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Nursing Scholarship Essay Examples


They mitigate the pains that arise from heat, assuage inflammations, procure rest and sleep, stay both whites andreds in women, the gonorrhea, or running of the reins, and fluxes ofthe belly. The juice of them doth purge and cleanse the body fromcholer and phlegm the husks of the roses, with the beards and nailsof the roses, are binding and cooling, and the distilled water ofeither of them is good for the heat and redness in the eyes, and tostay and dry up the rheums and watering of them of the red roses areusually made thesis compositions, all serving to sundry good uses, viz electuary of roses, conserve, both moist and dry, which is more usuallycalled sugar of roses, syrup of dry roses, and honey of roses thecordial powder called diarrhoden abbatis, and aromatica rosarum the distilled water of roses, vinegar of roses, ointment, and oil ofroses, and the rose leaves dried, are of great use and effect towrite at large of every one of these, would make my book smell toobig, it being sufficient for a volume of itself, to speak fully ofthem but briefly, the electuary is purging, whereof two or three dramstaken by itself in essay convenient liquor, is a purge sufficient fora weak constitution, but may be increased to six drams, according tothe strength of the patient it purges choler without trouble, it isgood in hot fevers, and pains of the head arising from hot cholerichumours, and heat in the eyes, the jaundice also, and joint-achesproceeding of hot humours the moist conserve is of much use, bothbinding and cordial. For until it be about two years old, it is morebinding than cordial, and after that, more cordial than binding essayof the younger conserve taken with mithridate mixed together, is goodfor those that are troubled with distillations of rheum from the brainto the nose, and defluctions of rheum into the eyes. As also forfluxes and lasks of the belly. And being mixed with the powder ofmastich, is very good for the gonorrhea, and for the looseness of thehumours in the body the old conserve mixed with aromaticum rosarum, is a very good cordial against faintings, swoonings, weakness, andtremblings of the heart, strengthens, both it and a weak stomach, helps digestion, stays casting, and is a very good preservative inthe time of infection the dry conserve, which is called the sugar ofroses, is a very good cordial to strengthen the heart and spirits. Asalso to stay defluctions the syrup of dried red roses strengthens astomach given to casting, cools an over-heated liver, and the bloodin agues, comforts the heart, and resists putrefaction and infection, and helps to stay lasks and fluxes honey of roses is much used ingargles and lotions to wash sores, either in the mouth, throat, orother writings, both to cleanse and heal them, and to stay the fluxesof humours falling upon them it is also used in clysters both tocool and cleanse the cordial powders, called diarrhoden abbatis andaromaticum rosarum, do comfort and strengthen the heart and stomach, procure an appetite, help digestion, stay vomiting, and are very goodfor those that have slippery bowels, to strengthen them, and to dryup their moisture red rose-water is well known, and of familiar useon all occasions, and better than damask rose-water, being coolingand cordial, refreshing, quickening the weak and faint spirits, usedeither in meats or broths, to wash the temples, to smell at the nose, or to smell the sweet vapours thereof out of a perfuming pot, or castinto a hot fire shovel it is also of much good use against the rednessand inflammations of the eyes to bathe them therewith, and the templesof the head. As also against pain and ache, for which purpose alsovinegar of roses is of much good use, and to procure rest and sleep, if essay thereof, and rose-water together, be used to smell unto, orthe nose and temples moistened therewith, but more usually to moistena piece of a red rose-cake, cut for the purpose, and heated betweena double folded cloth, with a little beaten nutmeg, and poppy-seedstrewed on the side that must lie next to the forehead and temples, and bound so thereto all night the ointment of roses is much usedagainst heat and inflammations in the head, to anoint the foreheadand temples, and being mixt with unguentum populneum, to procurerest.

Two buried in loose nursing scholarship essay examples earth. Two crushed in a crowd. One by bagsof grain 48 feulard. Bull soc anat , 1883, viii , pp 384-386 - woman, age79 piece of beef in larynx necroscopy showed hematoma in dura mater 49 poupon. Bull soc clin , paris 1882, 1883, vi , pp 236-238 - boy, age 5½ years death from cheesy gland in trachea 50 pons.

“filudine restores the liver functions it is to the liver what digitalis is to the heart. It overcomes the insufficiency and stimulates the debilitated organ ” in malaria “it is the only true specific when associated with quinine ” “filudine is the ideal medication for tuberculosis, conforming as it does with the most recent researches in the therapeusis of this affection ” “we will not go as far as to say that opotherapy completely restores unhealthy livers, for although the lesions of the hepatic parenchyma may be obliterated by regeneration, the lesions of the connective tissues are permanent, and may be observed at the postmortem examination the new cells, however, do not present the same unhealthy conditions as those of the former diseased gland which they have replaced, and the liver can therefore function normally, so that the patient lives on. And he is satisfied with that ” “therefore, while regenerating the liver with filudine, we cleanse it and combat its congested state with urodonal we cause it to produce urea from the excess of uric acid which it contains ” “by the judicious and harmonious combination of the beneficial effects of filudine and urodonal, physicians not only possess the means of treating by rational methods cirrhosis of the liver in its various forms which is one of the most terrible diseases which can afflict anyone but what is still better, they can cure it ” “the liver of a person suffering from obesity being incapable of fulfilling its functions in regard to the fatty tissues, the rational and up-to-date method of treatment is therefore to restore to the system, in the form of filudine, the liver extracts which are lacking ”filudine is a mixture of semisecret composition the therapeuticclaims are manifestly unwarranted the name is not indicative of thecomposition, whatever that may be, and no rational excuse is offeredfor the combination of liver and spleen extracts with or without bileextracts with “thiomethylarsinate” or “thiocinnamate” of caffein the council therefore held filudine ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 18, 1915 lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrymixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therapeutically irrational;the two substances are not indicated in the same conditions, nor canthey act together under physiologic conditions, such mixtures arechemically impossible. In a liquid medium the ingredients destroy eachother lactopeptin is manufactured by the new york pharmacal association, yonkers, n y it is sold under the claim that it contains, pepsin, diastase, pancreatin, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid this productwas among the first proprietary preparations examined by the council onpharmacy and chemistry the report of the investigation was publishedin the journal, march 16, 1907, p 959 the preparation was found to bepractically inert-- “essentially a weak saccharated pepsin, ” devoid oftryptic activity six years later it was still widely advertised with the same irrationalclaims a referee a therefore examined lactopeptine powdered forthe council in 1913, and confirmed the previous findings the refereereport was published in the journal, aug 2, 1913, p 358 nearly four months after this publication, the manufacturer protestedagainst the report, maintaining, contrary to the findings of thecouncil, that lactopeptine possesses pancreatic activity and contains“loosely combined” hydrochloric acid referee a therefore repeatedhis examination, and a second referee b, independently, examinedspecimens of lactopeptine powder purchased on the open market for thepurpose shortly before a few specimens examined by these two referees showed a slight trypticactivity. Most of them showed none the amount of hydrochloric acidpresent was insignificant the reports of the two referees were referred to the manufacturers, whoagain protested vehemently against these findings, this time on theground that the specimens were old the manufacturers also cited thework of three chemists to disprove the findings of the referees, anddemanded that the council reexamine lactopeptine, making use of freshspecimens the council refused for the following reasons:1 so long as the packages of lactopeptine are not dated, the activityof specimens known to be fresh is of no practical importance theactivity of the actual market supply is the only question of interestto the profession the only fair test is that made on specimensrepresentative of the product sold to the ultimate consumer 2 the evidence presented by the manufacturers did not warranta reexamination, since the work of two of the chemists citedsubstantially corroborates the results obtained by the councilreferees from the fresher specimens the figures for tryptic activityobtained by the third chemist cited by the manufacturers could not beaccepted by the council, since it was at variance with all other knownresults of investigations of lactopeptine 3 as stated at the outset, whatever the tryptic activity of themixture, it is therapeutically useless a demonstration of trypticactivity in a mixture containing both pepsin and pancreatin is ofmerely theoretical interest such activity, of course, cannot be expected, even on theoreticalgrounds, in liquid mixtures like elixir lactopeptine the council therefore again declared lactopeptine powder and tabletsand elixir lactopeptine ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies andauthorized publication of the following statement w a puckner, secretary the council reportlactopeptine powder new york pharmacal association, yonkers, n y was examined by the council in 1907 at that time it was claimed tocontain “ the five active agents of digestion-- pepsin, diastase veg ptyalin, pancreatin, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid-- combined in the proper proportion to insure the best results ”the examination showed that the preparation was essentially “a weaksaccharated pepsin, ” containing but small amounts of pepsin, nohydrochloric acid, or mere traces only, and no diastase or pancreatin the journal, march 16, 1907 in 1913, the product was reexamined, because the claims, as to bothcomposition and therapeutic value, were still being made sampleswere tested both of the american product, and of a british productfrom john morgan richards & sons, london the original findings wereconfirmed and the results were published in the journal, aug 2, 1913, p 358 nearly four months later november 24 the new yorkpharmacal association wrote to the council, objecting to the findingsand maintaining that lactopeptine possesses pancreatic activity andcontains “in loose chemical combination” hydrochloric acid inaccordance with the custom of the council, the work was sent back forreview to the referee a, whose conclusions were then tested by asecond referee b, a physiologic chemist, not a member of the council, selected because of his special knowledge of the subject in december, 1913, referee a made a large number of new tests todetermine proteolytic and amylolytic power his results show thatthe ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition in practical use the tests also show that the amount oflactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” or both present is too small tohave any appreciable physiologic activity and therefore to be of anytherapeutic value nine samples of lactopeptine purchased in the open market in december, 1913, and january, 1914, were examined by referee b early in 1914 hisstudies show absence of amylase in all samples. Presence of pepsin, giving weak reactions even when compared with those of old pepsinpreparations. Complete absence of trypsin in seven out of nine samples, tryptic reaction being obtained in two samples, in one of which thereaction, “slight at best and of no practical import, ” was obtainedonly after treatment for twelve hours or more the presence of tryptic activity in two out of the nine samples maybe due to the fresher condition of these specimens, as indicatedby the serial numbers the evidence shows that it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity it should be reaffirmed that mixtures combining peptic and pancreaticactivities are not feasible, because pepsin cannot act except in thepresence of acid, and pancreatin is destroyed by acid and by pepticactivity furthermore, in conditions in which pancreatin is calledfor, pepsin is not, and vice versa. Therefore the administration ofmixtures of pepsin and pancreatin would be unjustified, even if bothconstituents could be expected to exert activity the foregoing observations apply to lactopeptine in powder and tabletform while mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are unscientific andunjustified, theoretically the two substances may coexist in a solidpreparation, and the activity of such a preparation is consequently aproper subject of investigation theoretically as well as practically, however, pepsin and pancreatin cannot exist together in solution theclaims made for elixir lactopeptine and all other liquid preparationssold as mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therefore impossible the council has previously taken action the journal, feb 2, 1907, p 434 refusing to approve for inclusion with new and nonofficialremedies such preparations, calling the attention of the medicalprofession and of manufacturers to their worthlessness, and requestingthe american pharmaceutical association to instruct its committee onthe national formulary to omit from the next edition of that work aliquid preparation of pepsin and pancreatin recognized under the titleof “elixir digestivum compositum ”it is recommended that the council reaffirm this previous action, and that lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine be declared ineligiblefor new and nonofficial remedies because of conflict with rule 10 “no article will be admitted which, because of its unscientificcomposition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of the publicor of the medical profession” manufacturers’ protest and council answerthe foregoing was submitted, together with the findings of the tworeferees, to the manufacturers they protested again, alleging that. Age of specimensfirst -- the specimens of lactopeptine examined by the second refereewere old the dates of manufacture corresponding to the several batchnumbers are supplied by the manufacturers as follows. 2275 powder september, 1908 2301 powder june, 1909 2312 powder december, 1909 2348 powder october, 1911 2352 powder december, 1911 2364 powder july, 1912 2374 powder march, 1913 2383 powder october, 1913 1638 tablets october, 1911the manufacturers assert that they do not understand how specimens ofthese ages could have been purchased on the open market in 1913 and1914, inasmuch as their agents are and long have been instructed totake up from the druggist all lots of lactopeptine which, as indicatedby the batch numbers, have attained “any appreciable age ” the age ofthe specimens, the manufacturers declare, deprives the table in thesecond referee report of “all significance or interest ”as previously stated, however, the specimens of lactopeptine examinedwere purchased on the open market in various localities in unbrokenpackages, in december, 1913, and january, 1914 they thus representstock used in filling physicians’ prescriptions or sold to thepublic neither the referees nor any one connected with the councilhad any means of knowing the age of the specimens until the dates ofmanufacture were furnished by the new york pharmacal association thefirst tests of the second referee were made in february, 1914, onspecimens 2374 and 2383, which were then, it would appear, about oneyear old and four months old, respectively the council has repeatedlyurged that pharmaceutical substances which are subject to deteriorationshould be dated by the manufacturer, and a similar suggestion hasbeen made by the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingment ofagriculture concerning mixtures containing enzymes notwithstandingthe instructions which the new york pharmacal association claims tohave given its agents, the market supply of lactopeptine in december, 1913, and january, 1914, was not composed of new stock, and untilthe manufacturers adopt the practice of dating packages, there canbe no assurance that it will be fresh in this connection, it is ofinterest to note that the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingmentof agriculture has issued a warning that it will judge such products bythe degree of their activity when they reach the consumer, i e , asthey are found on the market reports of other chemistssecond -- the new york pharmacal association cites the work of severalchemists, who have examined lactopeptine and report the presence oftryptic activity dr s r benedict in december, 1913, reported tothe council “distinct” tryptic activity digestion in twelve hours bylactopeptine of 4 2 times its weight of fibrin containing 50 per cent moisture in specimens examined by him these specimens were numbered2382, and were therefore probably manufactured in october, 1913;compare the dates furnished by the manufacturer for the specimens usedby the second referee no tests against other preparations possessingtryptic activity are reported, and dr benedict expressly disclaimsany opinion as to the therapeutic value of the preparation 27 dr p b hawk, whose report was submitted by the manufacturers, found inlactopeptine by fermi method one-fifth tryptic activity of that ofmerck pancreatin, and by grützner method an activity of 18 percent of the pancreatin a test for the production of tryptophan wasreported positive the new york pharmacal association also submitteda report from dr a w balch, who found pepsin, rennin, trypsin, steapsin, amylopsin and lactic acid present in lactopeptine. Alsoan amount of combined hydrochloric acid in 1 gm the equivalent of1 05 c c tenth normal solution or 0 00383 gm hydrochloric acid hereports digestion in twenty-four hours by lactopeptine of 25 times itsown weight of fibrin “an active extract of pancreas reacted exactlylike the lactopeptine solution ” the serial numbers of the specimenstested by hawk and balch are not given, but no doubt they were fresh 27 dr benedict personal communication to a member of the councilis as follows:“in the report of the council upon lactopeptine which you sent to me, i find the following statement.

Gum elemi, nursing scholarship essay examples 0 20 to 0 25 per cent ;japan wax, 0 40 to 0 50 per cent. Asphalt, 0 20 to 0 25 per cent , and eucalyptol, 2 per cent , the whole being colored with alkannin andgentian violet 171170 made by the abbott laboratories, chicago, and accepted by thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry for new and nonofficial remedies, thejournal, may 12, 1917, p 1406 171 no chemical examination was made formula for paraffin filmin a recent article, sollmann172 presented various suggestions forthe compounding of paraffin films essay of the formulas were promisingand others were not, but all were simple he did not try to imitate“ambrine ” lieut -col a j hull173 of the royal army medical corps, after experimenting with different combinations, concluded that amixture of “1 writing resorcin, 2 writings eucalyptus oil, 5 writings olive oil, 25 writings soft paraffin petrolatum174 and 67 writings hard paraffin”served the purpose as well as “ambrine ” the following formula, whichmight be called asphalt-paraffin no 21, much more closely resembles“ambrine, ” and it seems to have certain advantages, due to the use of amore suitable grade of paraffin. Paraffin175 m p by u s p method 47 2 c 97 5 gm asphalt from 3 to 5 drops olive oil 1 5 c c 172 sollmann, torald. Suggested formulas for paraffin films, thejournal a m a , april 7, 1917, p 1037 173 hull, a j. The treatment of burns by paraffin, brit med jour , jan 13, 1917, p 37. The treatment of burns by paraffin, therapeutics, the journal a m a , feb 3, 1917, p 373 174 the “soft paraffin” of the british pharmacopeia resemblespetrolatum, u s p , queries and minor notes, the journal a m a , april 28, 1917, p 1281 175 the paraffin used in this formula was supplied by the standardoil company of indiana.

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Then let the oil if any be separated from the water according to art into the number of these waters may be ascribed the tears of vines, the liquor of the birch-tree, may dew culpeper that my country may nursing scholarship essay examples receive the benefit of these waters, i shall first shew the temperatures, secondly, the virtues of themost usual and most easy to come by. If any should take exceptionsthat i mention not all, i answer first, i mention enough secondly, who ever makes this objection, they shew extreme ingratitude. For hadi mentioned but only one, i had revealed more to them than ever thecollege intended they should know, or give me thanks for doing the qualities and appropriation of the simple distilled waters simple distilled waters either cool or heat. Such as cool, either coolthe blood or choler waters cooling the blood lettice, purslain, water lilies, violets, sorrel endive, succory, fumitory waters cooling and repressing choleric humours, or vapours in the head nightshade, lettice, water lilies, plantain, poppies, viz theflowers both of white black and red poppies, black cheries the breast and lungs violets, poppies all three sorts, colt-foot in the heart sorrel, quinces, water lilies, roses, violets, green orunripe walnuts in the stomach quinces, roses, violets, nightshade, houseleeks, orsengreen, lettice, purslain in the liver endive, succory, nightshade, purslain, water lilies in the reins and bladder endive, succory, winter cherries, plantain, water lilies, strawberries, houseleek or sengreen, black cherries in the womb endive, succory, lettice, water lilies, purslain, roses simple waters which are hot, concoct either flegm or melancholy waters concocting flegm in the head, arebettony, sage, marjoram, chamomel, fennel, calaminth, rosemary-flowers, primroses, eye-bright in the breast and lungs maiden-hair, bettony, hysop, horehound, carduus benedictus, scabious, orris, or flower-de-luces, bawm, self-heal, &c in the heart bawm, rosemary in the stomach wormwood, mints, fennel, chervil, time, mother oftime, marigolds in the liver wormwood, centaury, origanum, marjoram, maudlin, costmary, agrimony, fennel in the spleen water-cresses, wormwood, calaminth in the reins and bladder rocket, nettles, saxifrage, pellitory ofthe wall, alicampane, burnet in the womb mugwort, calaminth, penny-royal, savin, mother of time, lovage waters concocting melancholy in the head, arehops, fumitory the breast bawm, carduus benedictus the heart borrage, bugloss, bawm, rosemary the liver endive, chicory, hops the spleen dodder, hart-tongue, tamarisk, time having thus ended the appropriation, i shall speak briefly of thevirtues of distilled waters lettice water cools the blood when it is over-heated, for whenit is not, it needs no cooling. It cools the head and liver, stayshot vapours ascending to the head, and hinders sleep.