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Nhs Essay Example


From among whichrise up sundry strong, hollow green stalks, five or six, essaytimesseven or eight feet high, full of joints, but lesser leaves set onthem than grow below. And with them towards the tops come forth largebranches, bearing at their tops large umbels of yellow flowers, andafter them flat brownish seed the roots grow thick, great and deep, spreading much, and enduring long, of a brownish colour on the outside, and whitish within the whole plant and every writing of it smellingstrong, and aromatically, and is of a hot, sharp, biting taste place it is usually planted in gardens, where, if it be suffered, it grows huge and great time it flowers in the end of july, and seeds in august government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, under the signtaurus if saturn offend the throat as he always doth if he beoccasioner of the malady, and in taurus is the genesis this is yourcure it opens, cures and digests humours, and mightily provokeswomen courses and urine half a dram at a time of the dried rootin powder taken in wine, doth wonderfully warm a cold stomach, helpsdigestion, and consumes all raw and superfluous moisture therein. Easesall inward gripings and pains, dissolves wind, and resists poison andinfection it is a known and much praised remedy to drink the decoctionof the herb for any sort of ague, and to help the pains and tormentsof the body and bowels coming of cold the seed is effectual to allthe purposes aforesaid except the last and works more powerfully the distilled water of the herb helps the quinsy in the throat, ifthe mouth and throat be gargled and washed therewith, and helps thepleurisy, being drank three or four times being dropped into the eyes, it takes away the redness or dimness of them. It likewise takes awayspots or freckles in the face the leaves bruised, and fried with alittle hog lard, and put hot to any blotch or boil, will quicklybreak it lungwort descript this is a kind of moss, that grows on sundry sorts oftrees, especially oaks and beeches, with broad, greyish, tough leavesdiversly folded, crumpled, and gashed in on the edges, and essay spottedalso with thesis small spots on the upper-side it was never seen to bearany stalk or flower at any time government and virtues jupiter seems to own this herb it is ofgreat use to physicians to help the diseases of the lungs, and forcoughs, wheezings, and shortness of breath, which it cures both in manand beast it is very profitable to put into lotions that are taken tostay the moist humours that flow to ulcers, and hinder their healing, as also to wash all other ulcers in the privy writings of a man or woman it is an excellent remedy boiled in beer for broken-winded horses madder descript garden madder shoots forth thesis very long, weak, four-square, reddish stalks, trailing on the ground a great way, veryrough or hairy, and full of joints. At every one of these joints comeforth divers long and narrow leaves, standing like a star about thestalks, round also and hairy, towards the tops whereof come forth thesissmall pale yellow flowers, after which come small round heads, green atfirst, and reddish afterwards, but black when they are ripe, whereinis contained the seed the root is not very great, but exceeding long, running down half a man length into the ground, red and very clear, while it is fresh, spreading divers ways place it is only manured in gardens, or larger fields, for theprofit that is made thereof time it flowers towards the end of summer, and the seed is ripequickly after government and virtues it is an herb of mars it hath an openingquality, and afterwards to bind and strengthen it is a sure remedyfor the yellow jaundice, by opening the obstructions of the liver andgall, and cleansing those writings. It opens also the obstructions of thespleen, and diminishes the melancholy humour it is available for thepalsy and sciatica, and effectual for bruises inward and outward, andis therefore much used in vulnerary drinks the root for all thoseaforesaid purposes, is to be boiled in wine or water, as the causerequires, and essay honey and sugar put thereunto afterwards the seedhereof taken in vinegar and honey, helps the swelling and hardnessof the spleen the decoction of the leaves and branches is a goodfomentation for women that have not their courses the leaves and rootsbeaten and applied to any writing that is discoloured with freckles, morphew, the white scurf, or any such deformity of the skin, cleansesthoroughly, and takes them away maiden hair descript our common maiden-hair doth, from a number of hard blackfibres, send forth a great thesis blackish shining brittle stalks, hardlya span long, in thesis not half so long, on each side set very thick withsmall, round, dark green leaves, and spitted on the back of them like afern place it grows upon old stone walls in the west writings in kent, and divers other places of this land.

Irving c rosse, m d. f p vandenbergh, m d. J h woodward, m d. george woolsey, m d volume one new york william wood & company 1894 copyright, 1894, by william wood & company press of the publishers’ printing company 132-136 w fourteenth st new york contents pageintroduction, v medical jurisprudence, 1 the legal relations of physicians and surgeons t c becker, 3 the law of evidence concerning confidential communications chas a boston, 89 synopsis of the laws governing the practice of medicine w a poste and chas a boston, 135 forensic medicine thanatological, 293 the legal status of the dead body t c becker, 295 the powers and duties of coroners a becker, 329 medico-legal autopsies h p loomis, 349 personal identity j c rosse, 383 determination of the time of death h p loomis, 437 medico-legal consideration of wounds g woolsey, 457 medico-legal consideration of gunshot wounds roswell park, 591 death by heat and cold e v stoddard, 627 medico-legal relations of electricity w n bullard, 661 medico-legal consideration of death by mechanical suffocation d s lamb, 705 death from submersion or drowning j c rosse, 793 death from starvation e v stoddard, 813introduction the terms forensic medicine, legal medicine, and medical jurisprudencehave heretofore been used interchangeably to apply to those branchesof state medicine and of jurisprudence which have to deal with theapplications of medical knowledge to the elucidation of questions offact in courts of law, and with the legal regulation of the practice ofmedicine medico-legal science therefore includes all subjects concerning whichmembers of the legal and medical professions may seek information ofone another, each acting in his professional capacity it consistsof two distinct branches. That treating of medical law, to whichthe designation of medical jurisprudence properly applies. And thatrelating to the application of medical, surgical, or obstetricalknowledge to the purposes of legal trials, forensic medicine 1the term state medicine, which is essaytimes erroneously used assynonymous with forensic medicine, properly applies to a more extendedfield of medical inquiry. I e , to all applications of medicalknowledge to the public welfare state medicine, therefore, whileexcluding medical jurisprudence, includes, besides forensic medicine, public hygiene, medical ethics, medical education, and military andnaval medicine toxicology, the science of poisons, may be divided into medicaltoxicology, whose object is the prevention or cure of all forms ofpoisoning, and forensic toxicology, whose aim is the detection ofcriminal poisoning in its last-named relation toxicology differs fromforensic medicine in one important writingicular in all paper other thanthose of poisoning in which questions involving medical knowledgearise, the answers are entirely within the functions of the physician, the surgeon, or the obstetrician, but the problems of forensictoxicology require for their solution the further aid of the chemistand the pharmacologist forensic medicine is an applied science, writingly legal, writingly medical, calling for information and investigation in widely divergent lines, and becoming more minutely ramified with the progressive advances inmedical knowledge and in those sciences of which medicine is itselfan application its development has been dependent writingly upon theslow though progressive tendency of medicine from the condition of anempirical art toward that of an exact science, and writingly upon themore rapid and more advanced development of criminal jurisprudence medical jurisprudence had reached a high development during the earlyhistory of the roman empire, and at a period long anterior to the firstrecognition of forensic medicine although the literature of modern medico-legal science is verylargely written from the medical point of view and by physicians, itsearlier history is to be found in fragmentary form, writingly in medicalliterature, but principally in the writings of historians, in theearlier criminal codes, and in the early records of legal proceedings in the earliest historical periods the functions now exercised bythe priest, the lawyer, and the physician were performed by thesame person, who, presumably, made use of what medical knowledge hepossessed in the exercise of his legal functions among the egyptiansat a very early period it is certain that medical questions of factwere considered in legal proceedings, and that the practice of medicinewas subject to legal regulation according to diodorus, 2 “when apregnant woman was condemned to death, the sentence was not executeduntil after she was delivered ” the same author tells us3 that “thephysicians regulated the treatment of the sick according to writtenprecepts, collected and transmitted by the most celebrated of theirpredecessors if, in following exactly these precepts which arecontained in the sacred books, they did not succeed in curing the sick, they could not be reproached, nor could they be prosecuted at law. Butif they have proceeded contrary to the text of the books, they aretried, and may be condemned to death, the legislator supposing that butfew persons will ever be found capable of improving a curative methodpreserved during so long a succession of years and adopted by the mostexpert masters of the art ” with the system of legal trial in use amongthe egyptians4 it is difficult to imagine that the question of theexistence of pregnancy in the one case, or of malpractice in the other, would not be the subject of contest, and, if contested, determinedwithout the testimony of obstetricians or of physicians 5medical knowledge among the hindoos was further advanced than amongthe egyptians in the rig veda about 1500 b c occur a few medicalreferences, among which is the statement that the duration of pregnancyis ten lunar months the earliest purely medical sanskrit texts are the ayur vedas ofchraka and sûsruta, which were probably written about 600 b c , butwhich are undoubtedly compilations of information which had been handeddown during thesis centuries before that time in each of these is asection devoted to poisons and their antidotes kalpa, in which it iswritten that a knowledge of poisons and antidotes is necessary to thephysician “because the enemies of the rajah, bad women, and ungratefulservants essaytimes mix poison with the food ” full directions arealso given for the recognition of a person who gives poison, and todifferentiate the poisons themselves, whose number, from all thekingdoms of nature, is legion the age at which women may marry isfixed at twelve years, while men may not marry before twenty-five theduration of pregnancy is given as between nine and twelve lunar months, the average being ten the practice of medicine is restricted tocertain castes, and requires the sanction of the rajah, and the methodof education of medical students is prescribed 6it is singular that the greeks were apparently destitute of anyknowledge of legal medicine although medicine and jurisprudence werehighly developed among them, allusions to any connection between thetwo are of very rare occurrence and uncertain the hippocratic writings ca 420 b c contain thesis facts whichare of medico-legal interest. The possibility of superfœtation wasrecognized;7 the average duration of pregnancy was known, andthe viability of children born before term was discussed, 8 therelative fatality of wounds affecting different writings of the body wasconsidered, 9 and the hippocratic oath makes the physician swear thathe “will not administer or advise the use of poison, nor contribute toan abortion ” the position of the physician in greek communities was anexalted one no slave or woman might be taught medicine, 10 althoughlater free-born women were permitted to practise in their nativeplaces homer also refers to physicians as men of learning and ofdistinction 11 the greek physician was therefore in a position, bothfrom his information and from his standing in the community, to aid inthe administration of justice the greeks were also extremely litigious and possessed a code ofcriminal procedure which was elaborate, and in thesis respects resembledthose now in use in england and the united states 12 the writings ofthe greek orators, demosthenes, æschines, lysias, antiphon, isocrates, etc , which have come down to us substantiate the claim of ælianthat “to athens mankind is indebted for the olive, the fig, and theadministration of justice ”13the writings of the greek physicians contain no reference to any legalapplication of their knowledge, and certain passages in the writingsof the orators seem to indicate that, while a physician was called toinspect and treat a wounded person, the testimony as to the patientcondition was given in court by others thus in the case against euergos and mnesibulus, in which an old womanhad died essay days after an assault, demosthenes14 states that henotified the accused to bring a surgeon and cure the woman. But thatas they did not do so, he himself brought his own surgeon and showedhim her condition in the presence of witnesses upon hearing from thesurgeon that the woman was in a hopeless condition, he again explainedher state to the accused and required them to find medical aid finally, on the sixth day after the assault the woman died he furtherasserts that these statements would be proved by the depositions 15the third tetralogy of antiphon16 b c 480 relates to a case inwhich the defence was essentially the same as that which was thesubject of a vast amount of medical expert testimony in a celebratedtrial for murder in new york not thesis years ago a person woundsanother, who dies essay days afterward the assailant is accused ofmurder and sets up the defence that the deceased perished, not fromthe wounds inflicted, but in consequence of unskilful treatment by thephysicians in neither of these paper is any mention made of physicians having beencalled upon for testimony.

The way how to do so may be found in my translationof nhs essay example the london dispensatory. And it may be i may give you it again inplainer terms at the latter end of this book bishop-weed besides the common name bishop-weed, it is usually known by the greekname ammi and ammois. Essay call it æthiopian cummin-seed, andothers cummin-royal, as also herb william, and bull-wort descript common bishop-weed rises up with a round straight stalk, essaytimes as high as a man, but usually three or four feet high, besetwith divers small, long and essaywhat broad leaves, cut in essay places, and dented about the edges, growing one against another, of a darkgreen colour, having sundry branches on them, and at the top smallumbels of white flowers, which turn into small round seeds littlebigger than parsley seeds, of a quick hot scent and taste. The root iswhite and stringy. Perishing yearly, and usually rises again on its ownsowing place it grows wild in thesis places in england and wales, as betweengreenhithe and gravesend government and virtues it is hot and dry in the third degree, of abitter taste, and essaywhat sharp withal. It provokes lust to purpose. Isuppose venus owns it it digests humours, provokes urine and womencourses, dissolves wind, and being taken in wine it eases pains andgriping in the bowels, and is good against the biting of serpents. Itis used to good effect in those medicines which are given to hinderthe poisonous operation of cantharides, upon the passage of the urine:being mixed with honey and applied to black and blue marks, coming ofblows or bruises, it takes them away. And being drank or outwardlyapplied, it abates a high colour, and makes it pale. And the fumesthereof taken with rosin or raisins, cleanses the mother bistort, or snakeweed it is called snakeweed, english serpentary, dragon-wort, osterick, andpassions descript this has a thick short knobbed root, blackish without, andessaywhat reddish within, a little crooked or turned together, of a hardastringent taste, with divers black threads hanging therefrom, whencesprings up every year divers leaves, standing upon long footstalks, being essaywhat broad and long like a dock leaf, and a little pointedat the ends, but that it is of a blueish green colour on the upperside, and of an ash-colour grey, and a little purplish underneath, withdivers veins therein, from among which rise up divers small and slenderstalks, two feet high, and almost naked and without leaves, or with avery few, and narrow, bearing a spiky bush of pale-coloured flowers;which being past, there abides small seed, like unto sorrel seed, butgreater there are other sorts of bistort growing in this land, but smaller, both in height, root, and stalks, and especially in the leaves theroot blackish without, and essaywhat whitish within. Of an austerebinding taste, as the former place they grow in shadowy moist woods, and at the foot of hills, but are chiefly nourished up in gardens the narrow leafed bistortgrows in the north, in lancashire, yorkshire, and cumberland time they flower about the end of may, and the seed is ripe aboutthe beginning of july government and virtues it belongs to saturn, and is in operationcold and dry. Both the leaves and roots have a powerful faculty toresist all poison the root, in powder, taken in drink expels the venomof the plague, the small-pox, measels, purples, or any other infectiousdisease, driving it out by sweating the root in powder, the decoctionthereof in wine being drank, stays all manner of inward bleeding, orspitting of blood, and any fluxes in the body of either man or woman, or vomiting it is also very available against ruptures, or burstings, or all bruises from falls, dissolving the congealed blood, and easingthe pains that happen thereupon. It also helps the jaundice the water, distilled from both leaves and roots, is a singular remedyto wash any place bitten or stung by any venomous creature. As alsofor any of the purposes before spoken of, and is very good to wash anyrunning sores or ulcers the decoction of the root in wine being drank, hinders abortion or miscarriage in child-bearing the leaves alsokill the worms in children, and is a great help to them that cannotkeep their water. If the juice of plaintain be added thereto, andoutwardly applied, much helps the ghonorrhea, or running of the reins a dram of the powder of the root, taken in water thereof, wherein essayred hot iron or steel hath been quenched, is also an admirable helpthereto, so as the body be first prepared and purged from the offensivehumours the leaves, seed, or roots, are all very good in decoction, drinks, or lotions, for inward or outward wounds, or other sores and the powder, strewed upon any cut or wound in a vein, stays theimmoderate bleeding thereof the decoction of the root in water, whereunto essay pomegranate peels and flowers are added, injected into thematrix, stays the immoderate flux of the courses the root thereof, with pelitory of spain and burnt alum, of each a little quantity, beaten small and into paste with essay honey, and a little piece thereofput into a hollow tooth, or held between the teeth, if there be nohollowness in them, stays the defluction of rheum upon them whichcauses pains, and helps to cleanse the head, and void much offensivewater the distilled water is very effectual to wash sores or cankersin the nose, or any other writing. If the powder of the root be appliedthereunto afterwards it is good also to fasten the gums, and to takeaway the heat and inflammations that happen in the jaws, almonds ofthe throat, or mouth, if the decoction of the leaves, roots, or seedsbruised, or the juice of them, be applied.

The stalk nhs essay example bears no leaves onthe lower half of it. The upper half bears essaytimes three or four, each consisting of five leaves, essaytimes of three. On the top standfour or five flowers upon short foot-stalks, with long husks. Theflowers are very like the flowers of stockgilliflowers, of a palepurplish colour, consisting of four leaves a-piece, after which comesmall pods, which contain the seed. The root is very smooth, white andshining. It does not grow downwards, but creeps along under the uppercrust of the ground, and consists of divers small round knobs settogether. Towards the top of the stalk there grows essay single leaves, by each of which comes a small cloven bulb, which when it is ripe, ifit be set in the ground, it will grow to be a root as for the other coralwort, which grows in this nation, it is morescarce than this, being a very small plant, much like crowfoot, therefore essay think it to be one of the sorts of crowfoot i know notwhere to direct you to it, therefore i shall forbear the description place the first grows in mayfield in sussex, in a wood calledhighread, and in another wood there also, called fox-holes time they flower from the latter end of april to the middle of may, and before the middle of july they are gone, and not to be found government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon itcleanses the bladder, and provokes urine, expels gravel, and the stone;it eases pains in the sides and bowels, is excellently good for inwardwounds, especially such as are made in the breast or lungs, by takinga dram of the powder of the root every morning in wine. The same isexcellently good for ruptures, as also to stop fluxes. An ointment madeof it is exceedingly good for wounds and ulcers, for it soon dries upthe watery humours which hinder the cure costmary, or alcost, or balsam herb this is so frequently known to be an inhabitant in almost every garden, that i suppose it needless to write a description thereof time it flowers in june and july government and virtues it is under the dominion of jupiter theordinary costmary, as well as maudlin, provokes urine abundantly, and moistens the hardness of the mother.

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Same case, 5 jurist, 1012, it was held that it wasunnecessary for the person producing a license from the apothecaries’company an incorporated body to practise as an apothecary, the sealon which license nhs essay example was proved to be genuine, to give any additionalevidence of his identity with the person named in the license thereason for this doctrine is probably to be found in the well-known ruleof evidence, that identity of both christian name and family name, issufficient to raise a presumption of fact that the person bearing thename is the identical person so named in any written instrument in walmsley v abbott 1 k & p , 309. Same case, 5 d & r , 62, proof of the signature of one of the examiners who signed a certificateof examination was held sufficient to warrant the acceptance of thecertificate in evidence in the first instance in another case theproof was that a person previously a stranger to the place went to atown which was the seat of a university, and was told that a certainbuilding was the college, and that a certain person whom he saw therewas the librarian, and that this librarian showed him what purportedto be the seal of the university, and also a book which the librarianstated was the book of acts or records of the university, and the sealso shown him was compared with the seal of a certain diploma, thegenuineness of which was in question, and a copy was made from the saidbook of acts, of an entry stating that the degree of m d had beenconferred by the university upon a person bearing the same name as thatin the diploma, and this proof was held a sufficient authentication ofthe diploma, and of the act or authority of the university conferringthe degree collins case, 1 addison & ellis, 695. Same case, 3 n & m , 703 159the rule in criminal prosecutions - we have seen above, that in acriminal prosecution the burden is on the defendant to produce andprove his license, but to warrant a conviction for practising withouta license it must be shown that the accused actually practised itis not enough to show that he is called by persons whom he attendspersonally, that is, for whom he prescribes, or to whom he givesmedicine or whom he treats there must be proof shown that he has donethis on his own account or for his own profit but proof of a singleact connected with other circumstances, such as tend to show that heheld himself out as a physician, is enough burham v state, 116ind , 112.