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Cooh ╽  ╱╲ ╱╲     ╽ ╽ ╽╱   ╲  ╲╱ ╲╱ ╲ ╱ n233 doebner and gieseke. Ann d chem liebigs 240:291, 1887 the chief use of phenylcinchoninic acid is as an antiuric acid agent, especially indicated in gout in 1913, the german house of schering was made the assignee ofpatent 1045759 granted by the united states government234 for themanufacture of phenylcinchoninic acid. At about the same time theproduct was admitted to the u s pharmacopeia ix, under very looselyconstructed standards 234 the validity of this patent is to be doubted essay time after the beginning of the european war the proprietary“atophan” became scarce in america in 1917, however, schering andglatz, new york, placed american-made atophan on the market andsubmitted it to the council on pharmacy and chemistry later, otherfirms began to manufacture the product and also submitted specimens during the time it was investigating these products, the federaltrade commission decided that a license was needed to manufacturephenylcinchoninic acid under the patent just referred to, so thataltogether the laboratory had a number of specimens to examine in making the examinations for the council, the laboratory waspractically confined, by virtue of the food and drugs law, to limitits requirements of purity to those of the pharmacopeia practically, the only tests were melting point, ash and solubility accordingto the u s pharmacopeia the melting point is “about 210 ” in newand nonofficial remedies, 1918, it was explained that atophan“complies with the standards for phenylcinchoninic acid, u s p , but melts between 208 and 212 c ” the u s pharmacopeia requiresthat no weighable ash remains on incinerating about 0 5 gm ofphenylcinchoninic acid considerable variations, especially in meltingpoints, were found, as can be seen from table 4 table 4 -- melting points and ash product manufacturer melting ash, no point, c % 1 abbott laboratories, chicago 208 5-210 5 0 05 2 abbott laboratories, chicago 212-213 0 05 1 calco chem co , bound brook 209-210 5 0 07 1 morgenstern, new york 204 5-207 5 2 8 2 morgenstern, new york 208 5-211 5 none 1 schering and glatz, new york 206-208 none 2 schering and glatz, new york 209-211 none 3 schering and glatz, new york 208 5-210 0 17 4a schering and glatz, new york 1 208 5-210 0 2 4b schering and glatz, new york 2 208 5-209 5 0 3 4c schering and glatz, new york 3 208 5-210 0 025 1 wm h sweet and co , columbus 204-208 none 2 wm h sweet and co , columbus 209 5-211 5 0 04 1 german specimen from schering and glatz 210-212 noneby referring to this table on melting points and ash content it will benoted that the production of a better grade of products resulted afterthe respective firms had submitted samples to the a m a chemicallaboratory for criticism, and from a chemical standpoint, the lastproducts examined were found to be as satisfactory as the german-made“atophan ”solubility of cinchophen phenylcinchoninic acid -- as methodsof determining impurities, or estimating the degree of purity ofphenylcinchoninic acid were not described in the u s pharmacopeia, it was decided to try extraction methods 235 this in turn led to thequestion of solubilities the u s pharmacopeia gives the solubilityof phenylcinchoninic acid only in general terms. Hence it was deemedadvisable to determine its solubilities and describe them in moredefinite terms the sample of phenylcinchoninic acid employed todetermine the solubility was obtained by repeated recrystallizationfrom alcohol of a commercial specimen solubilities were determined inwater.

by mouth sodium salicylate is given in doses offrom 3 to 15 gm in a day need homework help. Whereas venosal is advised as 1 gm , infrom one to three day intervals. As a matter of elementary arithmeticit is plain that these doses of venosal are smaller instead of being“much larger ” the absence of digestive ill effects, tinnitus, etc , is explained by the small dosage that the specific action of thesalicylates should be increased by intravenous administration issurprising when it is remembered that the drug is absorbed rapidlyand completely from the intestines. In fact, the quoted statement isincredible the company further alleges that, on the basis of “clinical reports”it has received, it does not “hesitate to recommend this product forroutine use in all streptococcic infections ” such a therapeuticsuggestion is, to put it conservatively, gross exaggeration the whole question of the justification of using salicylatesintravenously is open to grave doubt since it is possible to obtainthe salicylate effects promptly and certainly by oral administration, the inherent dangers of intravenous medication render its routineemployment unwarranted a further objection to venosal, especially atthis time when economy is a national policy, is the unnecessarily highexpense of venosal itself and of its administration the referee recommends that venosal be declared ineligible to new andnonofficial remedies because of conflicts with rule 1 indefinitechemical composition, rule 6 therapeutic exaggerations and rule10 unscientific composition -- from the journal a m a , jan 5, 1918 secretin-beveridge and the u s patent law report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytwo years ago the council published reports on two proprietarypreparations said to contain secretin, namely, “secretogen, ” soldby the g w carnrick company the journal a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518, and “duodenin, ” sold by armour and company the journala m a , aug 14, 1915, p 639 these reports explained that therewas no evidence to indicate that an insufficient amount of secretin wasthe cause of gastro-intestinal diseases, and further that there wasno evidence that secretin in any form was physiologically active whenadministered by the mouth subsequently, a j carlson and his co-workers, at the request ofthe council, studied the question of the stability of secretin anddemonstrated the journal a m a , jan 15, 1916, pp 178 and 208that commercial secretin preparations contained no secretin and, further, that secretin given both by the mouth and even in enormousdoses directly into the intestine is entirely inactive shortly after the publication of professor carlson work the attentionof the council was called to a u s patent issued, may 2, 1916, to james wallace beveridge, “means for and method of stabilizingsecretin ” in this patent beveridge claimed to have invented “theprocess of producing secretin in stable form as a commercial articlefor therapeutic use ” that is, a process for preparing preparationswhich would contain secretin when they reach the consumer and in a formresisting destruction in its passage through the stomach in view of the demonstrated instability of secretin, the councilasked professor carlson to investigate the validity of the claims ofthe beveridge patent the study on “the question of the stability ofsecretin, ” by a j carlson, a e kanter and i tumpowski, whichappears below, shows that the beveridge patent furnishes no process forthe manufacture of commercially stable secretin preparations, nor anymeans for preventing the destruction of secretin by the gastric juicewhen administered orally it further demonstrates that the preparationmade by beveridge was devoid of secretin the council adopted the report of carlson and his co-workers, anddeclared secretin-beveridge inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies the council directed that the report of carlson and his collaboratorsbe sent to the commissioner of patents with a protest against thegranting of patents without competent and thorough investigation of theclaims advanced therein w a puckner, secretary the question of the stability of secretin a j carlson, a e kanter and i tumpowski from the hull physiological laboratory of the university of chicagoin a letters patent, filed may 6, 1914, the patent granted may 2, 1916, james w beveridge, m d , makes certain claims concerning the stabilityand physiologic activity of secretin prepared according to the methodpatented by him in brief, dr beveridge claims that secretin prepared by digestingintestinal mucosa with a weak acid at a temperature slightly belowboiling, and mixed with 0 2 per cent to 2 per cent blood serum, albumin or peptone 1 remains active for at least six months, 2stimulates the pancreas when given by mouth, and 3 “may be injectedintravenously in man, if desired ” the only thing in the letters patentin support of these claims is the statement. “i have found out byactual tests that the preparation maintains its stability for five orsix months ”here are the claims in detail.

The hair ofthe head anointed with the juice of it turns it black. The leaves beingapplied to the place, help inflammations, burnings, scaldings, thebitings of mad dogs. Mingled with bulls suet is a present remedy forthe gout. Inwardly taken, is a singular purge for the dropsy and gout echium viper-bugloss, viper-herb, snake bugloss, wal-bugloss, wild-bugloss, several counties give it these several names. It isa singular remedy being eaten, for the biting of venomous beasts:continually eating of it makes the body invincible against the poisonof serpents, toads, spiders, &c however it be administered. Itcomforts the heart, expels sadness and melancholy the rich may makethe flowers into a conserve, and the herb into a syrup, the poor maykeep it dry, both may keep it as a jewel empetron, calcifragra, herniaria, &c rupture-wort, or burst-wort the english name tells you it is good against ruptures, and so such asare bursten shall find it, if they please to make trial of it, eitherinwardly taken, or outwardly applied to the place, or both also thelatin names hold it forth to be good against the stone, which whosotries shall find true enula campana elicampane provokes urine see the root epithimum dodder of time, to which add common dodder, which isusually that which grows upon flax. Indeed every dodder retains avirtue of that herb or plant it grows upon, as dodder that growsupon broom, provokes urine forcibly, and loosens the belly, and ismoister than that which grows upon flax.

Chloride of methyl, 16 per cent. Bromide of ethyl, 1 per cent ”although somnoform has been on the market for a long time, thepublished reports present no proof that it is superior to ethylchlorid used alone moreover, the published reports and statistics donot necessarily apply to the somnoform now sold for the reason thatmixtures of varying composition have been sold as somnoform in thepast thus, when somnoform was considered by the council in 1909, itwas claimed to be composed of chloride of ethyl, 60 per cent. Chlorideof methyl, 35 per cent , and bromide of ethyl, 5 per cent federalchemists found, however, that it contained no bromide of ethyl noticeof judgment no 571 it is a question, therefore, whether a givenreport applies to a mixture containing 5 per cent bromide of ethyl, 1per cent of this substance, or none at all the present advertising booklet for somnoform does not presentacceptable evidence of the therapeutic value of the preparation an ignorance concerning the elementary facts of physiology andpharmacology is evident in the second sentence. When having stated that“somnoform is the result of several years of study and investigation bydr george rolland, dean of the bordeau dental school, ” the pamphletcontinues. “he sought an anesthetic which would enter, dwell in, andleave the body in the same manner that oxygen does ”the claim as to the value of the 1 per cent of ethyl bromide in themixture is highly improbable. Certainly no evidence in support of theclaimed value of this constituent is available to the referee no evidence is submitted which proves the claim of superiority ofsomnoform over similar preparations, asserted in the following. “the peculiar manner in which the elements are combined is what makes somnoform at once so efficient and so safe ”the council declared somnoform inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies because, in the absence of acceptable evidence showing itsexceptional safety and value, the claims are unwarranted rule 6, andbecause the name of the mixture is not descriptive of its composition rule 8 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 90 tablets formothalates report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report whichdeclares tablets formothalates tailby-nason company, boston, mass ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary tablets formothalates are sold by tailby-nason company, boston, mass on the label a formula is given. “constituents. Acetanilid2 gr. Phenolphthalein 1/2 gr in a balanced combination withhexamene a name essaytimes applied to hexamethylenamin and oil ofcinnamon indications. Influenza, colds, grippe, headache, neuralgia, rheumatism ” the same formula is given in advertisements and in thisadvertisement it is claimed that they are “for influenza and grip” andif “given in the acute stage may avert a serious attack” boston m & s j , oct 3, 1918 the dose is given as one to two tablets at6 p m and repeat at bedtimes the a m a chemical laboratory reported that the tablets weigh anaverage of 0 4882 gm , or 7-1/2 grains.

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Congested and swollen, if the subject has beenlong suspended roth found the face pale in 43 of 49 paper in aboutone-half the paper the features are calm and placid syncope maschkafound the lips bluish in 98 of 153 paper the eyes are often prominent, staring, and congested, and usually the pupils are dilated lacassagneand maschka848 look upon ecchymoses of the eyelids and conjunctivæ, “piqueté scarlatin, ” as important as favoring the idea of need homework help hangingor strangulation roth found in 49 paper the eyelids closed 28 times;half open, 12. Congested in 6. Ecchymosed in 2 pupils dilated in 31;narrowed in 2 dilated in 97½ per cent of ogston paper paper 85, 86. Rupture of crystalline lens harvey849 says the blood was foundflowing from the ear in 6 paper of nearly 1, 500, but no details weregiven ogston, one case hofmann saw a case in which there was bleedingfrom the ears he says this is not due, as has been supposed, torupture of the tympanic membrane, but to hemorrhage from subcutaneousvessels case 27 the tongue is usually livid and swollen, especially at the base according to tidy, dr guy looks on this as showing that suspensiontook place very probably during life in about one-third of the paperthe tongue is protruded and compressed between the teeth. Essaytimesbitten essay observers found it protruded only as a result ofputrefaction the protrusion of the tongue is not believed to dependon the position of the ligature hackel in 67 paper found the tonguelying forward in all paper where the cord was between the larynx andthe hyoid. In 55 per cent in front of the teeth, in 18 per cent betweenthe teeth. Where the ligature was lower down, the tongue was behindthe teeth he found by experiment that in the spasmodic expiratoryeffort the tongue was thrust forward. In the inspiratory movement, drawn backward he concluded that the forward movement was the resultof reflex action maschka850 found the tongue between the teeth 58times in 149 paper roth in 49 paper found the tongue projecting andbitten in 22, the teeth shut in 15 others. In 15 the mouth was open;the tongue was retracted in 30 paper harvey, after examining reports of nearly fifteen hundred hangings, says. “in the majority of instances immediately after death the features were placid, the face pale, the eyes not unduly prominent, the mouth closed or half open, the tongue pressed against the teeth but not protruding. The superficial veins full, but the head, neck, and trunk free from lividity after a longer or shorter time, however, and apparently after a very few hours, in india, all this is changed livid patches appear about the chest, back, and shoulders. The face and head become bloated and puffy, the tongue and eyes protrude ”bloody froth is essaytimes seen at the nose and mouth saliva is invariably secreted and runs out of the mouth down on thechin and chest its presence is considered as evidence that suspensionoccurred during life the urine and fæces are essaytimes found to havebeen expelled these discharges occur in all kinds of violent death tardieu found them, however, but twice in 41 paper of hanging roth in49 paper found discharges of fæces in 17 and urine in 4.