History

Objective Essay


Bacterial protein injectionsin influenzal pneumonia, j a m a 72:922 march 29 1919 cowie, d m , and beaven, p w. Nonspecific protein therapy in influenzalpneumonia, j a m a 72:1117 april 19 1919 when vaccines and other toxic protein substances are injectedintravenously a train of reactions takes place that includes. aa primary leukopenia, followed by a leukocytosis. b a primarylessening of the coagulability of the blood, followed after essayinterval by a reduction of the coagulation time. c a pronouncedlymphagogue effect, the flow of lymph from the thoracic duct beingincreased threefold. d a hyperperistalsis of the intestinal tract, and e a marked splanchnic engorgement with a resulting lowering ofthe systemic blood pressure the alteration of the coagulability of theblood, together with the vascular engorgement of the splanchnic areaand the coincident increase in motility of the intestinal tract thatfollow the therapeutic injection, all tend to increase the possibilityof intestinal hemorrhage protein therapy is therefore not a safeprocedure in this writingicular disease that we are able to terminate acertain number of paper of typhoid fever by crisis by means of suchinjections is of very great interest from a theoretical point of view in the treatment of arthritis, the results seem much more satisfactory the work of miller and lusk296 has been confirmed by a number ofobservers, among them culver, cecil, snyder, cowie and calhoun. Andthere seems little doubt that we may be able to give prompt relief andeven permanent freedom from symptoms in a considerable percentage ofpaper of acute and subacute arthritis, especially those classed as ofrheumatic origin-- and this with practically no risk to the patient 296 miller, j l , and lusk, f b. The treatment of arthritis by theintravenous injection of foreign protein, j a m a 66.

Markedly depressed one hour does not get on feet when turned on side. Ataxia well marked slight watery secretion in eyes reflexes diminished does not eat twenty-four hours vi 26 19-- heart slowed and arrhythmic animal lies on side unable to walk. Markedly depressed vi 27 19-- lies on side. Does not eat died during night of vi 27 19 three days experiment 5 -- 6 25 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Quiet. Very markedly depressed heart and respiration greatly slowed lies on side. Tears in eyes. Does not eat twenty-four hours vi 25 19-- temperature subnormal. Cold to touch. Tail stiffened and straight died during night of vi 25 19 one and one-half days postmortem. Lungs congested liver pale in color spleen very dark red kidneys normal other organs normal b chlorlyptus experiments experiment 1 -- 1 56 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Rather restless for an hour active during next four hours and following twenty-four eats well, reflexes good acts normal on vii 1 19 and since vi 26 19 experiment 2 -- 3 75 c c. Injected vi 24 19.

be useful in the treatment of. Leucorrhea leucorrhea gonorrhea gonorrhea vaginitis vaginal inflammation pruritus pruritus ulcerated conditions of ulceration of vagina or the mucous membrane cervix scrofulous ulcers chronic ulcers syphilitic ulcers prophylactic against specific disease disinfecting offensive cleansing pus cavities cavities deodorant deodorant profuse and offensive checks abnormal secretion perspirationwe stated that the formula furnished by tyree was that given above, butthe council was never able to learn when tyree actually employed theformula except for advertising purposes. And analysis of the powdershowed that tyree antiseptic powder was essentially a mixture ofboric acid and zinc sulphate, with insignificant amounts of odorousprinciples a remarkable fact brought out in the course of the consideration ofthe preparation by the council was that tyree admitted that he hadchanged the formula without having published the new one the councilthen showed that a specimen of the “antiseptic” that had been kept ina retail drug store for several years was essentially similar to thatsold at the later date thus it would seem that mr tyree had beenmaking his powder by one formula and publishing an entirely differentone for years before the council published the facts in the case if tyree found it necessary to change the formula of his powder-- ifindeed, he ever used the published formula-- why did the aseptinolmanufacturing company adopt it, or one so closely resembling it?. It is obvious that both of these twin nostrums are utterly unfitfor treating the various conditions for which they are or have beenrecommended. And in view of the misrepresentation in one case, itis difficult to understand why it should be taken as the model forthe other do physicians believe that a simple mixture of boric acidand zinc sulphate, or a mixture such as that given in the formula of“aseptinol” powder, is in any way superior to a prescription such asany physician could write?. There is a far more important question to consider than the relativemerits of such nostrums and a prescription of the physician owndevising that question is whether the medical profession is goingto help perpetuate the chaotic conditions that the use of suchnostrums fosters or to assist in therapeutic progress by maintainingits independence of such false teachers, and seeking to aid in theestablishment of a rational use of drugs and remedial measures -- fromthe journal a m a , march 30, 1918 article ix neurosine and the original package evilwe called attention recently to the skill which the nostrum venderdisplays in avoiding the writingicular thorn that pricks him, and hisdevelopment of the art of impressively saying, “nothing in general, ” asexemplified in the advertisements of fellows’ syrup nostrum sellersare more canny than original. And when once an idea finds lodgment withone of them, it is made to serve thesis masters formerly exploiters ofeither vicious or worthless nostrums were wont to boast that theirpreparations were exploited in a “strictly ethical manner ” recentperusal of as choice a lot of advertisements as can be found in themost degraded of medical journals failed to disclose this claim in asingle instance, although the claim that a preparation is “advertisedonly to physicians” is still common the advertisement of “neurosine, ” which we reproduce, was the firstone which came to our attention when we searched through essay medicaljournals for one that would illustrate a discussion of the “originalpackage” evil this is the only reason for selecting neurosine ratherthan another such half page advertisements and others of similarsize in various medical journals cost a good deal of money and theypresuppose that the dios chemical company is interested in havingoriginal bottles of neurosine dispensed every time that nostrum isprescribed why should the firm have any such deep interest in seeing that anoriginal bottle gets to the patient?. why should it be necessaryto do anything more than see that the genuine mixture reaches thepatient?.

In fact, even prelates andbishops did not think it beneath their dignity to busy themselves withvarious medical questions and to write medico-physical books thus thelaurels of medical renown haunted our good marcellus and would notlet him sleep, so that he abridged his hours of official duty to suchan extent that he was able to compile a materia medica of thirty-sixapparently never-ending chapters but if the statesmanship of marcelluswas on a par with his medical book-making, objective essay the two theodosii could nothave missed the time their cabinet minister stole from them, for hismedical scribbling is an utterly worthless compilation not only didmarcellus copy from medical authors of the most discordant opinion, but he writingicularly busied himself in collecting indiscriminately allthe magical nonsense of the ancient times. In fact, it seems that hewas very eager to obtain all this magical rigmarole direct from themouth of the people, for he says that he collected his remedies “abagrestibus et plebeiis ” accordingly his book is as worthless andinsipid to the physician as it is valuable to the historian, especiallythe historian of civilization here are a few examples of this medicineof the magicians:remedy against warts and corns pliny, book 28, chapter iv , § 12, page 268. “lie on your back along a boundary line on the twentiethday of the moon, and extend the hands over the head with whateverthing you grasp when so doing, rub the warts, and they will disappearimmediately ”“whoever, when he sees a shooting-star, soon afterward pours a littlevinegar upon the hinge of a door, is sure to be rid of his corns ”remedy against headache pliny, ibid. “tie the rope of a hungcriminal around the forehead ”remedy against bellyache priscian, physician of the fourth century, book 1, chapter xiv , and sprengel, vol ii , page 248. “if anyone suffer from colicky pains he may sit down on a chair and say tohimself. ‘per te diacholon, diacholon, diacholon ’”“a person who has an attack of colic may take the feces of a wolf, which, if possible, should contain small writingicles of bone, enclosethem in a small tube, and wear this amulet on the right arm, thigh, orhip ” alexander of tralles, book 8, chapter ii , page 374 “take the heart from the living lark and wear it as an amulet at theleft thigh ” alexander of tralles, ibid remedy against epilepsy advised by the physician, moschiondiorthotes “alexander of tralles, ” book 1, chapter xv , page 570:“the forehead of an ass is tied to the skin of the patient and worn ”“gather iris, peonies, and nightshade when the moon is on the wane, pack them into linen and wear as an amulet ” advised by the magicianosthanes - alexander of tralles, book 1, chapter xv , page 566 “take a nail from a cross and suspend it from an arm of the patient ”given by a physician of the second century, a d , by the name ofarchigenes - alexander of tralles, book 1, chapter xv , page 566 “wear on the finger a jasper of bluish-gray luster ” advised bydioscorides, book 5, 159 remedy against podagra gout “alexander of tralles, ” book 12, page582. “take a gold leaf and write upon it when the moon is on thewane. Mei, threu, mor, for, teux, za, zon, the, lu, chri, ge, ze, on as the sun becomes firm in this name and daily renews itself, so doesthis formation also make firm as conditions were previously quickly, quickly, rapidly, rapidly for behold!. i call the great name in whichbecomes firm again what was destined to die. Jas, azyf, zyon, threux, dain, chook make this formation firm as it has been, quickly, quickly, rapidly, rapidly this document must be covered with the tendon of acrane, enclosed in a capsule, and worn by the patient at his heel ”remedy against diseases of the eye advised by sextus placituspapyriensis magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 597. “ifthe right eye becomes afflicted with glaucoma, rub it with the righteye of the wolf, and, similarly, the left eye with the left eye of thewolf ”in photophobia fear of light “wear as an amulet an eye whichwas taken from a live crab ” quintus serenus samonicus magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 595 with pains of the eye the patient must, with a copper needle, put outthe eyes of a green lizard caught on a jupiter day, during a moon thatis on the wane, in the month of september the eyes must be worn in agolden capsule, as an amulet around the neck marcellus empiricus magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 602 the above illustrations are surely sufficient to give the reader anidea of the medicine of the magicians at the same time they show thegreat similarity which exists between these ancient magic cures and thesympathetic cures of our people at the present day § 4 ancient medicine and magic - but how is it possible that theancient physicians, and even the most enlightened minds among them, should not only have tolerated such a crass medical superstition as theabove examples have shown us, but should even have incorporated them intheir works?. incomprehensible, however, as this fact may appear to themodern practitioner, it becomes conceivable if the condition of antiquemedicine and of the medical profession of ancient times is considered in the first place, ancient medical science adopted an entirelydifferent mode of diagnostico-theoretical method than that employedby professors of medicine in modern times ancient natural science compare also chapter v of this work, as well as ancient medicine, obtained their scientific views exclusively by deduction i e , theydeduced individual results from general presumptions, or, rather, theyconstrued, by reason of essay general presumption, the physico-medicalconsequences which were to follow from such a general supposition ifthis attempt to obtain an insight into physical processes is extremelyhazardous, it becomes still more precarious when the manner and meansin which these general presumptions were arrived at were primarily ofan entirely hypothetical nature it is true, no fundamental objectioncan be raised to this method, as even modern natural science andmedicine, despite the fact that their methods of investigation in adiagnostico-theoretical respect scarcely admit of material objections, can not do without hypothesis but hypothesis is not always merehypothesis it is well known that there are hypotheses which, even inthe minds of the most conscientious investigators, are not inferior tothat knowledge which is obtained by experiment and observation, whereasother hypotheses again present the distinct stamp of insufficiency andmakeshift the trustworthiness and the heuristic value of an hypothesisdepend upon the quality of the diagnostico-theoretical process by meansof which it was obtained if this process has been such as physicalinvestigation is bound to insist upon, the hypothesis thus arrivedat is fully justified to supply the still absent data with regardto the phenomena in question this, however, can be accomplished byhypothesis only when the latter is not set forth until it plainlyappears that, in spite of a conscientious and orderly arrangement ofobservation after observation, of experiment upon experiment, withoutthe admission of logical loopholes, full data in regard to the natureof the phenomena is not forthcoming in such a case we may consideras actually proven by hypothesis what observation and systematicexperiment, continuous and logical, were intended to prove, andfailed however, this inductive hypothesis is alone entitled to beconsidered in medicine naturally, such an inductive hypothesis was notthought of by the ancients, as the inductive method of investigationwas generally quite unknown to them the process by which ancientmedicine usually attempted to find its hypothesis was by an argumentfrom analogy each and every point of resemblance, however superficial, between two phenomena was considered sufficient by the ancientnaturalists to warrant the assumption that analogous phenomena in themost various domains were most certainly proven to possess similarpoints of resemblance and upon the basis of such an insecure methodof deduction which, moreover, was selected entirely at the option ofthe observer the ancient investigator erected the boldest hypotheses thus, for instance, the atomic theory of leucippus and democritus isan hypothesis which rests upon the basis of a conclusion from analogy the motes which appear in the rays of the sun led these two ancientinvestigators to the conception that, like the writingicles of dustsporting in the air, the primary component writings of everything thatexists in the entire universe consisted of similar writingicles 2 2 lucretius, book 2, verse 113, sqq it appears that epicurus arrived at his theory of light according towhich, as is well known, images of things were brought to the senses bydelicate but absolutely objective small pictures which were detachedfrom the surface of things in a continuous current by the factthat thesis animals for instance, snakes shed their skins the theoryof humoral pathology, one of the most important advances in medicalscience, was based on a conclusion from analogy and arrived at by thedeductive method the diagnostico-theoretical lines in which antique medicine movedwere bound and this is the point of importance in this case to exerta determining influence upon medical criticism for medico-physicalcriticism can only appear in closest connection with the prevailingcondition of the respective sciences, being really nothing else buta precipitate from them thus the ancient physicians were compelledto take an entirely different position toward magical medicine thanwe moderns, educated in the school of inductive methods, have alwaystaken the probable and similar, the supposable and possible, in whichdeductive medicine found its data, working on the lines of argumentfrom analogy, were necessarily bound to find expression also in thecharacter of medical critique, and it was impossible, therefore, for the ancient physician to detect anything absurd or contrary toexperience in hypotheses which the practitioner of to-day at oncebrands as nonsensical and superstitious we are not in the least justified, therefore, in speaking disparaginglyof galen and alexander of tralles because they believed in magicalmedicine and applied it in their practise as no human being canjump out of his skin, so is he unable to get beyond the intellectualadvancement of his time as the ancient physicians were also unable todo this, accordingly they were believers in the magical medicine but there is still a second point which explains the remarkableposition taken by ancient physicians in relation to magicalmedicine namely, the fact that the conception of miracle and magicwere essentially different in the ancient world from what they are atpresent the belief in the interference of spirits and supernaturalbeings in terrestrial matters, and the manifestations of theirinfluence exerted in manifold ways essaytimes for good, essaytimesfor evil had been widely disseminated from the earliest times, andwe encounter them in all periods of classic antiquity this beliefin demons had become incorporated in the systems of thesis leadingphilosophers of antiquity now if the world were filled with demons thenatural consequence was that their activity would manifest itself invarious ways it was necessary, therefore, that man should always beprepared to experience manifestations which more or less violated thecustomary order of terrestrial happenings, and for this reason nothingthat could be styled a miracle really existed for him a miracle couldnot be conceived in its full modern sense until it was realized thatthe course of all natural phenomena was nothing but the expression ofeternal and changeless laws however, it was not until comparativelylate that this conception became generally disseminated. Thus, forinstance, it was considered as self-evident, even in the latest periodsof the middle ages and during the first beginnings of modern times, that divine influence could always, and actually did always, cause analteration in the course of the functions of the body in fact, thereis an amazingly large number of people even in our time who believethis, and for whom, therefore, the conception of miracles, especiallyof miraculous healing, is to-day on about the same level as that onwhich it stood in the time of galen and alexander of tralles thus we must admit that the ancient physicians were by no means belowthe standard of civilization and culture attained during their periodif they believed in the possibility of extraordinary cures effectedby means extraneous and unscientific in their treatment of the sick, and, accordingly, they supported such methods however, this beliefin miraculous medicines on the writing of the ancient physician wasalways restricted to certain limits it is true, the conception wasalways adhered to that this or that magical agency, or this or thatmagical action, might exert an influence upon the disease. But sucha belief never led them to omit any strictly medical measures of asurgical or gynecological nature on the contrary, the intelligentphysicians of antiquity firmly insisted that the actions of the surgeonand of the gynecologist were not to be hampered by any metaphysicalconsiderations.

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U s p u s p u s p ointment ointment ointment ointment from age at from from from lard and time laboratory commercial commercial iodine only of rendered lard lard laboratory assay lard grade i grade ii rendered lard % i % i % i % i freshly made 3 32 3 26 3 30 0 32 after 3 days 3 25 0 23 after 7 days 2 99 3 17 3 15 after 3 weeks 3 01 3 19 3 07 after 7 weeks 3 12* 3 10 3 02 after 3 months 2 98 2 88 2 88 * this slight rise in iodine content followed by a fall could not be objective essay accounted for the specimen was believed to have been very thoroughly mixed at the time of manufacture that the fatty constituents of the ointment contained iodine after thepreparation had been made for essay time was demonstrated essay of thematerial was examined as follows. A portion of the ointment which had been made for nearly three months was shaken in a separator with chloroform and a dilute mixture of potassium iodide and sodium thiosulphate solutions after all of the free iodine had been removed the chloroformic solution of the fats was washed several times with a very dilute solution of sodium thiosulphate the chloroformic solution was filtered, evaporated and the residue dried over sulphuric acid 197197 the resultant fatty residue was of a brownish-green color itno longer had either the taste, color or odor of lard it was notedthat the fats, after removal by this method from the freshly preparedointment, were nearly white as the ointment aged the fat becamesuccessively darker in color the separated fat was then tested for iodine by kendall method 198it was found to contain iodine in considerable amounts, butquantitative determinations were not made 198 the method depends upon the conversion of all of the iodinecompounds into iodate by fusion with sodium hydroxide and oxidationwith potassium nitrate the melt is dissolved in water, a little sodiumbisulphite added, the solution cooled and neutralized with phosphoricacid, using methyl orange as indicator an excess of bromine wateris added, and the mixture boiled to expel carbon dioxid and bromine a little sodium salicylate is added, the solution cooled, an excessof potassium iodid added, and the liberated iodine titrated withtenth-normal sodium thiosulphate in the usual way one sixth of theiodine found is obtained from the material assayed, the balance beingfurnished by the potassium iodide added -- jour biochem , 1914, 19, 251 the pharmacopeia of the netherlands directs that iodine ointment shallcontain 3 per cent of potassium iodide and 2 per cent of iodineinstead of equal proportions 4 per cent of each as prescribed bythe u s pharmacopeia likewise the french pharmacopeia directs that10 per cent of potassium iodide and only 2 per cent of iodine shallbe used both of these pharmacopeias use water instead of glycerin asthe solvent loose combinations of iodine and potassium iodide, suchas are represented by the compound having the formula ki₃, have beendescribed the quantity of potassium iodide prescribed by the u s pharmacopeia for the preparation of iodine ointment is not sufficientto form such a compound as ki₃ with all of the iodine directed tobe used since essay of the pharmacopeias use larger proportions ofpotassium iodide more than sufficient to form the compound, ki₃, it seemed worth while to determine whether an ointment containinga greater proportion of potassium iodide than that required by theu s pharmacopeia would be more stable than the official article accordingly a specimen was prepared to contain 4 per cent of iodine, 8per cent of potassium iodide twice the u s p requirement, 12 percent of glycerin and 76 per cent of lard this was assayed for itsfree iodine content immediately after preparation, and found to contain3 68 per cent nine days later it contained 3 70 per cent anotherspecimen of the same iodine strength prepared from grade no 2 ofcommercial lard assayed 3 69 per cent at the initial assay, and sevendays later 3 40 per cent from these experiments it seems likely thatthe free iodine content of the u s pharmacopeia iodine ointment couldbe raised essaywhat by increasing the proportion of potassium iodide the results of these studies confirm the findings of pullen and offried in all essential writingiculars it appears that during the processof manufacture of iodine ointment about 20 per cent of the free iodinegoes into combination with the fatty constituents of the ointment on standing for a month approximately an additional 5 per cent goesinto combination, after which there is practically no loss in freeiodine content in other words iodine ointment which is a month oldis a relatively stable preparation it appears to make no noticeabledifference upon the rate and amount of iodine absorption whetherthe lard from which the ointment is made has a high or a low iodineabsorption value the composition of iodine ointment, which has beenmade sufficiently long to have reached equilibrium, is approximately asfollows. Free iodine 3 per cent iodine combined with fat 1 per cent potassium iodide 4 per cent benzoinated lard containing iodine 80 per cent the u s pharmacopeia requirement that iodine ointment shall befreshly prepared when wanted appears to be unnecessary probably mostpharmaceutical manufacturers are aware of this, for thesis of theminclude the preparation in their trade lists the presence of an iodideappears to be necessary, to prevent practically all of the iodine fromentering into combination with the fat 199-- from the americanjournal of pharmacy, august, 1917 199 in order to determine whether the iodine which is in combinationwith fat is absorbed through the skin, a few experiments were carriedout the dark-colored iodine-containing fat obtained from the ointmentand washed free from potassium iodide by the method described abovewas rubbed thoroughly into the skin of the forearm it was allowed toremain for four hours, after which the limb was scoured with soap suds beginning at the time of the application the urine was collected forforty-eight hours this was evaporated to small bulk and the residuetested for iodine by kendall method small amounts of iodine werefound these findings were taken to indicate that the iodine-containingfat is absorbed to essay extent by the skin it is generally believedthat potassium iodide is not absorbed by the unbroken skin thereforeit seems reasonable to suppose that the principal iodine effectsobtainable from iodine ointment are those due to the free iodinecontained in the preparation, supplemented to a slight extent bythe iodine which is contained in the fatty ointment base -- jour biochem , 1914, 19, 251 iodolene and the solubility of iodin in liquid petrolatumthe council on pharmacy and chemistry was asked to examine apreparation submitted with the statement that it was “iodin crystalsincorporated in a petroleum product ” the name “iodolene” was proposedby the promoters, providing the product was found eligible for new andnonofficial remedies iodolene was stated to have been prepared by treating a liquidpetrolatum, obtained from gulf coast petroleum, with an excess ofiodin. The mixture was subsequently “placed in an oven for threehours ” the claim was made that this method of procedure produced apreparation containing more iodin than market specimens which had beenexamined, namely. “over 1 50 per cent free iodine ”two specimens of the product were submitted, one stated to have beenunfiltered, and the other filtered both of the specimens emitted astrong odor of hydrogen sulphide upon removing the stopper from therespective containers iodin content of iodolene -- the iodin content of the filteredspecimen was determined thus. A weighed amount-- 3 to 5 gm -- wastransferred to a separator by means of 20 c c of ligroin, used inportions twenty c c of 10 per cent potassium iodid solution wasadded and the free iodin titrated with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphatesolution with agitation, the end point being the absence of a yellowcolor in the aqueous layer the amount of free iodin was found to be1 32 per cent the solubility of iodin in liquid petrolatum -- to determinethe solubility of iodin in liquid petrolatum, 200 c c of liquidpetrolatum-squibb said to be composed of hydrocarbons of the naphtheneseries and 200 c c of stanolind liquid paraffin said to be composedchiefly of marsh gas hydrocarbons were each treated with 5 gm ofiodin crystals the two mixtures were maintained for a week at atemperature essaywhat above that of the room and agitated occasionally each was then cooled to room temperature about 22 c , agitated fora day and then filtered the amount of iodin in the preparation madewith liquid petrolatum-squibb was found to be 1 42 per cent the iodincontent of the preparation made with stanolind liquid paraffin was 1 30per cent in view of these findings the prospective manufacturer was advised thatthe council cannot countenance a proprietary name for an unofficial, simple solution of iodin in liquid petrolatum -- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1917, p 87 american-made synthetic drugs-- i examination of american-made acetylsalicylic acid paul nicholas leech, ph d at the request of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, the a m a chemical laboratory has undertaken examinations of american-madesynthetic drugs the most extensively used synthetic is acetylsalicylicacid and hence an investigation of this product was deemed expedient for seventeen years acetylsalicylic acid was protected by a unitedstates patent the proprietors were not given a patent in othercountries and sold under the name “aspirin ” in february, 1917, thepatent expired, and since then a number of firms have engaged in themanufacture of acetylsalicylic acid, selling it either as such oras aspirin, modified, of course, by a distinctive firm designation during this period the former manufacturers the bayer co , new york, in past years called farbenfabriken of elberfeld co , new york havebeen extensively advertising, both to physicians and the public, thealleged superior qualities of their product the chemical examination, therefore, was concerned chiefly with tests of purity, and thecomparison of the american brands with the formerly patented product in european countries, acetylsalicylic acid200 is described in thevarious pharmacopeias as a condensation product of acetic anhydrideor acetyl chloride with salicylic acid o-hydroxybenzoic acid generally the test of identification is hydrolysis of acetylsalicylicacid and qualitative tests for acetic acid and salicylic acid forpurposes of purity the requirements are essentially that the specimenshould have a certain melting point, should show absence of salicylicacid by means of ferric chloride the manipulations for the tests arevariously described and leave no appreciable ash the two tests ofpurity most generally employed, however, are the melting point and thereaction with ferric chloride 200 unfortunately, the nondescriptive name “aspirin” has been usedextensively in european literature and has even got into europeanpharmacopeias, instead of the scientific name “acetylsalicylic acid ” melting pointthe melting point of acetylsalicylic acid has been given at varioustemperatures from 118 to 137 c 201. The british pharmacopeiadescribes the melting point at 133 to 135 c. The german pharmacopeia“about 135 c ;” the french pharmacopeia at 135 c.