female, wild parsnips, parsley, valerian, great andsmall, knee-holly, satyrion, scorzonera, skirrets hot in the second degree water-flag, reeds, swallow-wort, asphodel, male, carline thistle, cypress, long and round, fennel, lovage, spignel, mercury, devil bit, butter bur, hog fennel, sarsaparilla, squils, zedoary hot in the third degree angelica, aron, birthwort long and round, sowbread, asarabacca, briony, white and black, sallendine, virgianiansnakeroot, hemeric, white dittany, doronicum, hellebore, whiteand black, elicampane, fillipendula, galanga greater and lesser, masterwort, orris english and florentine, restharrow, stinking gladen, turbith, ginger hot in the fourth degree garlick, onions, leeks, pellitory of spain roots temperate in respect of heat, are bear breech, sparagus, ourlady thistle, eringo, jallap, mallows, mechoacan, garden parsnips, cinquefoil, tormentil roots cold in the first degree sorrel, beets, white and red, comfreythe greater, plantain, rose root, madder cold in the second degree alcanet, daisies, succory, hound tongue, endive, jacinth cold in the third degree bistort and mandrakes are cold in the thirddegree, and henbane in the fourth roots dry in the first degree bears-breech, burdocks, redbeets, calamus aromaticus, pilewort, self-heal, endive, eringo, jacinth, madder, kneeholly dry in the second degree waterflag, marshmallows, alkanet, smallage, reeds, sorrel, swallow-wort, asphodel male, bazil, valerian andspatling poppy, according to the opinion of the greeks our ladythistles, avens, succory, hound tongue, cypress long and round, fennel, lovage, spignel, mercury, devil bit, butter-bur, parsley, plantain, zedoary dry in the third degree angelica, aron, birthwort, long and round, sowbread, bistort, asarabacca, briony white and black, carline thistle, china, sallendine, virginian snake-root, white dittany, doronicum, hellebore white and black, elicampane, fillipendula, galanga greaterand lesser, masterwort, orris, english and florentine, restharrow, peony male and female, cinquefoil, hog fennel, sarsaparilla, stinkinggladen, tormentil, ginger dry in the fourth degree garlick, onions, costus, leeks, pellitoryof spain roots moist are, bazil, valerian, and spatling-poppy, accordingto the arabian physicians, daisies, white beets, borrage, bugloss, liquorice, dog grass, mallows, satyrion, scorzonera, parsnips, skirrets roots appropriated to several writings of the body heat the head doronicum, fennel, jallap, mechoacan, spikenard, celtic and indian peony male and female neck and throat pilewort, devil bit breast and lungs birthwort long and round, elicampane, liquorice, orris english and florentine, calamus aromaticus, cinquefoil, squills heart angelica, borrage, bugloss, carline thistle, doronicum, butterbur, scorzonera, tormentil, zedoary, bazil, valerian white and red stomach elicampane, galanga greater and lesser, spikenard, celticand indian, ginger, fennel, avens, raddishes bowels valerian great and small, zedoary, ginger liver smallage, carline thistle, sullendine, china, turmerick, fennel, gentian, dog-grass, cinquefoil, parsley, smallage, asparagus, rhubarb, rhapontic, kneeholly spleen smallage, carline thistle, fern male and female, parsley, water-flag, asparagus, round birthwort, fennel, capers, ash, gentian reins and bladder marshmallows, smallage, asparagus, burdock, bazil, valerian, spatling poppy, carline thistle, china, cyprus long andround, fillipendula, dog grass, spikenard, celtic and indian, parsly, knee-holly, white saxifrage womb birthwort long and round, galanga greater and lesser, peonymale and female, hog fennel fundament pilewort joints bear-breech, hermodactils, jallap, mecoacan, ginger, costus roots cool the head rose root stomach sow thistles, endive, succory, bistort liver madder, endive, chicory properties of the roots although i confess the properties of the simples may be found out bythe ensuing explanation of the terms, and i suppose by that means theywere found out at first. And although i hate a lazy student from myheart, yet to encourage young students in the art, i shall quote thechief of them. I desire all lovers of physic to compare them with theexplanation of these rules, so shall they see how they agree, so maythey be enabled to find out the properties of all simples to their ownbenefit in physic roots, bind cypress, bistort, tormentil, cinquefoil, bear breech, water-flag, alkanet, toothwort, &c discuss birthwort, asphodel, briony, capers, &c cleanse birthwort, aron, sparagus, grass, asphodel, celandine, &c open asarabacca, garlic, leeks, onions, rhapontick, turmerick, carline thistle, succory, endive, fillipendula, fennel, parsly, bruscus, sparagus, smallage, gentian, &c extenuate orris english and florentine, capers, &c burn garlick, onions, pellitory of spain, &c mollify mallows, marshmallows, &c suppur marshmallows, briony, white lillies, &c glutinate comfrey, solomon seal, gentian, birthwort, daisies, &c expel wind smallage, parsly, fennel, water-flag, garlick, costus, galanga, hog fennel, zedoary, spikenard indian, and celtic, &c breed seed waterflag, eringo, satyrian, galanga, &c provoke the menses birthwort, asarabacca, aron, waterflag, whitedittany, asphodel, garlick, centaury the less, cyperus long andround, costus, capers, calamus aromaticus, dittany of crete, carrots, eringo, fennel, parsly, smallage, grass, elicampane, peony, valerian, knee-holly, &c stop the menses comfrey, tormentil, bistort, &c provoke sweat carolina thistle, china, sarsaparilla, &c resist poison angelica, garlick, long birthwort, smallage, doronicum, costus, zedoary, cyprus, gentian, carolina thistle, bistort, tormentil, swallow-wort, viper bugloss, elicampane, &c help burnings asphodel, jacinth, white lilies, &c ease pains waterflag, eringo, orris, restharrow, &c purge choler asarabacca, rhubarb, rhapontick, fern, &c relieve melancholy hellebore, white and black, polipodium purge flegm and watery humours squills, turbith, hermodactils, jallap, mecoacan, wild cucumbers, sowbread, male asphodel, briony whiteand black, elder, spurge great and small i quoted essay of these properties to teach you the way how to findthe rest, which the explanation of these terms will give you ampleinstructions in.

Reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 32 sodiumglycerophosphates reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 52 parathesin not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary the local anesthetic ethyl paraminobenzoate was first introduced as“anesthesin” or “anæsthesin ” ethyl paraminobenzoate is not patentedin the united states and it may be manufactured, therefore, by anyfirm which chooses to do so in order that a common name by which todesignate the drug might be available, the council coined the name“benzocaine, ” as being short and easily remembered, but yet suggestiveof its composition and character “benzo” to indicate its derivationfrom benzoic acid and “caine” to indicate its cocaine-like properties as the term “anesthesin” had become a common name for the drug, thecouncil recognized this as a synonym online chemistry homework help for benzocaine one of the accepted brands for benzocaine is “anesthesin, ”manufactured by the h a metz laboratories, inc see new andnonofficial remedies, 1920, p 33 however, on april 19, 1920, themetz laboratories requested that its product be recognized underthe designation of “parathesin ” as the use of one substance underseveral names causes confusion and retards rational therapeutics, thecouncil rules provide against the recognition of proprietary namesfor nonproprietary, established drugs in view of this and becausethe legitimate interests of the manufacturer may be safeguardedby appending his name or initials to the common name, benzocaineor anesthesin, the council voted not to recognize the designation“parathesin ”-- from the journal a m a , nov 13, 1920 chlorlyptus report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe condensed report on chlorlyptus which follows and also a completedetailed report was sent to the proprietor, jan 9, 1920 in replyhe requested that publication be postponed pending the submission offurther clinical evidence as after nine months this evidence had notbeen received the council has authorized publication of its report w a puckner, secretary chlorlyptus is manufactured by chas a weeks, trading as the weekschemical company, philadelphia it is prepared by chlorinatingeucalyptus oil until it has bound 30 per cent of chlorin, the chlorinbeing in relatively stable combination it is claimed that chlorlyptusis a new “chlorinated antiseptic, ” highly efficient as a woundantiseptic and at the same time nonirritant and nontoxic chlorlyptusis offered for use in the treatment of local infections of all types, as well as of burns, and also as an antiseptic in the alimentary andgenito-urinary tracts the claims were based largely on reports of investigations made byphilip b hawk and his collaborators these reports the refereeof the committee in charge of chlorlyptus considered incompleteand unconvincing being advised of this mr weeks caused furtherinvestigations to be made essay of the information was checked andextended by the a m a chemical laboratory and by the referee the laboratory side of the investigation may now be considered ascomplete the results show that chlorlyptus is a feeble antiseptic ofthe aromatic oil type, considerably weaker than eucalyptus oil, bothas to therapeutic and toxic qualities the chlorin contained in it isbound too firmly to have any action. In fact, the chlorination appearsto have accomplished nothing more than a considerable destruction orweakening of the eucalyptus oil as far as the referee can judge, thisobject could have been accomplished just as effectively by dilutingordinary eucalyptus oil with essay indifferent solvent the manufacturer of chlorlyptus contends that if the experimentalfindings are against his product, it should be judged by the clinicaldata the clinical evidence, however, is not decisive it shows thatwounds healed and infections were prevented or successfully combated inpaper in which chlorlyptus was used in combination with good surgery, but it does not show how much of the result was due to the surgery andhow much, if any, to the use of chlorlyptus even if it were grantedas probable that the chlorlyptus contributed to the favorable outcome, it would still be a question whether it equals other establishedantiseptics, or whether it possesses any material advantages overdiluted eucalyptus oil until these points are established the clinicalreports cannot offset the unfavorable results of the laboratoryinvestigation the manufacturer has endeavored to obtain more convincing clinicalreports, but the lack of success in this direction during the past ninemonths gives little encouragement that acceptable clinical evidencewill be available within a reasonable time believing that the information which has been obtained should be madeavailable to the profession, the council authorized publication ofthis statement and also of the detailed report the council voted notto accept chlorlyptus for new and nonofficial remedies because of theunfavorable results of the laboratory investigation, but with theagreement that the product would receive further consideration shouldmore convincing clinical data become available i detailed reports summarized reports chemical nature of chlorlyptuschlorlyptus is prepared by chlorinating eucalyptus oil until ithas bound 30 per cent of chlorin “chlorlyptol” is prepared in ananalogous manner from eucalyptol there has been essay confusion as tothe composition. But the principal constituent is now stated to be “adichloride of eucalyptus oil, ” to which the formula c₁₀h₁₆ocl₂ hasbeen assigned it differs from the “chlorinated eucalyptus oil, ” asordinarily used for making dichloramin-t solutions, and which containsonly 2/3 per cent of chlorin availability of chlorin in chlorlyptusthe chlorin content of chlorlyptus is almost entirely firmly bound, and therefore not “available, ” in contrast to the group of so-calledchlorinated antiseptics i e , the hypochlorite and chloramin type for instance, it does not directly liberate iodin from iodid itcontains a very small quantity of free hydrochloric acid, or perhapsessay acid esters, and liberates a little more on prolonged contact withwater. But the total quantity liberated under reasonable conditions isvery small according to hawk data, they correspond only to 1/8 percent hcl even after standing with water overnight and to only 1/5 percent of hcl after two weeks the referee has shown that this quantityof acid has no therapeutic significance the “bound” chlorin of chlorlyptus, being chemically inactive, wouldhave no more practical significance than the bound chlorin in commonsalt the “ozone” said to be used during the preparation, to expel thehcl, has also practically disappeared, to judge by the slowness withwhich iodin is liberated from potassium iodid acid formationessay constituents of chlorlyptus hydrolyze slowly and to a slightdegree with the liberation of a trace of free hydrochloric acid according to the data of hawk report, the free acidity, in termof hcl, is 1/12 per cent on standing with water over night, thisincreases to 1/8 per cent on this basis, hawk proposed a theory that the claimed antisepticeffects of chlorlyptus are due to the continuous liberation ofhydrochloric acid experiments by the referee show this to be untenable the traces ofacid are neutralized and absorbed by the tissues so rapidly that anacid reaction is not maintained these experiments are described in theappendix they were submitted to the manufacturers, who in the name of mr weeks may 9, 1919 concede this conclusion and state that “there is nodoubt that the referee statements as to action in mouth, contactwith living tissue and improbability that the acidity is effectivelyantiseptic is correct, and i am willing to accept the refereestatement as conclusive in this respect ” bacterial culture experimentsmr weeks submitted a statement by hawk to the effect that chlorlyptushas a phenol coefficient of 2 6, determined by the standard hygieniclaboratory procedure he also quotes rockefeller war hospital that chlorlyptus killsstaphylococcus aureus in concentra of 1 dram. 1 gallon about1:1, 000, but not in more dilute solutions more recently, he presented a more comprehensive report by rivas, whichis reproduced in the appendix the essential results are tabulatedherewith this tabulation shows that chlorlyptus fails to kill theorganisms after an hour exposure of the following concentrations. Typhoid in bouillon, 10 per cent of chlorlyptus staphylococci in pus, 5 per cent of chlorlyptus staphylococci in serum, 1 per cent of chlorlyptus it seems to the referee that a substance that is ineffective with anhour exposure to these concentrations is not at all likely to kill orcheck bacteria under clinical conditions in other words, it is not anantiseptic in the ordinary sense the referee is not impressed by the superior power attributed by rivasto chlorlyptus in the presence of pus inefficiency of 10 per cent forone-half hour or of 5 per cent for two hours seems a failure ratherthan a success the referee also notes the absence of any data as tothe relative efficiency of chlorlyptus against staphylococci in pus andin bouillon the data on serum indicate that chlorlyptus is much weakerthan phenol and show that it is less effective in the presence of pusthan in other mediums the referee fails to grasp the bearing of the oil experiments on anyclinical condition moreover, the inconstant results mentioned by rivassuggest the possibility that the incorporation of the bacteria in oilmay have prevented their effective distribution in the culture medium if any significance is to be attached to these experiments, they shouldbe checked by controls, without antiseptics summary of rivas’ in vitro experiments minimal maximal germicidal not germicidal concentrations concentrations typhoid bacilli in bouillon. Chlorlyptus exp 3 10%, 2 to 4 hours 10% for 1 hour 5% for 2 hours eucalyptus oil exp 1 5% within 5 minutes no data phenol exp 5 1% within 10 min no data streptococci and staphylococci in olive oil. Chlorlyptus exps 7 and 8 1%, almost at once, no data essaytimes eucalyptus oil no data no data phenol exps 9 and 10 1%, almost at once, no data staphylococci in pus. Chlorlyptus exp 11 10% for 1 hour 10% for 1/2 hour 5% for 2 hours eucalyptus oil no data no data phenol no data no data staphylococci in human blood serum. Chlorlyptus exp 12 5% in 1 hour 1% in 1 hour eucalyptus oil no data no data phenol 5% almost at once 1% in 1 hour -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- infection experiments in vivodr rivas reports two series of experiments, in each of which threeguinea-pigs received staphylococcus suspensions in the peritoneum one guinea-pig in each series was left untreated. The others receivedinjections of chlorlyptus into the peritoneum at various intervals the following results were obtained.

  • high school geometry homework help
  • research paper writing service cheap
  • standardized testing essay
  • essay thinker
  • hire freelance writers
  • essay writing template
  • world war 2 essay
  • essay scholarships
  • concert report essay
  • pay someone to write a paper
  • essay services us
  • write my psychology research paper
  • fsu application essay
  • academic essay services
  • buy good essays
  • standardized testing essay
  • nacirema essay
  • online free homework help
  • industrial revolution essay
  • 2015 college essay prompts
  • to kill a mockingbird courage essay

would you feel disposed to speak with all charityof him, to recommend him to those in need of legal advice?. You would probably feel toward such a lawyer as patients must feeltoward physicians who prescribe proprietary nostrums based oninformation and advice offered by those who, though without any specialknowledge of chemistry, pharmacy or medicine, will be benefitedfinancially if their information and advice are accepted and actedon -- from the journal a m a , april 27, 1918 anasarcin advertisingi i see index for other articles on anasarcin to the editor:-- as an old fellow of the a m a i beg to presentthe following facts to you, and to ask if anything can be done by youto expose the methods of these people. A concern calling itself “theanasarcin chem co ” of winchester, tenn , has caused to be sent tophysicians a chart on the subject of “diagnostics of renal diseases ”this chart contains eighteen plates, which were all taken withoutknowledge or permission of either myself or my publishers, williamwood & co , from the third edition of my book on “urinary analysisand diagnosis ” the plates are writingly composite plates, but mostlyportions of plates, exactly reproduced from my book i at once causedmy publishers to write to the anasarcin company. And a few days ago ireceived a letter from a dr h elliott bates of 118 east twenty-eighthstreet, new york, whose letterhead says, “medical advertising ” in thisletter the writer says that it was he who suggested the sending of sucha chart, and admits that all the plates were taken from my book inthis letter he offers to have a letter sent to every physician of thecountry “in which it is explicitly stated that the cuts on the chartwere taken from your book, and that complete information regardingthe matters treated on the chart can be found in your book ” in otherwords he offers to advertise my book free of cost to me, so that ishould take no further steps in the matter i consider this entirematter an outrage, and thought it best to write to you for advice, since my publishers seem to think that in spite of the violation of thecopyright nothing can be done besides the cuts, essay of the text on the chart is bodily taken frommy book, while essay of the other text, not taken from my book, butapparently compiled from different articles, is in writing entirely wrong, so much so that i must be ashamed of its being associated with any ofmy own work by giving this letter your early consideration, and advising me whatyou think it best for me to do, you would greatly oblige louis heitzman, m d , new york comment -- readers of the journal are, of course, familiar with thearticles246 that have been published on “anasarcin, ” the “dropsycure”!. knowing the standard of ethics that the anasarcin concern adoptsin the exploitation of its ridiculous squill mixture, our readerswill not be surprised at the standard of commercial ethics whichwould justify the appropriation of copyrighted scientific materialfor nostrum advertising purposes the statement of dr heitzmannpublishers that “in spite of a violation of copyright nothing can bedone” is, of course, incorrect essaything can be done by those whohold the copyright -- ed -- from the journal a m a , oct 18, 1919 246 j a m a 46:288 jan 27 1906. Ibid 48:1535 may 4 1907;ibid 48:1614 may 11 1907, and ibid 49:1992 dec 8 1917 antimeristem-schmidtessay, possibly thesis, of our readers have received a letter fromcologne, gerthesis, from the “bakteriologisch-chemisches laboratoriumwolfgang schmidt ” the letter contains a circular directing theattention of american physicians to “antimeristem-schmidt ” it alsocontains essay advertising leaflets one physician in sending thismaterial to the journal writes. “a copy of the enclosed circulars has been sent to thesis of the physicians in this city, and probably elsewhere perhaps it has already been called to your attention let us be as liberal as possible with our recent enemies the sooner the old channels of scientific communication are re-opened, the better but let us not allow such blatant commercialism from a foreign country to go unprotested, any more than we should if it were from our own ”it should be noted in passing that the envelop in which the wolfgangschmidt letter came has on its face a rubber-stamped impress to theeffect. “concerns cancer treatment ” the circular letter declares thatby means of antimeristem-schmidt “either a cure or improvement has beeneffected in numerous inoperable paper” of malignant tumors americanphysicians are asked “to employ the preparation when occasion arises”and are assured that “every medical man in city or country will beable to carry out treatment without preliminary knowledge ” with theletter are two leaflets discussing the use and administration of theproduct. One contained what was called a “synopsis of essay of the morerecent publications regarding the employment of antimeristem-schmidt ininoperable malignant tumors ” the “recent” publications comprised threearticles published in 1910 and one published in 1912!. Antimeristem-schmidt was rather widely exploited essay six or sevenyears ago as was explained in the journal, march 8, 1913, p 766, itis a preparation claimed to be useful in the treatment of inoperablecancer and as a supplementary treatment after operations for cancer the treatment is founded on a theory advanced by one o schmidt thatthe cause of cancer is found in a fungus, mucor racemosus, which, schmidt at first asserted, carried a protozoon which he regarded asthe real cause of the disease the vaccine is said to be prepared fromcultures from this fungus while schmidt claims that he has been ableto produce cancer by means of the organism, scientific research has notverified his claims extensive clinical trials have shown the treatmentto be without effect the journal also advised its readers on april 19, 1913, that no license for the sale of antimeristem-schmidt had beengranted by the treasury dewritingment and, therefore, its importation intothis country was prohibited neither the therapeutic nor the legalstatus of the product has been changed since then -- from the journala m a , dec 6, 1919 antiphlogistineto the editor:-- last september, my chief, dr j s millard, received a letter from the denver chemical mfg co , manufacturers of“antiphlogistine ” this letter purported to quote thesis large commercialconcerns as testifying to the value of antiphlogistine recently, idoubted the veracity of these claims and wrote to essay of those quoted i quote from the original letter of the antiphlogistine company. “the surgeon to the electric light and electric railroad company in new orleans says that antiphlogistine is the finest thing he has ever used in burns, especially flash and brush burns “the physician to the new york edison co makes a similar statement he says that the application gives speedy relief and the burns heal quickly without scars ”i wrote to dr john woodman, the physician to the new york edison co , who replied in writing as follows. “the denver chemical manufacturing company have no authority to quote me i gave antiphlogistine a thorough trial, and found it had a very limited use, and i cannot recommend it for burns ”again, the antiphlogistine letter said.