One Paragraph Essay

Is anexcellent remedy for such as one paragraph essay are bruised by falls. It provokes urineand the terms exceedingly, therefore let it not be given to women withchild. The same is very profitable for such as are troubled with crampsand convulsions, to drink the decoction. Also they say it breaks thestone, and helps ruptures most certainly. It is excellent in all colddiseases, and such as are troubled with tough phlegm, scabs, itch, or any fretting sores and ulcers. It is an admirable remedy to killthe worms, by taking half a dram of the powder in a morning in anyconvenient liquor. The same is excellently good to be taken inwardlyfor the king evil it helps agues of all sorts, and the yellowjaundice, as also the bots in cattle. When kine are bitten on the udderby any venomous beast, do but stroke the place with the decoction ofany of these, and it will instantly heal them clove gilliflowers it is vain to describe an herb so well known government and virtues they are gallant, fine, temperate flowers, of the nature and under the dominion of jupiter. Yea, so temperate, that no excess, neither in heat, cold, dryness, nor moisture, can beperceived in them. They are great strengtheners both of the brain andheart, and will therefore serve either for cordials or cephalics, asyour occasion will serve there is both a syrup and a conserve made ofthem alone, commonly to be had at every apothecary to take now andthen a little of either, strengthens nature much, in such as are inconsumptions they are also excellently good in hot pestilent fevers, and expel poison germander descript common germander shoots forth sundry stalks, with smalland essaywhat round leaves, dented about the edges the flowersstand at the tops of a deep purple colour the root is composed ofdivers sprigs, which shoots forth a great way round about, quicklyoverspreading a garden place it grows usually with us in gardens time and flowers in june and july government and virtues it is a most prevalent herb of mercury, and strengthens the brain and apprehension exceedingly when weak, andrelieves them when drooping this taken with honey saith dioscoridesis a remedy for coughs, hardness of the spleen and difficulty of urine, and helps those that are fallen into a dropsy, especially at thebeginning of the disease, a decoction being made thereof when it isgreen, and drank it also brings down women courses, and expels thedead child it is most effectual against the poison of all serpents, being drank in wine, and the bruised herb outwardly applied.

Bull de l’assn franç pourl’étude du cancer, vi, 62 276 apolant, h. Vi tag der freien vereinigung für mikrobiologie , berlin, 1912 ref münchen med wchnschr , 1912, p 659 the most important critique of eosin-selenium has been contributedby the subsequent investigations of one of wassermann originalcollaborators, f keysser 277 keysser publication contains a largenumber of very careful observations on the various forms of eosinsupplied by the german manufacturers, as well as on other matters whichcannot here be considered in detail he finally reached the conclusionthat the eosin furnished by the manufacturing house of sandoz wasthe most effective for his purposes, inasmuch as it combined thelowest grade of toxicity with the highest capacity for discoloringthe tissues the selenium he used in the form of selenio-vanadiumfurnished by clin of paris, which was the identical preparation usedby werner and szécsi in combination with borcholin the maximum doseof this selenio-vanadium is 0 06 c c for each gram of mouse eosin, 0 01 gm , dissolved in 0 5 c c of physiologic salt solution, is mixedwith 0 5 c c of the selenio-vanadium this mixture is then used forintravenous injections the results produced by the injection of thismixture are to all intents and purposes similar to those obtained bywassermann, except that keysser induced cure in a larger proportion ofanimals, namely, from 6 to 8 per cent it is evident from his carefuldescription of his experiments that the treatment is extremely toxic tothe animals the therapeutic dose is considerably greater than one-halfthe toxic dose this accounts for the fact that an extremely largeproportion of the animals perish during the course of the treatment the tumors failed to be influenced unless the dose given fell verylittle short of the fatal amount moreover, in order to accomplish acomplete cure, at least eight to ten injections must be given, and inessay instances not less than fourteen 277 keysser, f. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1914, orig , ii, 188 keysser most important conclusions, however, were obtained byfollowing an altogether different line of procedure it has beenpointed out by carl lewin272 that the therapeutic results obtainedfrom subcutaneous mouse tumors, however encouraging, could not belogically applied to the treatment of human cancers the subcutaneoustransplanted tumors, as is well known, are as a rule limited by adistinct capsule and show no tendency to infiltrative growth in thiswritingicular they present a most striking difference when comparedwith human tumors on the other hand, the metastases of mouse tumorsin the internal organs present an infiltrative mode of growth andthus approximate very much more closely to the human type of tumors keysser, therefore, determined to test the therapeutic effectivenessof his compounds on tumors implanted in various organs he developed atechnic which enabled him to implant tumors in the liver, the spleen, the kidneys and other writings of the mouse by means of injection throughspecial needles, often without the assistance of a cutting operation the tumors so implanted grew rapidly, and within from two tothree weeks reached the size of cherry pits the growth wascharacteristically infiltrative animals with these tumors were thensubmitted to intravenous injection of the therapeutic agents in exactlythe same fashion as the animals carrying subcutaneous tumors theresults, however, were absolutely different whereas the subcutaneoustumors invariably showed a much more intense discoloration than theother tissues of the mouse, this feature was entirely lacking in thecase of the internal tumors softening and liquefaction, which almostinvariably follows on the third or fourth injection in the case ofsubcutaneous tumors, and which is the first symptom of cure, neverpresented itself in the case of the internal tumors their consistencythroughout the treatment was indistinguishable from that of the tumorsof control animals the treatment, in fact, appeared to exercise notthe slightest influence on internal tumors there was neither cessationnor retardation in growth, but the tumors continued their normal rateof destructive increase with the production of metastases, leadingeventually to the death of the animal either during the course of thetreatment or shortly thereafter microscopic changes, such as had beenobserved by hansemann in the case of subcutaneous tumors, were entirelylacking no matter in what organ the tumors were implanted, theseresults remained the same no matter what type of tumor was employed, whether carcinoma, adenocarcinoma or sarcoma, the therapeutic outcomewas regularly and consistently nil these results induced keysser to determine whether or noteosin-selenium could actually be shown to exercise a deleteriouseffect on cancer cells outside the body in order to do this he made asuspension of mouse tumor cells in salt solution and mixed this withthe eosin-selenium-vanadium, using the latter in amounts equivalent tothree times the fatal dose for a mouse after the mixture had stoodfrom one to three hours, it was injected either subcutaneously orintravenously into mice in order to test the vitality of the cells in every instance the injections resulted in the production of tumorswhich could be in no way distinguished from the tumors produced byuntreated cancer cells in other words, the therapeutic preparation hadabsolutely no effect on the tumor cells in the same way keysser carried out experiments along the linesinaugurated by neuberg, using a combination of glycocoll and copper he also tested the combination of borcholin with selenium-vanadiumused by werner and szécsi he was able to confirm the fact that bothof these substances produced an unmistakable therapeutic effect onsubcutaneous tumors on the other hand, they were absolutely withoutinfluence on the internal tumors in this respect, therefore, they wereentirely comparable with the eosin-selenium compound the theoreticalbasis constructed by neuberg, which rests on the assumption that themetallic compounds stimulate autolytic processes in the tumors, wasalso subjected by keysser to destructive criticism finally, keysser showed that none of these therapeutic agents wereeffective even in the case of subcutaneous tumors, unless the latterhad reached at least the size of cherry pits if a therapeuticinjection were made immediately after inoculation of the tumors, noeffect was observed the tumors grew exactly as in the control animals, and the injected animals died in about the same period of time as they all of these facts, which taken together constitute a very remarkableand convincing piece of scientific investigation, permit of butone conclusion it is quite clearly established that none of thepreparations of which the therapeutic effectiveness has hitherto beenproclaimed exercise any direct influence on the life or developmentof the tumor under certain very definite and restricted conditions, however, they do appear to produce certain changes in the tumors, and in a small proportion even cures these results, however, areobtained only in the case of tumors which are subcutaneous in locationand not smaller than a cherry pit in size keysser interpretationof the striking differences between tumors is of interest in thisconnection he believes that the constant palpation and examinationof the subcutaneous tumors, which is prompted by interest in theexperiment, produces circulatory changes with hyperemia and hemorrhage these circulatory changes are responsible for the increased tendencyof the injected substances to lodge in the tumors, thereby possiblyincreasing the tendency to autolysis which the circulatory changes haveinaugurated it is, of course, questionable whether this explanationcan be regarded as final in a series of experiments which i performedthesis years ago, i was able to show that sodium iodid when injectedintravenously accumulates in tumors in larger amounts than in any othertissue of the body in rats a similar observation has been recordedby wells, de witt and corper 278 in the same way i found thatvarious dyes, such as congo red, when injected intravenously, could bedemonstrated in tumors long after the rest of the body had recoveredits normal color. The liver alone vied with the tumors in this respect the dyestuff was invariably sharply localized in the necrotic portionsof the tumor the conclusion seemed obvious that, owing to circulatoryconditions or possibly even to chemical conditions, the dye wasretained longest in the necrotic writings of the tumor this effect wasunquestionably not due to handling, inasmuch as the animals in myexperiments were not palpated from the time of injection until death 278 wells, h g , de witt, and corper. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1914, orig , ii, 110 i have, however, had an even more striking demonstration of the samefact i have given intravenous injections of dyes to patients sufferingwith various forms of internal tumors, as, for example, cancer of thebreast, in the hope of favorably influencing the growths at operation, the picture presented by the tumor is striking in the extreme itpresents areas of various size which are intensely discolored by thedye these areas, both to the naked eye and under the microscope, are the necrotic writings of the tumor the actively growing areas oftumor tissue and all the normal tissues of the organ present theirnormal color all of these observations lead to the conclusion thatthe necrotic areas in tumors either possess a higher affinity forsodium iodid and for the dyes than do the normal tissues, or thatthese substances are more slowly absorbed from the necrotic areasowing to the circulatory deficiency whichever of these explanationsis accepted, it is quite reasonable to believe that necrotic areasmight well undergo liquefaction under the influence of the varioussubstances which have been used for therapeutic injection such aresult is, of course, without direct effect on the growth or vitalityof the living writing of the tumor this fact is quite clearly evidencedby the experimental data, which show that the internal portions of thetumor might undergo liquefaction and yet the tumors were not cured indeed, löhe, who made microscopic examinations of the tumors treatedby caspari and neuberg, states writingicularly, with reference to a tumorwhich had been subjected to treatment, that “the central portion ofthe tumor showed softening, while the external margin was composed ofactively growing cells ” the central portions of implanted tumors are, of course, those which first undergo spontaneous necrosis it still remains to explain the small percentage of cures achieved bywassermann and by keysser it does not appear to me that this problempresents any insuperable difficulties the fact must be emphasizedthat practically 95 per cent of the animals die under the treatment, which sufficiently indicates the toxic effects of the agent used wemust remember that transplanted tumors are under all circumstancesat a certain disadvantage as compared with the normal tissues of thebody after all, they are implanted on a foreign soil their bloodsupply is impoverished and imperfect they have a natural tendency toundergo necrosis, and in thesis paper spontaneous retrogression it isnot strange, therefore, that they should prove in slight degree moresusceptible to toxic effects than are the normal tissues of the body if we remember that the various therapeutic agents introduced in allprobability reach a essaywhat higher degree of concentration in thenecrotic areas of the tumor than in the normal tissues of the body, anassumption which is entirely in accord with the facts as observed inthe case of sodium iodid and of various dyes, we may be quite preparedto believe that this factor is sufficient to induce the destruction ofthe marginal healthy and living cells of the tumor the fact that smallsubcutaneous tumors were found by keysser to be entirely refractoryto the treatment is entirely in accord with this assumption, in viewof the fact that tumors of this size present practically no centralnecrosis the same explanation holds of the observation previouslycited from caspari that the primary spontaneous tumors of animalsdo not yield to the treatment indeed, he himself states that thetreatment is effective only in tumors in which autolysis takes placeduring life the word autolysis, however, in this connection is amisnomer and represents a gratuitous assumption. As an actual fact, one is entitled to say only that such tumors undergo central necrosis, in all probably owing to defective circulatory supply the process isexactly similar to the coagulation necrosis described in the case oftubercles by weigert if autolysis occurs, it is only secondary to thepreceding necrosis this explanation, however, is confronted by the fact that the internaltumors produced by keysser showed no tendency to effect a localizationof the dyes, and correspondingly no tendency to be affected by thetherapeutic agents one might be permitted to inquire whether theseinternal tumors had undergone any necrosis keysser unfortunately makesno mention of this matter it is certainly true that the infiltrativemode of growth of the internal tumors, which is entirely differentfrom that of the subcutaneous implantations, is associated with amuch better blood supply and a lessened tendency to undergo necrosis that such tumors can undergo necrosis, however, is evidenced bycertain illustrations given by carl lewin in his paper on internaltumors but such changes usually occur only in advanced stages tojudge from his plates, keysser worked with relatively small tumors, an assumption which is rendered even more likely by the fact that hisinjections were undertaken in a fairly early stage of their growth inthis connection i may quote certain experiments of my own on internaltumors 279 the implantations made in my experiments were produced byintravenous injections of a tumor suspension into the jugular vein ofrats such injections resulted almost invariably in the production ofa large number of tumors in the lungs, which, as is well shown in thefigures accompanying the original article, differed very markedly insize the smaller of these tumors are composed throughout of activelygrowing cells, while the large tumors present an area of centralnecrosis exactly as do the subcutaneous tumors if such an animal begiven an intravenous injection of a dye such as congo red, it will befound that the larger tumors present an area of central discolorationcorresponding to the area of previous necrosis, while the smallertumors, like normal tissues, are not colored thus, it is clear thatthe internal tumors implanted in animals are subject to the same lawsconcerning the distribution of dyes and, of course, other substances asare the subcutaneous tumors as i have stated previously, an exactlyanalogous observation has been made in a human breast tumor in theabsence of any contradictory evidence, therefore, i think that it isperfectly justifiable to assume that keysser failed to achieve a resultin the internal growths simply owing to the fact that those growthspresented practically no areas of necrosis at the time of his injection 279 j m research, 1913, p 497 another theoretical question which bears closely on the recenttherapeutic investigations in human beings concerns the rôle ofcolloids, as such, in the procedure it is quite clear from what hasalready been said that all experiments with animal tumors have beenlargely influenced by the belief that metals in the colloidal formexercise a peculiar and characteristic influence on the destructionof tumors even when the therapeutic agents have been introducedin crystalline form, as by neuberg and caspari, the authors findthemselves compelled to assume that the metals are reduced to colloidalform within the tumors for the latter assumption there is absolutelyno evidence. It is due simply to the influence of the colloidal theory if one critically examines the data on which this theory is based, oneis forced to the conclusion that it has practically no establishedclaim to validity if we grant that colloidal metals have been shown tostimulate autolysis in the test tube, the same fact must be admitted ofmetals in noncolloidal solution the experiments, however, are very farfrom establishing either of these facts satisfactorily but even werethis the case, it is an unjustifiable inference that living tumor cellswould be influenced in anything like the same manner as are the deadcells observed in test tube experiments as an actual fact, we knowfrom the work of evans and schulemann that only the “scavenger cells”of the body take up foreign colloids, and to this class the tumor cellsdo not belong moreover, the form in which metals are introducedinto the circulation is not necessarily or even probably the form inwhich they act on the tissues colloidal solutions of the metals arecertainly subject to precipitation and other changes on entering theblood this fact i have shown experimentally in a previous study oncolloidal copper 280 in the same way it is probable, as has beenpointed out by wells, that metals when introduced in crystalloid formmay rapidly be altered so that they are carried throughout the body incolloidal form all of these considerations indicate how unjustifiableis the assumption that colloidal metals exercise a peculiar action ongrowing tumors it is hardly surprising that their empiric use hasfailed to measure up to expectations based on so slim a foundation offact 280 weil, richard. The effects of colloidal copper with an analysisof the therapeutic criteria in human cancer, j a m a 61:1034 sept 27 1913 clinical observationclinicians have not been slow in following the lead suggested by thetherapeutic experiments in animals it is perfectly proper that thisshould be the case in dealing with a disease of the character ofcancer, in thesis instances entirely beyond our power to influence, noone can question the advisability of trying any and every agent whichholds out the slightest promise unfortunately, a closer analysis ofthe animal experiments fails to vindicate even that degree of faith when one considers the facts which have been analyzed in the precedingdiscussion, it would appear not only futile but actually dangerous toattempt to benefit cancer sufferers by means of any of the agencieswhich have been employed in animal experimentation nevertheless, thefact remains that a variety of preparations have been used in the humanclinic the various types of preparations may be satisfactorily groupedunder four classes, namely:1 the crystalline salts of selenium 2 selenium in colloidal solution 3 other metals in colloidal solution 4 compounds of metals with organic radicals these substances have been administered by injection or by the mouth in the case of injection, the injections have been made either into thesubcutaneous tissues, intramuscularly, or intravenously, or finally, directly into the tumors before passing to a further considerationof this subject in detail, it may be well to recall the fact that inthe experimental tumors of animals, no matter what preparation hasbeen used, it has been possible to accomplish therapeutic effects onlyby the use of relatively enormous doses of the medicament, of doses, in fact, which were scarcely lower than the lethal dose certainexperimenters have noted that smaller doses actually stimulated thegrowth of the tumors in the second place, it has almost invariablybeen found necessary to administer the treatment intravenously, inasmuch as the other modes of administration failed of therapeuticeffect it is quite apparent that a procedure in human beings in anydegree analogous to that pursued in animals is entirely impossible thedoses used, with one notable exception to be subsequently mentioned, have invariably been relatively small hence it is apparent at theoutset that at least one fundamental condition of success in thetreatment of animal tumors has been necessarily excluded in theclinical application the salt used by wassermann is not stated in his original publication wolff281 speaks of it as a sodium salt, whereas keysser says that itwas a combination with potassium cyanid in only one instance, as faras i am aware, has the sodium salt been used therapeutically in humanbeings delbet282 states that he employed this salt intravenouslyin one case, and that its use was shortly followed by death unquestionably the salts of selenium are very much too toxic to be usedin this way 281 wolff. Die lehre von der krebs krankheit 3:1913 282 delbet, p. Bull de l’assn franç pour l’étude du cancer5:121, 1912.

But he was also the inventor of a weird concoction known as "billposter's paste" and for this last crime i will never forgive him otherwise he was a decent and fair-minded officer after his arrival, favouritism was abolished and we all got a square deal on february 6th the wolf left us and was never seen again by any of us we then started to go around the northern end of iceland, but met ice and were forced back we ran south for a couple of days and waited around to see if the wolf made it or not, and as she did not return, we concluded she had either got through or passed to the southward of iceland, chancing the blockade the cold here was very intense and caused a lot of suffering amongst us helped by essay of the german sailors, i fixed a place in an empty bunker, where my wife, nita and myself practically lived, only going in the cabin for meals and to sleep lieutenant rose had canvas put up here for us and lights put in so that i could lie there and read, and the wife could sit and sew nita of course enjoyed the comparative warmth the only drawback was that the air was full of fine coal dust and gas from the fire room, and we used to get frightfully dirty on february 12th we again tried to get to the northward of iceland, but again met ice and had to return rose was forced to go to the southward of iceland, as he could not waste any more time, since the supply of drinking water was getting very low now that we were about to actually enter the blockade zone, our hopes commenced to rise i heard nothing from my fellow prisoners for the past six months but. "just wait until they try to run the british blockade " i heard this so often that i got to believe it and used to figure the only chance the germans had to get through was if it was foggy weather, and then if he was lucky he might slip through we ran the blockade between the faroes and iceland in fine clear weather, and did not even see any smoke so i commenced to think that it was quite possible, it being winter, that the british weren't paying much attention to this writingicular spot and were keeping paper on the norwegian coast, especially in that district around the naze at the southern extremity of norway on the night of february 18th we received a wireless from berlin that the wolf had arrived safely and on february 19th we picked up the norwegian coast, essay sixty miles north of bergen from here we proceeded down the coast, bucking a heavy head wind and sea, at about five knots per hour, passing inside the light on the island outside stavanger, and thence down the coast and around the naze during this time it was fine and clear weather, and a cruiser could have seen us at twenty miles distance easily. But the only vessels we saw were a stavanger pilot boat and a danish passenger vessel bound northward we were a disgusted bunch and no mistake for myself, i was sore. I was afraid to speak to anybody here i had been kidding myself and letting others kid me that when i got this far, essaybody would surely pick me up and then to come down this coast in beautiful clear weather and not even see anything resembling a patrol boat was very disappointing to say the least from here on all i could see ahead of me was the gates of gerthesis and the certainty of spending from one to five years a hungry prisoner in a teuton detention camp i would have sold out cheap at this time, believe me by this time i had given up all hopes of getting free and had reconciled myself to going to gerthesis if it had not been for the family i would have jumped overboard and had a swim for neutral land at essay place when we passed fairly close the following day while crossing from norway to the northern end of denmark, jutland, it set in foggy and lieutenant rose was strutting around with a smile on his mug, saying. "just the weather i want. Made to order. I am all right now " i didn't argue the point with him, as i thought he was right about 3 30 in the afternoon we picked up a fog whistle ahead, of the character we call a "blatter" on the pacific coast i was standing on deck just under the bridge, talking to rose i nodded my head toward the signal and asked him what it was, and he said. "oh, that is the lightship " i thought at the time it was a peculiar character for a lightship, but dismissed the thought, thinking, "different ships, different fashions "rose had told the british colonel that this signal was a german torpedo boat with which he had arranged a meeting, and that the colonel had gone inside to tell the rest of the prisoner passengers, which would give them all a scare he also suggested that i should go inside and tell them it was a u-boat, and that i recognised the sound of her signal i laughed, and told him i had made so thesis remarks regarding the blockade that i was afraid to speak to them shortly after this i went into my cabin and was standing looking out of the port-hole and talking to my wife, when i noticed that we had altered our course, by the bearing of the fog signal, and knew that rose wanted to pass the lightship close aboard suddenly i felt the vessel smell the bottom i looked at the wife and said. "holy poker!. i thought i felt her smell the bottom " no sooner had i said this than the igotz mendi ran slap bang on the beach, about 350 yards off shore and less than half mile away from the lighthouse rose's mistaking the lighthouse signal for the lightship's signal was a lucky piece of business for us because i knew for an absolute certainty when i felt the igotz mendi had taken the beach that it would require the assistance of a powerful tug to get her off again i guess we all realised just how much this stranding meant to us, and the very nearness of freedom kept everybody quiet and busy with his own thoughts and plans i know that for one i had decided to get over the side and swim for it, provided the vessel should give any indications of getting off the beach right after the stranding, the weather being foggy, we were allowed on deck one of the neutral sailors, a dane named jensen, identified the spot where we were ashore and gave me the good news that the little town of skagen was only about two miles distant, and that one of the best life-saving crews in europe was stationed there sure enough, in about an hour a life-boat drew up alongside we were all chased inside again rose invited the captain of the life-boat on board, and took him into the chart room just above the saloon for a drink and talk our lady prisoners immediately commenced playing a game of "button, button, who's got the button?. " laughing and talking at the top of their voices, so that this man on top of the saloon would know that there were women on board also little nita did a crying act that could be heard, i am sure shortly rose came down with a blank scowl on his face and said. "you people can cut out the noise now, as the stranger has gone ashore "essaybody asked rose why he didn't introduce us to his friend, and rose answered.

Itmay, as in the case of kemmler, have a horizontal arm which projectsforward and from which the head-electrode may be suspended the chairis also furnished with broad leather straps firmly attached, two ofwhich pass around the body, one around each upper arm, one around eachlower arm, and one around each leg there is also a broad conjoinedor compound strap which passes over the head, encircling the foreheadand the chin and securing the head firmly to the head-rest whenthese straps are properly adjusted and fastened, any marked degree ofmovement is impossible the adjustment and fastening of these strapscan be performed very rapidly, in practiced hands taking not more thanforty seconds the electrodes used have varied slightly in different paper in thecase of kemmler they each consisted of a bell-shaped rubber cup aboutfour inches in diameter, with a wooden handle through which passedthe wires into the bell to end in a metallic disk about three inchesin diameter, faced with sponge the upper electrode was so arrangedas to rest firmly on the top of the head, where it was held closelyby means of a spiral spring. It was attached to the horizontal arm ofthe head-rest, a sliding arrangement shaped like a figure 4 the lower electrode was in this case attached to the lower writing of theback of the chair, and projected forward at a level with the hollow ofthe sacrum there was also connected with it a sliding arrangement, and a spiral spring which in connection with a broad strap around theprisoner lower abdomen rendered contact secure in the later executions these electrodes have been essaywhat modifiedand differently applied the head-electrode is now so formed as tocover the forehead and temples, and can be easily fastened in thisposition without a spring the lower electrodes have been applied tothe leg in each case, essaytimes apparently to the calf and essaytimesmore to the outer side, where they are securely strapped they aremade of such a shape as to cover a considerable portion of the surfacein this region it is not a matter of importance to which leg theindifferent electrode is attached, but they have actually been appliedin most paper to the right leg, though in essay they were attached tothe left they are thoroughly moistened, usually with a solution ofsalt and water, and a drip may be arranged so as to keep them wetduring the passage of the current or other means employed to thiseffect the electromotive pressure, as shown by readings of the voltmeter byprofessor laudy, in the paper of slocum, smiler, hood, jugigo, andloppy, varied from 1, 458 to 1, 716 volts the ammeter showed a variationof from two to seven amperes the alternating current in the case of mcelvaine made roughly 150periods per second the number of contacts made in each case and the duration of eachcontact were as follows. ═══════════════════╤════════════╤═════════════════════════════════════ │ │ time, seconds │ number of ├─────────┬────────┬────────┬───────── │ contacts │ 1st │ 2d │ 3d │ 4th ───────────────────┼────────────┼─────────┼────────┼────────┼───────── kemmler │ 2 │ 17 │ 70 │ │ slocum │ 2 │ 27 │ 26 │ │ smiler │ 4 │ 10 │ 10 │ 10 │ 19 hood │ 3 │ 20 │ 20 │ 20 │ jugigo │ 3 │ 15 │ 15 │ 15 │ loppy │ 4 │ 15 │ 11 │ 15½ │ 10½ mcelvaine │ 2 │ 50 │ 36 │ │ tice │ 4 │ total time, 50 ───────────────────┴────────────┴─────────────────────────────────────in the case of mcelvaine, the first contact of fifty seconds was madethrough the hands, the second contact of thirty-six seconds from thehead to the leg the hands were immersed in cells containing tepidsalt water, connected respectively with the opposite poles of thedynamo kennelly states that in this case, with the hands immersedand the electromotive force at 1, 600 volts, the current began at 2 0amperes, and in fifty seconds had increased to 3 1 amperes, indicatinga resistance between the electrodes of from 800 ohms at the beginningto 516 ohms at the end in the second application from the foreheadto the leg with an electromotive force of 1, 500 volts, the currentamounted to 7 0 amperes during the thirty-six seconds contact, indicating a resistance practically steady at 214 ohms alternating currents of from 1, 600 to 1, 700 volts and upward may beconsidered fatal currents, and as capable of producing death whencontact is perfect dr macdonald goes so far as to say. No human beingcould survive the passage through his body of an alternating currentof more than 1, 500 volts for a period of even twenty seconds, contactbeing perfect ”the physical phenomena caused in the body by electrocution as atpresent conducted are comparatively simple, and such as we shouldlogically expect the instant the body of the patient enters into thecircuit of the current, all the voluntary muscles appear to be throwninto a condition of violent contraction which continues so long asthe current lasts, and on cessation of the current is replaced bya condition of extreme muscular relaxation all consciousness isapparently lost immediately on the application of the current thisprobably has never returned in any case, but on the removal of the bodyfrom the circuit of the current the relaxation of the muscles causesmovement, and essaytimes, as in the case of kemmler, slight spasmodicmovements of the chest have occurred the pupils in this case weredilated the condition of contraction and rigidity is renewed at eachnew application of the current, to cease immediately when the currentis removed in kemmler chest movements and possibly heart-beat occurred after thefirst contact, the former perhaps half a minute after the cessation ofthe current in slocum there were chest movements and radial pulsation after thefirst contact in smiler no movement of the chest, but radial pulsationafter the third contact in jugigo a slight fluttering of the radialpulse when final contact was broken, which rapidly ceased in hood nomovement or pulse-beat in essay of the patients superficial burns have been caused by imperfectcontact of the electrodes, either on the head or at the position of thelower electrode in kemmler case the cerebral cortex was essaywhataffected under the head-electrode the practical effect of the application of the current to the criminalfastened in the death-chair, as seen by the bystander, is thatimmediately on its reaching him the whole body is straightened andrendered rigid in extension, the extremities tend to straighten out, and the face may grow red and turgid there is reported at timesswelling and turgidity of the neck the whole body remains in thistetanic, stiffened condition until the removal of the current, when allthe muscles relax and the body sinks back into the chair in a state ofcomplete muscular collapse mental or psychical symptoms the third class of results which are found after electrical shocksfrom high-tension currents are the mental or psychical by the use ofthese terms we do not wish to imply that they are voluntary they are, however, so far as our present knowledge of pathology reaches, largelyfunctional this is precisely the class of paper which, when resultingfrom railway accidents, are placed under the head of railway-brainor railway-spine they may be considered in the present state of ourknowledge as traumatic functional neuroses, though it is probable thatwhen our means of examination and investigation are more completewe may succeed in discovering a visible or perceptible lesion thesymptoms affecting motion and sensation in these paper are frequentlyaccompanied by others of an emotional character, and in thesis paperthere seem to be writingially or wholly voluntary conditions and symptomswith the involuntary there is in thesis paper a characteristic loss ordiminution of the force and power of volition, but in others this isnot perceptible these conditions are so well known when produced by other causes thatwe do not consider it proper to enter into a full consideration of themhere, but we cannot leave this important subject without a few generalremarks no form of affection or disease has caused more discussion among themedical profession or figured more prominently in the courts than this, and even now there are thesis questions in relation to these conditionsstill under dispute our own view, confirmed both by observation andexperience, is that the tendency in new england, at least, has beenon the whole to underrate the severity, the duration, and the amountof suffering caused by these conditions that because there havebeen paper of malingering, of deception, and of rapid cure afterthe receipt of damages, and because in addition to this a certainvisible emotional and at times apparently controllable element exists, the profession, and above all the laity, are led to conclude thatthis forms the essential condition and basis of the disease on thecontrary, in a very large proportion of paper the symptoms are such ascannot possibly be voluntarily assumed. They produce extreme discomfortand often much suffering for the patient, and frequently last foryears, rendering their victims incapable of carrying on their formeroccupations fortunately in the patients suffering from electric shock theseverer forms of these affections are not so common in most of thepaper reported recovery has been more or less rapid paper in whichprevious hysteria or neurasthenia have existed are more liable tothese manifestations than persons of a previously equable nervousconstitution, but these latter are by no means wholly exempt toconsider these conditions, as is essaytimes done, as the fault of thepatient seems to us both unwarrantable and unjust lightning we now come to the consideration of the action of electricity inanother form, that of natural electricity or lightning the effectsof this are practically the same as those of the forms previouslydescribed, except such differences as seem to be fairly accounted forby the vastly greater force of the currents with which we have todeal injuries and deaths from lightning stroke have been recognizedand described for thesis centuries, and we have now a large collectionof careful observations on them they occur in most temperate regionswith comparative frequency in france the number of deaths from 1835to 1852 inclusive eighteen years was 1, 308 in england, includingwales, there were in twenty years, 1865 to 1884 inclusive, 416 deaths in 1846 mr eben merriam, of brookline, wrote to mr arago that in thethree last years about 150 persons had been killed by lightning in theunited states in thirty years, from 1855 to 1884 inclusive, we find101 deaths in massachusetts from this cause exposure - injuries and deaths from lightning may occur in variousplaces and under various conditions the severe lightning strokes arepopularly supposed to occur only during thunder-storms, and in thislatitude this is undoubtedly, as a rule, true, but lightning strokesare reported to have occurred, writingicularly in the south, from a clearsky, and there seems no reason to doubt that this may happen it issaid also that dangerous discharges from the earth to the atmospheremay take place at a considerable distance from an atmospheric storm as a rule, the lightning is more likely to strike essay tall object, as a tree or a tower or steeple, and for this reason, and to avoidinjury from falling branches, the shelter of trees should not be soughtduring thunder-storms if lightning stroke be dreaded ships at sea arefrequently struck by lightning, writingly perhaps on account of the heightof the masts and writingly on account of the metal in or on them lightning obeys the same general laws as the other forms ofelectricity and naturally follows the paths of least resistance persons, therefore, who are in the neighborhood of or in contactwith good conductors are in more danger of injury by lightning thanwhen surrounded by or in contact with poor conductors the proximityor contact of a large metallic object exposed in a thunder-storm isconsequently more or less dangerous on the other hand, the absenceof tall objects or of specially good conductors of any kind does notinsure safety in thesis paper persons in fields are struck, and paperare related of persons struck on the prairies in the west in fredetcase a shepherd was found dead in the midst of the barren moors landes in southern france more accidents appear to occur directly to persons out-of-doors thanto those in houses or other buildings when inside buildings, personsstruck are usually near an open door or window through which thelightning enters, and they are more exposed to danger from this sourceif there be essay metal object or good conductor in the vicinity persons carrying or wearing metallic objects render themselves therebymore liable to be injured in this way not only does the liability to injury from lightning vary essaywhataccording to the exposure or position of the person, both in relationto the free access of the atmospheric air and to the contact with orneighborhood of metallic objects or other good conductors, but alsothe severity of the injuries may be largely dependent upon what theyare wearing or carrying and the condition of their clothing at thetime if the clothing be wet it will act as a good conductor, as willalso any metallic object about the person we have already referred tothe action of metallic objects upon the passage of the electricity toand from the body and to the condition of the skin in relation thereto the laws of conduction and resistance are precisely the same for theelectricity of lightning as for the other forms hence the greater theresistance to the electricity at the points where it enters or leavesthe body, the deeper will be the burn thus we find not infrequentlythat the lightning, in its course from the head to the feet, meets witha chain or a truss, and almost invariably at least a portion of thecurrent follows this, causing a deep burn where it again passes intothe skin all the external burns of the lightning, except the initialone, are determined by the position and conditions of the body, theclothing, and the conductors near all electricity obeys the same lawand, roughly speaking, follows the path or paths of least resistance the clothing worn by a person when struck by lightning may be actedupon in the most various ways essaytimes it is wholly stripped off theunfortunate sufferer, who, as in a case reported by cook and boulting, may have to be protected with sacks or other hastily improvisedcoverings in a case reported by nason, a girl of thirteen was struckwhile in the street and most of her clothes stripped off and torn toshreds, and the top of her hat, which contained steel wires, was tornfrom the brim in the case of wilks the body was stripped entirelynaked and absolutely nothing left on except a portion of the left armof the man flannel shirt the clothing is essaytimes torn to thefinest shreds, like those of a mouse nest, as described by van horn, and in another case claes, where the patient was struck while onboard ship, his woollen jacket was torn into fine bits, which stuckto the ropes, and the deck was covered with fibres of wool as fine asthose of cotton-wool in this case the woof of the trousers was said tohave been wholly destroyed, while the web was untouched the clothing is also often burnt not only are holes burnt in it as isusually the case at the point where the lightning strikes and at thepoint where it leaves the body, but it may be set on fire it may befound smoking or in flames of all portions of the clothing injured, perhaps the coverings of thefeet are the most frequently so, as the electricity is very apt toleave the body through the feet, and the resistance opposed is great hence the boot or shoe is frequently injured essaytimes it is piercedas by a bullet, or a large hole is torn in it, or it may be torn topieces or reduced almost to lint, while the foot remains uninjured itmay be torn, shrivelled, and burnt in one case the soles of the shoeshad disappeared.

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The cause of infantile atrophy, j a m a , july 20, 1907, p 204 one paragraph essay 77 sweet, j e , and pemberton, ralph. Experimental observations onsecretin, arch int med , february, 1908, p 231 beveridge78 suggests the use of secretin in a pyloric stenosis, b pancreatic insufficiency, c hepatic stimulation and cirrhosisof the liver d to stimulate peristalsis in colonic stasis, e ingastro-enterostomy and short-circuiting of the intestines he claimsto have used it in over a hundred paper with “brilliant results, ”and cites four typical histories the g w carnrick company, whichmanufactures “secretogen, ” an alleged secretin preparation, cites anumber of authorities79 as also recommending secretin for digestivedisorders harrower, who is or was connected with the carnrick company, in clinical journals80 has ardently advocated the use of secretin fora large number of maladies 78 beveridge. Am med 20:255, 1914 79 lockwood, g r. Diseases of stomach, 1913, chapter on achylia bassler, anthony. Am jour gastro-enter , 1914. Kemp, r c. Diseasesof stomach, intestine and pancreas, 1912 reed, boardman. Am jour gastro-enter , october, 1912 ewald therapie der gegenwart, 1915, p 5 reports favorable results with secretogen in one of thirteenpaper 80 harrower. Pediatrics 25:430, 1913. New york m j 118:315, 1913. Arch f verdauungskr 20:577, 1914 physiologic considerationsthroughout its clinical use, secretin has been given by mouth. Butits direct introduction into the intestine of a dog under anesthesiain even enormous quantities is without effect this fact, firstobserved by bayliss and starling, 32 was confirmed by fleig, 81 andmatuso, 36 and our personal experiments have convinced us of itstruth matuso found that ordinary secretin and that obtained fromintestinal lumen gave equally negative results large quantities ofactive secretin, moreover, acidified to 0 2 per cent hydrochloricacid, and left in the ileum for fifteen minutes, were still negative wertheimer and duvillier, 82 in a previous paper on this subject, had likewise found that acid solutions of secretin which might beconsidered more normal for the intestine than when neutral, whenintroduced into the ileum gave negative or inconstant results theyconclude that it is more likely that the pancreas does not respond tosuch minimal stimuli, than that the secretin is not absorbed 81 flieg.