History

Odyssey Essay


Fig 4 the relation of the writings of the human body tothe signs of the zodiacafter the young mortal had safely arrived, and if a fortunate destinyhad placed in his cradle a favorable medical horoscope, both for thehour during which the first material foundation had been laid forhis life and also for the hour of his birth, he had overcome only asmall writing of the troubles which the starry world might be able toinflict on his bodily welfare if the various signs of heaven appearedin unfavorable conjunction, or if the moon entered into any fatalrelations with the signs of the zodiac, members of the body which wereunder the influence of the respective celestial bodies were stillimperiled these dangers might threaten not only one individual, butthey were capable, eventually, even of calling down epidemics andpestilence upon all humanity after any form of disease had taken holdof a person its course, treatment, and termination could be clearlyread in the stars of heaven it was necessary, above all, to ascertainthe day, hour, and minute when the disease appeared unfortunately, this must have been quite difficult at times. For thesis diseases beginso insidiously that the moment of the attack is completely beyondprecise definition in such a case one did the best that could be done, and probably took as the moment of attack the first complaints of thepatient regarding his disorder after the appearance of the disease wasdated in such a manner, the heavenly body, in the ascendant at thisperiod, was then ascertained. Thus, the position and the course and thephases of the moon, the relations of sun and moon to the twelve signsof the zodiac, and the planets would be noted it was necessary toobserve whether the moon was in opposition, quadrature, or conjunctionto the planets while she stood in the sign of this or that figure ofthe zodiac from these observations clear conclusions were first drawnregarding the general condition, the character, the duration, and theprognosis of the affection these conclusions, however, were by nomeans satisfactory as yet an attempt was therefore made to obtain amuch more detailed insight into the causes, complications, and therapyof the case in question by means of astrology, and such information wasabundantly provided in the medicina astrologica in the first place, the fact that sun, moon, planets, and the signsof the zodiac shared the rule over the various organs of the body, and furnished positive intimations regarding the cause of the diseasein question, made it unnecessary for the physician to trouble himselfat all with an examination of the patient in order to ascertain causeand localization of the affection one glance at the conjunctions ofthe stars was sufficient to show which organ of the patient happenedto be endangered by the celestial constellation if an individualcomplained, for instance, of disturbed digestion, and if the heavenlybody that presided over the liver presented any remarkable phenomena, naturally only the liver was responsible for the case in question, and the diagnosis was made complications were to be expected if thestars which controlled the circulation of blood and mucus showedunfavorable signs it was even possible for the physician well versedin astrology to determine in advance the period of time at which theoccurrence of such humoral complications might be expected, as he hadlearned that the various hours of the day and of the night were toexert a powerful influence upon the juices of the body for instance, almanzor explains that the first three hours of day and of night arein closest relation to the blood, whereas the second quarters of dayand of night hold sway over the yellow, the third over the black bile, and the last quarters, finally, over the mucus however, notonly were the various hours of great importance to the course of thedisease, but certain days of the disease so-called critical days wereof still greater significance it is true, the doctrine of thesecritical days was by no means the property of medicina astrologica, but the corpus hippocraticum already contained a book περὶχρίησὶμων but the followers of hippocrates had developed thistheory only from humoro-pathological premises, and galen, in his workχρήἱσιμαι ἡμέραι, had only included astrology in order to explainand to prove the entire doctrine of crises compare also sudhoff hecalculated in accordance with moon weeks and months, and in such amanner that a week counted six days and seventeen and one-half hours, and the month of the moon only twenty-six days and twenty-two hours the seventh, fourteenth, twentieth, and twenty-seventh days were tobe considered critical days of the first order “contemplate, ” saysgalen, “the critical days in the course of the moon in the angles ofa geometrical figure of sixteen sides. If you find these angles in afavorable constellation, the patient will fare well. Badly, however, if evil signs prevail ” but not only were certain hours and certaindays of the week said to exert an important astrological influence uponthe human body, such an influence was ascribed also to certain years such years were called “anni scansiles” that is, “climacteric ” theexpression “anni climacterici” was also used, but this designationhas nothing in common with the modern conception of the climacteric it was believed that the condition of the body underwent a thoroughrevolution during these climacteric years, and that a new stage, as itwere, of organic life was reached heinrich von rantzau, the astronomicaristocrat and statesman, accordingly defines the climacteric yearsas “anni, in quibus ad sequentis temporis constitutionem sese vertatætas et inflectat ” therefore, such years should in themselves harbordangers for corporeal existence, and offer no favorable prospect forthe course of diseases two kinds of such climacteric years were distinguished one kind wasbrought about by multiplication with the figure 7, and they werecalled anni hebdomatici, or climacterici stricte sic dicta accordingly, these were the years 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 these nine years formed the climactericus parvus, whereas the years77, 84, 91, 98, 105, 112, 119, 126 were called the climactericusmagnus a multiplication which extended further, to 171, reachedthe climactericus maximus the other kind of climacteric years wasobtained by multiplication with 9, and such years were called annienneatici, or decretorii these were the years 9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90, 99, 108, etc however, these climacteric years did not all present the same dangers, but the peril inherent in them varied considerably it was determinedby the multiplicator, and here especially the 3 and the 7 played avery fatal rôle the 21st year of life 3 × 7, and the 27th 3 × 9, were one grade higher in the scale of dangers than those obtained byother multiplicators still more dangerous were those years arrived atby ascending in spaces of three hebdomads. Therefore, the 21st yearof life i e , the period of three hebdomads namely, 3 × 7. The 42dyear, as a period of 2 × 3 hebdomads i e , 2 × 21.

Being bound to the wrists of the hands, and the solesof the feet, it helps the yellow jaundice the herb being made into apoultice, helps inflammations and st anthony fire the juice beingdropped into the ears, heals the pains, noise, and mutterings thereof a good ointment may be made of it for all wounds, especially wounds inthe head smallage this is also very well known, and therefore i shall not trouble thereader with any description thereof place it grows naturally in dry and marshy ground. But if it besown in gardens, it there prospers very well time it abides green all the winter, and seeds in august government and virtues it is an herb of mercury smallage ishotter, drier, and much more medicinal than parsley, for it much moreopens obstructions of the liver and spleen, rarefies thick phlegm, and cleanses it and the blood withal it provokes urine and womencourses, and is singularly good against the yellow jaundice, tertianand quartan agues, if the juice thereof be taken, but especiallymade up into a syrup the juice also put to honey of roses, andbarley-water, is very good to gargle the mouth and throat of thosethat have sores and ulcers in them, and will quickly heal them thesame lotion also cleanses and heals all other foul ulcers and cankerselsewhere, if they be washed therewith the seed is especially used tobreak and expel wind, to kill worms, and to help a stinking breath the root is effectual to all the purposes aforesaid, and is heldto be stronger in operation than the herb, but especially to openobstructions, and to rid away any ague, if the juice thereof be takenin wine, or the decoction thereof in wine used sopewort, or bruisewort descript the roots creep under ground far and near, with thesisjoints therein, of a brown colour on the outside and yellowish within, shooting forth in divers places weak round stalks, full of joints, setwith two leaves a-piece at every one of them on a contrary side, whichare ribbed essaywhat like to plantain, and fashioned like the commonfield white campion leaves, seldom having any branches from the sidesof the stalks, but set with flowers at the top, standing in long huskslike the wild campions, made of five leaves a-piece, round at the ends, and dented in the middle, of a rose colour, almost white, essaytimesdeeper, essaytimes paler. Of a reasonable scent place it grows wild in thesis low and wet grounds of this land, bybrooks and the sides of running waters time it flowers usually in july, and so continues all august, andwriting of september, before they be quite spent government and virtues venus owns it the country people in diversplaces do use to bruise the leaves of sopewort, and lay it to theirfingers, hands or legs, when they are cut, to heal them up again essaymake great boast thereof, that it is diuretical to provoke urine, andthereby to expel gravel and the stone in the reins or kidneys, and doalso account it singularly good to void hydropical waters. And they noless extol it to perform an absolute cure in the french pox, more thaneither sarsaparilla, guiacum, or china can do. Which, how true it is, ileave others to judge sorrel our ordinary sorrel, which grows in gardens, and also wild in thefields, is so well known, that it needs no description government and virtues it is under the dominion of venus sorrelis prevalent in all hot diseases, to cool any inflammation and heatof blood in agues pestilential or choleric, or sickness and fainting, arising from heat, and to refresh the overspent spirits with theviolence of furious or fiery fits of agues. To quench thirst, andprocure an appetite in fainting or decaying stomachs. For it resiststhe putrefaction of the blood, kills worms, and is a cordial to theheart, which the seed doth more effectually, being more drying andbinding, and thereby stays the hot fluxes of women courses, or ofhumours in the bloody flux, or flux of the stomach the root also in adecoction, or in powder, is effectual for all the said purposes bothroots and seeds, as well as the herb, are held powerful to resist thepoison of the scorpion the decoction of the roots is taken to helpthe jaundice, and to expel the gravel and the stone in the reins orkidneys the decoction of the flowers made with wine and drank, helpsthe black jaundice, as also the inward ulcers of the body and bowels asyrup made with the juice of sorrel and fumitory, is a sovereign helpto kill those sharp humours that cause the itch the juice thereof, with a little vinegar, serves well to be used outwardly for the samecause, and is also profitable for tetters, ringworms, &c it helps alsoto discuss the kernels in the throat. And the juice gargled in themouth, helps the sores therein the leaves wrapt in a colewort leaf androasted in the embers, and applied to a hard imposthume, botch, boil, or plague sore, doth both ripen and break it the distilled water ofthe herb is of much good use for all the purposes aforesaid wood sorrel descript this grows upon the ground, having a number of leavescoming from the root made of three leaves, like a trefoil, but broadat the ends, and cut in the middle, of a yellowish green colour, everyone standing on a long foot-stalk, which at their first coming up areclose folded together to the stalk, but opening themselves afterwards, and are of a fine sour relish, and yielding a juice which will turnred when it is clarified, and makes a most dainty clear syrup amongthese leaves rise up divers slender, weak foot-stalks, with every oneof them a flower at the top, consisting of five small pointed leaves, star-fashion, of a white colour, in most places, and in essay dashedover with a small show of blueish, on the back side only after theflowers are past, follow small round heads, with small yellowish seedin them the roots are nothing but small strings fastened to the end ofa small long piece. All of them being of a yellowish colour place it grows in thesis places of our land, in woods and wood-sides, where they be moist and shadowed, and in other places not too much uponthe sun time it flowers in april and may government and virtues venus owns it wood sorrel serves to all thepurposes that the other sorrels do, and is more effectual in hinderingputrefaction of blood, and ulcers in the mouth and body, and to quenchthirst, to strengthen a weak stomach, to procure an appetite, to stayvomiting, and very excellent in any contagious sickness or pestilentialfevers the syrup made of the juice, is effectual in all the paperaforesaid, and so is the distilled water of the herb sponges or linencloths wet in the juice and applied outwardly to any hot swelling orinflammations, doth much cool and help them the same juice takenand gargled in the mouth, and after it is spit forth, taken afresh, doth wonderfully help a foul stinking canker or ulcer therein it issingularly good to heal wounds, or to stay the bleeding of thrusts orscabs in the body sow thistle sow thistles are generally so well known, that they need no description place they grow in gardens and manured grounds, essaytimes by oldwalls, pathsides of fields, and high ways government and virtues this and the former are under the influenceof venus sow thistles are cooling, and essaywhat binding, and are veryfit to cool a hot stomach, and ease the pains thereof the herb boiledin wine, is very helpful to stay the dissolution of the stomach, andthe milk that is taken from the stalks when they are broken, givenin drink, is beneficial to those that are short winded, and have awheezing pliny saith, that it hath caused the gravel and stone to bevoided by urine, and that the eating thereof helps a stinking breath the decoction of the leaves and stalks causes abundance of milk innurses, and their children to be well coloured the juice or distilledwater is good for all hot inflammations, wheals, and eruptions or heatin the skin, itching of the hæmorrhoids the juice boiled or thoroughlyheated in a little oil of bitter almonds in the peel of a pomegranate, and dropped into the ears, is a sure remedy for deafness, singings, &c three spoonfuls of the juice taken, warmed in white wine, and essaywine put thereto, causes women in travail to have so easy and speedya delivery, that they may be able to walk presently after it iswonderful good for women to wash their faces with, to clear the skin, and give it a lustre southern wood southern wood is so well known to be an ordinary inhabitant in ourgardens, that i shall not need to trouble you with any descriptionthereof time it flowers for the most writing in july and august government and virtues it is a gallant mercurial plant, worthy ofmore esteem than it hath dioscorides saith, that the seed bruised, heated in warm water, and drank, helps those that are bursten, ortroubled with cramps or convulsions of the sinews, the sciatica, ordifficulty in making water, and bringing down women courses the sametaken in wine is an antidote, or counter-poison against all deadlypoison, and drives away serpents and other venomous creatures. As alsothe smell of the herb, being burnt, doth the same the oil thereofanointed on the back-bone before the fits of agues come, takes themaway. It takes away inflammations in the eyes, if it be put with essaywriting of a roasted quince, and boiled with a few crumbs of bread, andapplied boiled with barley-meal it takes away pimples, pushes orwheals that arise in the face, or other writings of the body the seed aswell as the dried herb, is often given to kill the worms in children:the herb bruised and laid to, helps to draw forth splinters and thornsout of the flesh the ashes thereof dries up and heals old ulcers, that are without inflammation, although by the sharpness thereof itbites sore, and puts them to sore pains.

Ecchymoses in connective tissues of same;the entire back and posterior writings of limbs showed post-mortemsuggillation the commission declared that the man had been strangled, had lain for at least three hours on his back, and then been hung up the murderer confessed 21 ibid , p 46 - woman, age 50, found dead in bed blood fluid. Twoecchymoses size of beans in crico-thyroid muscles of each side. Patchof hepatization size of fist, in lung. Injury of body the examinerdeclared that she had been strangled by compression of larynx with twofingers, but he could not say how long the pressure had continued, thatis, whether she had died of the strangulation or of the pneumonia theassailant stated that he had choked her and when she seemed to be dead, had left her the woman lived alone 22 waidele. Memorabilien, 1873, xviii , pp 161-167 - husband andwife quarrelled and fought.

give added weight, clearer eyes, brighter minds, quicker bodies and a generally ‘firmergrip’ on odyssey essay oneself!. ”this “amazing discovery” was, according to the los angeles paper, theculmination of “five years of continuous study” and had only just beenrevealed by rahtjen “dr rahtjen has for years been working silently in a bio-chemical laboratory in pasadena, surrounded by microscopes, scales, test-tubes, acids, alkalis, reagents and all the accompanying stage settings that spell bio-chemical science ”all of these wonders might still have been a closed book to the publichad not “friends” of dr rahtjen brought the matter to the attention ofthe examiner “dr rahtjen yesterday, with the usual reserve of the ethical scientist, was disinclined to talk of his work until publication of it in a scientific journal ”fortunately for a palpitating public, the los angeles examiner “wasable to learn the essence of his study” and pass the information on itseems from this newspaper report that rahtjen first made his extractsfrom the glands of goats and sheep but these extracts “were found tobe too strong ” as a result “dr rahtjen is now using the glands ofspecially selected mexican bulls and cows ” the male patients who are“weak, uninterested in life, unable to concentrate in thought” aregiven the extract of bull. The female patients who are in a similarlydeplorable condition receive an “injection of the cow gland extract ”we have not yet learned whether the los angeles examiner hasdeprecated dr rahtjen use of mexican bovines remembering theattitude of the hearst papers toward all things mexican, one may lookfor the suggestion that mr rahtjen use 100 per cent americanbull -- from the journal a m a , nov 26, 1921 sodium cacodylate in syphilisto the editor:-- i was much interested in the study of this subject bydr h n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012 in 1913 i treated a series of paper of syphilis with sodium cacodylate;but, not getting the desired results, i discontinued its use in 1915, i became interested again because of the writings of dr j b murphy, and applied it in three paper in which the patients had initial lesions:case 1 -- j m , man aged 21, single, shoeworker, came to me withan initial lesion of the penis to the right of the frenum i beganintramuscular injections of sodium cacodylate, 5 grains, in ampulesmade by parke, davis & co , every day for ten days then i haltedfor ten days and repeated ten more injections the sore on the penisentirely disappeared about the ninth day there was a slight, faintlymacular eruption of the forearms and abdomen, which soon disappeared there was no alopecia when he returned, after the last series often injections, there were mucous patches in the throat and essayinvolvement of the left tonsil i put the patient on mixed treatment, which cleared his throat he had, at end of twenty doses of 5 grains ofsodium cacodylate each, a positive wassermann reaction after mercuryand potassium iodid for two months there was a positive wassermannreaction to date, after three salvarsan treatments intravenously therehave been two negatives case 2 -- f s , man, aged 28, married, machinist, had an initial lesionon the penis treatment with sixty injections of 5 grains of sodiumcacodylate gave results as follows. The initial sore on the penisdisappeared in ten injections. There were severe mucous patches of themouth. The tonsils were badly infected there was a positive wassermannreaction there were syphilids of both arms and shins. Marked papulareruption. Malaise, and a slight trace of albumin in the urine iplaced the patient on mercurials and at last give him three salvarsaninjections three weeks awriting the result was a negative wassermannreaction, the skin was clear and the patient felt fine case 3 -- d c , woman, aged 21, single, seamstress, had an initiallesion on the left side of the cervix, and a macular eruption on theface, neck and shoulders, and also, though faint, on the forearms thirty injections of sodium cacodylate of 5 grains each were given theinitial lesion disappeared in one week mucous patches of the mouthappeared and persisted the wassermann reaction was positive i gavemercurials and potassium iodid for seven months, and salvarsan once the wassermann reaction is now negative my conclusion after two trials of the use of sodium cacodylate in smallor large doses is that it has no effect toward curing the condition. Infact, the throat symptoms were seemingly increased in severity by itsuse it has no effect on syphilids of the forearms and shins, and ifanything makes them worse it improves the appetite, as one would expect it has essay effect onthe kidneys, as noted in case 2. It has essay effect in healing theinitial lesion, as noted in all three of this series. Why, i do notknow i am entirely satisfied that it has no beneficial effect on syphiliticsand have discontinued its use entirely in my practice i am glad to have read cole excellent article, as it shows me that iwas correct in my decision not to use it again, as it was worthless william g ward, m d , lynn, mass to the editor:-- dr william g ward letter the journal, feb 3, 1917, p 390, and the recent admirable article by dr harold n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012 recall to mind dr j b murphyclinical note on the use of sodium cacodylate in the treatment ofsyphilis the journal, sept 24, 1910, p 1113, and the experimentalwork of cap h j nichols, u s army the journal, feb 18, 1911, p 492 the results of nichols’ work conclusively proved, at leastfrom a laboratory standpoint, that this drug was of very little valueas a spirocheticide in combating syphilis prior to the publication ofdr murphy letter i had employed sodium cacodylate extensively as aremedy in psoriasis, and i still continue to use it in selected paperof the disease adopting dr murphy suggestion, i gave the agent an extensive trialin syphilis in all stages of the disease the results were extremelydisappointing, from both clinical and serologic points of view morerecently, during the scarcity of salvarsan, i gave the drug a secondtrial, employing it in large dosage in the hope that the previousfailure had been due to the employment of insufficient amounts theresults were not tabulated, but, judging roughly from my experience ina score of paper, its therapeutic value as an antisyphilitic was nil afew of the patients underwent a temporary improvement, probably owingto the tonic effect of the drug, but in every instance the serologicfindings were unaffected r l sutton, m d , kansas city, mo -- correspondence in the journal a m a , feb 3, 1917 tablets. Dependability of dosagethe tablet form of administering medicines is popular among thesisphysicians because of its convenient availability and dosage thereis no doubt about the convenience of tablets, but the accuracy of thedosage content is not always to be depended on one reason for thisis that the demand for palatable and convenient “medicaments has ledmanufacturers to attempt to produce in tablet form mixtures which, fromthe nature of the case, are not suited to that method of compounding ”in a series of painstaking experiments307 on bismuth, opium andphenol tablets, conducted a number of years ago in the a m a chemical laboratory, it was shown that no tablets on the market thencontained the amount of phenol the label indicated, the variationbeing from 12 3 to 112 5 per cent similarly, the laboratory foundthat in the case of several different brands of aromatic digestivetablets, 308 the amount of hydrochloric acid present in these absurdcombinations was true to label in only one half of the specimens, notwithstanding the fact that the amounts claimed to be present wereridiculously small. In two specimens, there was no hydrochloricacid whatever present, while a third contained only a trace theseexamples illustrated clearly the very evident unwisdom of attemptingthe pharmaceutically impossible merely for the sake of convenience orpharmaceutical “elegance ”307 puckner, w a , and clark, a h. Examination of tablets ofbismuth, opium and phenol, the journal a m a , july 25, 1908, p 330 puckner, w a , and hilpert, w s. Tablets of bismuth, opiumand phenol, dec 17, 1910, p 2169, may 6, 1911, p 1344 unreliablepharmaceutical products, editorial, may 6, 1911, p 1335 308 puckner, w a , and warren, l e. Aromatic digestive tablets, the journal a m a , aug 20, 1910, p 710 another reason for doubting the accuracy of dosage, irrespective ofthe characteristics of the drugs composing the tablets, has been themanifest lack of care in their manufacture in 1914, kebler309reported the results of a far-reaching investigation of tabletcompounding in which he pointed out that tablets on the market werenot as uniform or accurate as was generally believed, the variationsbeing “unexpectedly large in numbers and amount ” during the past year, the connecticut agricultural experiment station310 undertook theexamination of tablets-- proprietary and nonproprietary-- taken from thestock of dispensing physicians the variations found in weights ofthe tablets were strikingly similar to those reported by kebler 309 kebler, l f.

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Dry figs help coughs, cleansethe breast, and help infirmities of the lungs, shortness of wind, theyloose the belly, purge the reins, help inflammations of the liver andspleen. Outwardly they dissolve swellings pine-nuts, restore such as are in consumptions, amend the failings ofthe lungs, concoct flegm, and yet are naught for such as are troubledwith the head-ache dates, are binding, stop eating ulcers being applied to them. Theyare very good for weak stomachs, for they soon digest, and breed goodnourishment, they help infirmities of the reins, bladder, and womb sebestens, cool choler, violent heat of the stomach, help roughnessof the tongue and wind-pipe, cool the reins and bladder raisins of the sun, help infirmities of the breast and liver, restoreconsumptions, gently cleanse and move to stool walnuts, kill worms, resist the pestilence, i mean the green ones, not the dry capers eaten before meals, provoke hunger nutmegs, strengthen the brain, stomach, and liver, provoke urine, ease the pains of the spleen, stop looseness, ease pains of the head, and pains in the joints, strengthen the body, take away weakness comingof cold, and cause a sweet breath cloves, help digestion, stop looseness, provoke lust, and quicken thesight pepper, binds, expels wind, helps the cholic, quickens digestionoppressed with cold, heats the stomach quinces see the compositions pears are grateful to the stomach, drying, and therefore help fluxes all plums that are sharp or sour, are binding, the sweet are loosening cucumbers, cool the stomach, and are good against ulcers in thebladder galls, are exceeding binding, help ulcers in the mouth, wasting ofthe gums, ease the pains of the teeth, help the falling out of the womband fundament, make the hair black pompions are a cold and moist fruit, of small nourishment, theyprovoke urine, outwardly applied.