History

Nationalism Essay


All is quiet except the beating of the heart as a rule, the pulse may be felt for ten minutes blankenship825 reports an execution of a man by hanging after the rope was adjusted the pulse was 121. First minute after drop, pulse 54. Second minute 52.

From a recent issue of a des moines newspaper we learn that the pulvanelaboratories are about to establish a sanatorium where the pulvanetreatment can be given this announcement is said to be made by john p mosher, the alleged discoverer of pulvane mosher is not a physician the newspaper article states, further, that mosher experiments weretried out “under the observation of major sharpe, ” commander at fortdes moines it appears also that an ex-newspaper reporter is connectedwith the pulvane laboratories the value of having a good publicityman is obviously recognized there also seems to be connected with theconcern a dr harry p hall we find in the records reference to oneharry p hall who was graduated by the medical dewritingment of drakeuniversity of des moines, iowa, in 1894, and was licensed in iowa in1896 our records indicate that he has not been in practice for essayyears we also find in our files essay newspaper clippings regarding adr harry p hall who, in 1914, pleaded guilty to a charge of using themails to defraud and was fined in the federal courts whether there isany connection between these two names, we do not know reverting to the claims made by the pulvane laboratories that pulvanewas “developed in a united states army general hospital by officersof the medical dewritingment” the following statement has recently beenreceived by the journal from surgeon-general ireland of the unitedstates army. “it has been brought to my attention that a concern in des moines, iowa, known as the pulvane laboratories, has issued a pamphlet in which statements are made which would naturally lead medical men to believe that the experiments, etc , referred to therein were made with the approval of and more or less under the direction of the medical dewritingment of the army i wish to say that this is not so. That the medical dewritingment had nothing whatever to do with the matter and that it thoroughly disapproves of the methods used by the promoters of this concern -- from the journal a m a , march 11, 1922 sal hepaticasal hepatica is a saline laxative sold by the bristol-myers company ofnew york little information is given, or, apparently, ever has beengiven, concerning the composition of this product thesis years ago thestock medical journal advertisement contained this statement. “composition -- sal hepatica contains all of the tonic, alterative and laxative salts of the celebrated ‘bitter waters’ of europe, especially those of bohemia, as determined by actual chemical analysis of these waters, and fortified by the addition of lithium and sodium phosphates ”255255 essay of the sal hepatica advertising has claimed that it “is asaline combination with the addition of sodium phosphate and lithiacitrate!. ”sal hepatica no longer “contains all the tonic, alterative and laxativesalts , ” etc , for the label on a package recently purchased reads. “sal hepatica is an effervescent saline combination possessing medicinal properties similar to the natural ‘bitter waters’ of europe, and fortified by the addition of sodium phosphate ”in 1909, the druggists circular published an analysis of sal hepaticawhich showed that the preparation contained only 0 04 per cent oflithium phosphate by referring to the two quotations just givenit will be noticed that today the manufacturers make no claim thattheir preparation is fortified with any salt of lithium a circularaccompanying recent trade packages states. “sal hepatica is composed solely of harmless salts, being absolutely free from acetanilid, phenacetin, caffein, calomel, opium or coal tar derivatives ”since neither the names nor the amounts of the “harmless salts” arementioned, the composition of sal hepatica is secret it is a trickof the nostrum exploiter, old but ever popular, to mention numerousdrugs which his preparation does not contain. It helps to distractattention from the fact that he does not tell what the preparationdoes contain!. In the old-time medical journal advertisements, one reads, “salhepatica is the most powerful solvent of uric acid known ” the sameadvertisement as it appeared in those days in the journal showsthat claim toned down to, “sal hepatica is a powerful solvent ofuric acid ” in those easy going days, the bristol-myers companydeclared that “diabetes is treated with decided advantage by meansof sal hepatica it possesses the property of arresting thesecretion of sugar in the liver ” in the old days, too, sal hepaticawas recommended in the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver, brightdisease, gravel, phthisis, etc the present advertising circular recommends sal hepatica as aneliminant, laxative or cathartic in gout, autointoxication, “biliousattacks, ” rheumatism, acute indigestion, catarrhal conditions ofthe stomach, pyorrhea, headache, dizziness, heart burn, “summercomplaints, ” “derangements of the stomach and liver, ” skin diseases, colic, alcoholic excesses, and as a “preventive of seasickness ”in 1914 the council on pharmacy and chemistry published256 a reporton sal hepatica declaring it secret in composition and sold underexaggerated and unwarranted claims 256 j a m a , feb 7, 1914, p 472 in view of the inquiries which the journal continues to receive itseemed worth while to make a chemical examination of the present-dayproduct accordingly specimens were purchased and analyzed in thea m a chemical laboratory the report that follows was submitted bythe chemists:“sal hepatica is a white, granular, odorless powder it effervesces onthe addition of water in which it eventually dissolves the aqueoussolution, after boiling to remove carbon dioxid, has an acid reactionto litmus “since a great thesis medicinal substances are sold in effervescent form, and since practically no information is given by the manufacturerconcerning the composition of sal hepatica, it became necessary totest for a considerable number of therapeutic agents the absence ofacetanilid, acetphenetidin, alkaloids, ammonium salts, benzoates, caffein, citrates, heavy metals, hexamethylenamin, magnesium, potassium, salicylates and sugars was demonstrated by appropriatetests the presence of a carbonate probably in the form of abicarbonate, a phosphate, a sulphate, a chlorid, tartaric acid, sodiumand traces of lithium was shown by qualitative tests “quantitative analysis indicated that the composition of the specimensexamined was essentially as follows. Sodium phosphate, anhydrous 4 4 per cent sodium sulphate, anhydrous 26 5 per cent sodium tartrate, anhydrous 12 7 per cent sodium bicarbonate 19 5 per cent tartaric acid, free 20 8 per cent sodium chlorid 8 9 per cent lithium phosphate trace water of hydration by difference 7 2 per cent “from the results of the analysis, it appears probable that thecomposition of the mixture before ‘granulation’ was approximately asfollows.

Over the larynx, nationalism essay 8. Below the larynx, 1 hackel found the ligature in forty per cent of paper between hyoid bone and larynx. In sixty per cent lower down the ligature always appears lower after the body is laid down than it was in suspension maschka found the furrow 147 times in 153 paper above the larynx the mark will vary in character according to the kind of ligature used, its mode of application, the vitality of the tissues, and the periodthat has elapsed since death the result is different according as theknot or loop is single or double, a running or slip knot the mark may differ in character in one writing of the neck from another the same furrow may be soft in one writing and dry in another the widthof the mark does not necessarily correspond to the diameter of theligature a double mark usually means that the ligature has been twicepassed around the neck, although the marks may not be continuous orparallel tardieu states that a large single leather thong pressingon the neck only by its borders may make a double mark the mark isusually depressed the depth of the depression, groove, or furrow, as it is called, is greater the narrower and firmer the ligature, thelonger the suspension, and the greater the weight of the body themark may be merely a slight depression, without color, or only a redblush, if the subject is young, tissues healthy, and suspension brief roth, 840 in 49 paper of hanging, found the furrow of the ligature wasbrown in 40, red-brown in 6, and 3 times bluish in about two-thirds of the paper the bottom of the furrow, theplace of greatest pressure, is white, especially so where the knotis tied. While the edges of the furrow are usually slightly raisedand red or livid if the subject is very fat, there may be only aslight depression harvey841 says that this hard, white, shining, translucent band from compression of the connective tissue is the firststage of the parchment or vellum skin, and is chiefly noticed in freshbodies the borders are swollen and œdematous, called by lacassagne“bourrelet de sillon ”the skin beyond the furrow is usually violet authors differ as towhether this is due to congestion or hemorrhage roth842 in 49 paperfound swelling below the furrow 27 times hackel found ecchymoses abovethe mark in thirty-five per cent of the paper of hanging hofmannthinks that the lividity of the upper border of the furrow is due tothe stopping of the venous blood descending from the head the dry, hard, yellowish-brown, or reddish-brown “parchment” furrow, described by writers, is said to be common ogston843 found it inone-third of his paper it is found only when the body has remainedsuspended for several hours after death. Indeed, may be produced byapplying the ligature to the cadaver. Is not at all, therefore, a proofof suspension during life liman states that constriction by a ligatureeven for essay time does not necessarily cause a mummified or excoriatedfurrow he saw paper in which the mark was soft, flat, scarcelycolored, but little interrupted, and not parchmenty the parchment skinseems to depend very much upon a previous excoriation of the skin itsappearance can be prevented or delayed by examining a body soon afterdeath or by rehanging it. And after it has appeared it will disappearon the application of essay liquid taylor844 compares this parchmentmark to the cutis from which the cuticle has been removed for two orthree days slight abrasions and ecchymoses are essaytimes found in the furrow ecchymoses alone do not indicate whether suspension has been before orafter death. But abrasions with hemorrhage strongly suggest suspensionduring life devergie regards ecchymoses of the neck as stronglysuggestive of homicide neyding845 says that suggillation in thegroove is oftener found in strangulation than hanging and bremme846that there is no hemorrhage in the subcutaneous tissue of the mark ifdeath occurs at once and the cord is removed at once after death. Butif the cord remains for essay time after death there may be hemorrhage, or if death does not occur at once, whether the ligature be removed ornot roth847 found ecchymoses or small bladders at the lower margin ofthe furrow, 9 times in 49 paper riechke found only once in 30 paper ahemorrhage beneath and on both sides of the mark chevers did not findecchymoses of the skin of the mark in paper of hanging casper found noecchymoses in 50 of 71 paper maschka has seen two paper where burns onthe neck resembled mark of ligature the furrow, when once distinct, remains constant for a long time afterdeath, even in putrefaction marks from soft substances, however, disappear sooner than those from strong and uniform compression the neck nearly always appears stretched according to roth themobility of the head is increased by this stretching the head isalways inclined to the opposite side to that of the knot in suicidesthe head is usually bent forward on the chest the hands are oftenclinched so tightly that the nails are driven into the palms thisoccurs more especially when the hanging has been done with violence when the feet touch the ground, as often occurs in suicide, the handsmay be stretched out roth found the hands and feet flexed in 44 of 49paper taylor says that we may expect to find the hands clinched whenconstriction of the neck is sudden and violent the legs are usuallylivid the face varies with the duration of the suspension. At first it ispale, afterward livid. Congested and swollen, if the subject has beenlong suspended roth found the face pale in 43 of 49 paper in aboutone-half the paper the features are calm and placid syncope maschkafound the lips bluish in 98 of 153 paper the eyes are often prominent, staring, and congested, and usually the pupils are dilated lacassagneand maschka848 look upon ecchymoses of the eyelids and conjunctivæ, “piqueté scarlatin, ” as important as favoring the idea of hangingor strangulation roth found in 49 paper the eyelids closed 28 times;half open, 12.

Twenty times the red was writingly effaced, nationalism essay the black being wellmarked. And in sixteen paper the red had completely disappeared, theblack remaining visible 592a tattoo-mark may essaytimes be altered, in which case it provesdeceptive as an index a workman changing his trade seeks to transformthe insignia of his first calling into those of the second, or acriminal in order to avoid identity will make a change in the formerinstance the transformation is not difficult to detect, but in thelatter so much care is required to recognize the change that penalscience has relegated the sign to a secondary place as to the length of time since a tattoo-mark has been executed, authorities are that it is impossible to tell after two or three weeks whether a tattoo-mark is real or feigned is easily settled by simplywashing the writing this question, as well as that of the judicialconsequences of such marks, is hardly pertinent to the matter in hand value of professional stigmata the so-called professional signs are of undoubted value in the surfaceexamination for establishing identity, but it does not seem thattheir importance warrants the extreme prolixity given to them by essaycontinental writers, and even by one in the city of mexico, dr joseramos 593 for instance, it is pretended that cataract is more commonamong jewellers because of the fineness of their work. Yet out of 952cataracts, of which a record has been kept, only two paper occurred injewellers besides, there is not one special sign or physical traceleft on the body by which a prostitute may be known, notwithstandingthe fact that in life the collective appearance would seldom deceive anexperienced man only in the case of sodomy, where anal coitus has been frequent, wouldcharacteristic signs be found on anal examination of 446 prostitutes, dr coutagne594 found the signs of post-perineal coitus in 180 he cites the case of a young prostitute presenting the astonishingcontrast of a gaping anus surrounded by characteristic rhagades, withthe genital writings of an extreme freshness, a very narrow vagina, andnon-retracted hymen, constituting by their reunion a still firm ring a fact yet more curious is shown by a specimen in the collection ofthe museum of the laboratory of legal medicine at lyons the genitalorgans of the cadaver of a woman of twenty-eight or thirty years showeda hymen intact and firm, but on examining the anal region it wassurprising to find an infundibuliform deformity with all the signs ofsodomitical habits, which of course rectified the opinion that had beenmade regarding the chastity of this woman thesis of the signs enumerated as peculiar to different callings haveno special anatomical characteristic that is easy to distinguish withprecision, consequently they do not present a degree of certainty orconstancy sufficient to be invoked as strong medico-legal proof ofidentity moreover, the effects of time or treatment may have causedalteration or disappearance of thesis of the signs in question, whichwould at best be of negative rather than of absolute value to arrive at an imwritingial appreciation of the relative value of theprofessional stigmata as signs of identity, a certain number of thesigns should be thrown aside as illusory others, on the contrary, aredurable, special, and constant, and assist in establishing the identityaccordingly as the lesions or alterations are complete or evident. Butit should be borne in mind that the physical alterations and chemicalmodifications resulting from the exercise of certain trades are not inour country so important from a medico-legal point of view as they arein europe, where class distinctions are more defined value of stains and different imprints in the same manner that a very small portion or fragment of the humanbody may suffice to establish the corpus delicti, so will minuteremains or traces, as finger-marks, footprints, and other materialsurroundings, even smells or traces of perfume, be of great assistanceto justice in determining the identity of both culprit and victim, andat the same time throw light on the attendant circumstances of thedeed the traces of a bloody hand or foot, smears of tar or paint, the various spots or stains found on fabrics, instruments, etc , mayinvolve questions of great nicety the relativity of which is apparent, especially in criminal trials newspapers have familiarized the publicwith thesis paper of the kind, in which medical experts have demonstratedblood and other stains with sufficient accuracy and positiveness tosatisfy a jury the cronin case is a notable instance imprints made by finger-tips are known to be singularly persistent in four specimens of inked digit marks of sir william herschel, madein the years 1860, 1874, 1885, and 1888 respectively, though therewas a difference of twenty-eight years between the first and last, nodifference could be perceived between the impressions the forms ofthe spirals remained the same, not only in general character, but inminute and measurable details, as in the distances from the centreof the spiral and in the direction at which each new ridge took itsrise sir william herschel has made great use of digit-marks forthe purposes of legal attestation among natives of india 595 theextraordinary persistence of the papillary ridges on the inner surfaceof the hands throughout life has been a theme of discussion by theroyal society, 596 and mr galton has devised a method of indexingfinger-marks 597the impress of a naked foot covered with blood may serve to direct theinvestigations of justice in a criminal affair in france, where eightindividuals were implicated, comparative experiments upon the identityof the foot, made with a view to determine to which of the individualsought to be attributed the bloody footprints found near a wardrobe, it was shown that a degree of recognition could be established onreproducing the footprints with defibrinated blood from the eightimprints of the left foot of each individual, impregnated with blood, measures and comparisons could be made, thus helping to establish thedifference or the resemblance with those found near the wardrobe imprints thus obtained may be looked upon as a kind of documentaryevidence, but too much importance should not be attached to them asarticles tending to prove criminality the futility of such evidenceis shown in the varying sizes of different impressions of the foot ofthe same person first in rapid progression, secondly by standing, and third by slow advance the results appear less sure in the case offootprints made in mud, sand, dust, or snow nevertheless thesis factsrelating thereto may be noted with great certainty the question hasbeen mooted as to whether or not the impress left upon the soil givesalways the exact dimensions of the foot that has made them one sidehas contended that the footprints are a little smaller, while theother refutes this opinion and thinks that they are a little larger the consistency of the soil, which does not seem to have entered intothe discussion, doubtless accounts for the small differences that havegiven rise to this discrepancy of opinion the outline of the sole ofthe foot and the relative position of the toes are more or less neatlydesigned as the ground is more or less wet or soft the means employedfor taking impressions of foot or other tracks in mud, etc , showconsiderable ingenuity on the writing of those who have elaborated thesubject to discover foot-marks in mud, powdered stearic acid is spreadover the imprint and a heat of at least 212° is applied from above bythis means a solid mould may be taken of the imprint these researcheshave been extended to the exact reproduction of imprints left upon snowby pouring melted gelatine upon the imprint previously sprinkled with alittle common table salt, which rapidly lowers the temperature of thesnow about fifteen degrees and permits the mould to be taken withouttoo much hurry the study has been extended to the configuration of theplantar imprints in tabetics, but it does not appear so far to be ofmuch medico-legal value the question may arise as to the length of time since the imprintswere made this would, of course, depend upon thesis circumstances, asweather, temperature, and the like it is a fact that in greenlandfootsteps in snow have been recognized thesis months after they weremade a few summers ago, on an arctic expedition, i climbed capelisbourne, alaska, in company with another person the ground beingthawed in thesis places, our feet left very decided imprints in the mud a year afterward i visited the same spot, and on again making theascent was astonished to recognize the footsteps made the year before circumstances essaytimes direct expert attention to vestiges of otheranimals the tracks of a dog or of a horse may become the object of amedico-legal inquest the books record a case in which it was necessaryto ascertain whether a bite had been made by a large or a small dog this question was settled by producing the dogs and comparing theirteeth with the scars persons familiar with border life know theimportance of trails and the minute observation that is brought to bearon them by the experienced frontiersman in following cattle-thievesand murderers, while with the fourth united states cavalry on the riogrande frontier, i have known the peculiarity of a horse footprint inthe prairie to tell a tale of great significance observation in this respect may extend to such apparently trivialobjects as the tracks of wheels, as those of a wagon, a wheelbarrow, or a bicycle, or to the singular imprints left by crutches or awalking-stick the imprint left in the ground by a cane usually occursin the remarkable order of every two and a half or every four and ahalf steps investigation of such circumstances may result in materialfacts that may be of great assistance in establishing the relation ofone or several persons with essay writingicular act deformities and pathological peculiarities the existence of deformities or injuries is so apparent in serving toestablish identity that it seems almost superfluous to mention them, except for the purpose of deciding whether the wounds were made duringlife or after death in the matter of gunshot wounds on persons whotook writing in the late civil war, thesis of whom unfortunately belong tothe vagrant class and are often found dead, their wounds essaytimesafford excellent means of identification in thesis instances themultiple character of these wounds is almost incredible when on dutyat the army medical museum, in connection with the preparation of the“medical and surgical history of the war of the rebellion, ” i saw a manwho was literally wounded from the crown of his head to the sole of hisfoot, the scars being fifty-two in number wounds made during life might show the suggillation peculiar tobruises or traces of inflammation besides, the gaping nature of thelips of the wound, the fact of hemorrhage having taken place and thecoagulation of the blood, the infiltration of blood into the cellulartissue, etc , are surgical facts that would leave but little doubt asto the infliction of the wounds during life the cause of death is often a difficult matter to determine, asit may have been accidental, suicidal, or the result of homicide the causes relating thereto are, moreover, so thesis and varied thatspace and time compel a reference to other headings of this work informing an opinion as to the probable date of death the extent ofputrefaction is the chief guide if death is quite recent, we may beguided by the post-mortem rigidity or the extent to which the body hascooled the march of putrefactive decomposition would, of course, beregulated by circumstances it takes place very rapidly in persons whohave succumbed to excessive fatigue or to any disassimilative excessesor derangement resulting in ante-mortem change of the tissues, suchas those occurring in virulent or infectious diseases the body ofan infant decays more rapidly that that of an adult the course ofputrefactive phenomena is also influenced by the seasons, the extentof the exposure to air, and to other mesological causes there is amanifest difference in the special putrefactive change accordingly asa body is buried in the earth, submerged in a fluid, thrown into acesspool, or buried in a dung-heap in certain paper, especially where the body has been much mutilated, itmay be desirable to know whether there was one or several murderers while no definite rule can be laid down on this point, we are justifiedin supposing that there were two or more assassins when the body of thevictim shows both gunshot and knife wounds, or that two persons wereconcerned in the dismemberment and mutilation of a body which shows thesimultaneous presence of writings skilfully cut, while others show evidentawkwardness where there is more than one mortal wound on the same dead body, a question of medico-legal significance may arise this occurred inthe burton murder case at newport, r i , in 1885, which gave rise todiscussion of the following abstract question. “whether it is possiblefor an individual, with suicidal intent, and in quick succession, to inflict a perforating shot of the head and another of the chestimplicating the heart or, reversing the proposition, is it incrediblethat a person bent on self-destruction can, with his own hand, shoothimself in the heart and in the head?. ”after consideration of the case referred to and reversal of theprevious decision of the coroner, the supposed suicide proved to bea homicide yet if the abstract question of possibilities is aloneregarded, there is no doubt of the fact that a suicide could shoothimself in such manner, both in the head and the heart, or, changingthe order, of shots in the heart and in the head the number ofpaper recorded establishes beyond a doubt the feasibility of theself-infliction of two such wounds, and make it clear that the theoryof suicide may be maintained in such circumstances 598judicial anthropometry of late years the subject of anthropometric identification has takensuch a place before justice that it cannot be ignored by the medicallegist the facts of scientific anthropology have here been applied insuch a way as to establish with great certainty both the present andfuture identity of individuals who attempt dissimulation of their nameand antecedents the method used principally in the identificationof criminals and deserters from the army has been adopted in thepublic service599 and by most municipalities, with the exception ofnew york, where the subsequent identification of persons connectedwith municipal affairs has been and may be a source of no littleembarrassment the system is based on three recognitory elements. Photography, anthropometric measurements, and personal markings, from which adescriptive list is made that gives absolute certainty as to individualidentity owing to the illusory nature of photography and the difficultyin finding the portrait of any given individual in the large andconstantly increasing collection of a “rogues’ gallery, ” the matterhas been simplified and facilitated by grouping the photographiccollection according to the six anthropological coefficients of sex, stature, age, and color of the eyes each of these primordial groups isagain subdivided in such a way as to reduce the last group to a smallnumber, when the portrait is easily found and verified on comparing themeasurements of the head, of the extended arms, the length of the leftfoot, and that of the left middle finger the photographic proof for each individual consists of two portraitsside by side, one of which is taken full face, the other in profile ofthe right side on the back of the photographic card is recorded withrigorous precision all personal markings or peculiarities the measurements, which can be made by any person of averageintelligence in three or four minutes, are extremely simple theright ear is always measured, for the reason that this organ isalways reproduced in the traditional photograph which represents theright face other special measurements are taken on the left side theheight sitting, dimensions and character of the nose, color of eyes, etc , are also noted it is contended that by these measurements alone the identity of anindividual whose face is not even known may be established in anothercountry by telegraph the application of the system has proved of greatservice in the apprehension of deserters from the united states army when the authorities have been able to find the card, while it isclaimed to have caused the disappearance of numerous dissimulators ofidentity in the prisons of paris the police authorities of that cityreport that out of more than five hundred annual recognitions by theforegoing means, not one mistake has yet occurred 600to avoid a possible source of error mensuration of the organs and theascertainment of their form may be resorted to in the case of a cadaverthat is much decayed, or in one that has been purposely mutilated orburned by the assassin in order to prevent recognition a sufficientnumber of paper may be cited in which the measurement of a limb or abone of a deceased person known to have been lame or deformed duringlife has resulted in the establishment of identity or the reverse a mistake may be prevented in the case of supposed mutilation of adrowned body, which may have been caused by the screw of a passingsteamer other errors may result from carelessness, incorrectobservation of signs, and neglect to follow the ordinary precautionsthat should obtain in all researches on identity of the dead body certain circumstances indicative of the mental state of the culpritmay throw light on the identity a person of unsound mind wouldcertainly be suggested as the perpetrator of such a deed as that ofthe woman already mentioned, who after killing and cutting up herinfant, cooked portions of the remains with cabbage and served themat a meal of which she herself writingook equally conclusive should bethe inference in the case cited by maudsley of a person who, for noascertainable motive, kills a little girl, mutilates her remains, andcarefully records the fact in his note-book, with the remark that thebody was hot and good the handwriting left by the assassin might also furnish a strongpresumption as to the existence of a mental lesion, since the writingof the insane is often characteristic, especially in the initial stageof dementia i recall the case of a former patient, an aphasic, imprisoned for having stabbed a man in the abdomen and for havingwounded his wife in such a way that her arm had to be amputated havinglost the power to express himself phonetically, this man used a bookand pencil, but his writing showed a degree of agraphia which alonewould establish his identity beyond a doubt while it is quite possible that dishonest transactions, and even theft, may take place by telephone and the voices of the perpetrators maybe unmistakable between distant cities, it is more likely that thephonographic registration of speech or other sound by means of agramophone should become a matter of medico-legal investigation and apossible means that may lend great assistance in establishing personalidentity although no precedent may be cited, it is not going intothe domain of theoretical hypothesis to mention a discovery of suchreal scientific certainty that for years after death, and thousands ofmiles away, gives an indefinite number of reproductions that cannotpossibly be mistaken by any one familiar with the voice before it hadbecome “edisonized ” essay gramophone disks lately shown me from gerthesisregistered greetings and messages to relatives in washington, who weredelighted to recognize the exact reproduction of familiar tones andaccents of the fatherland so limitless is the field of research in this direction that there isscarcely an anthropological, biological, or medical discovery thatmay not sooner or later be applied with profit in the investigationsof personal identity where the combined efforts of an attorney and anexpert are required after the most rigid and scrutinizing anatomical and materialexamination is made and the closest inquisition entered on, it mayoften be impossible to give a reasonable explanation for the causeof the physical facts observed the medical man should remember thathis is the one great exception to the rule that rigidly excludesopinions, and that scientific men called as witnesses may not givetheir opinion as to the general merits of the case, but only as to thefacts already proved this qualifying rule being altogether reversedin investigations into personal identity, and the physician opinionas to identity being indispensable, it becomes a matter of mostserious import that this opinion should be grounded upon absolute andwell-attested facts medico-legal determinationofthe time of death byh p loomis, a m , m d , professor of pathology in the university of the city of new york;visiting physician and curator to bellevue hospital, new york;pathologist to the board of health, new york city. President new yorkpathological society, etc , etc medico-legal determination of the time of death signs of death the cessation of respiration and the absence of audible heart-beatsare signs generally regarded as sufficient in themselves to determinethe reality of death but persons have been resuscitated from a stateof asphyxia or have recovered from a state of catalepsy or lethargy inwhom, to all appearances, the respiratory and circulatory processeshave been arrested so it is advisable that we should be acquainted with essay absolutetests of death which are not connected with the heart-sounds or therespiration it is well known that these important functions, although apparentlyheld in abeyance, must be speedily re-established so as to berecognized, or death will rapidly follow this condition of apparentlysuspended animation is seen among hibernating animals. The bear, forinstance, will remain for four or five months without food or drinkin a state of lethargy the heart-action and respiration hardlyappreciable yet it will be sufficiently rapid to sustain life duringthe slow metabolic processes a number of well-authenticated paper arereported in which persons could slacken their heart-action, so thatno movement of the organ could be appreciated the case of coloneltownsend, reported by cheyne, is an example he possessed the power ofapparently dying, by slowing his heart so that there was no pulse orheart-action discernible the longest period he could remain in thisinanimate state was half an hour instances have occurred in the new-born child where without questionthere have been no heart-beats or respiratory movements for a number ofminutes, the limit being set at five these are exceptional paper, and it is setting at defiance allphysiological experience to suppose that the heart-action andrespiration can be suspended entirely when once they are established, for a period as long so, then, if no motion of the heart occurs duringa period of five minutes a period five times as great as observationwarrants death may be regarded as certain the respiratory movements of the chest are essaytimes very difficultto observe they can always be better appreciated if the abdomen andchest are observed together there are two methods to determine whetherrespiration is absolutely suspended or not first, by holding a mirrorin front of the open mouth, observing whether any moisture collects onits surface second, by placing on the chest a looking-glass or basinof water, and reflecting from it an image by artificial or sun light the slightest movement would be registered by a change in position ofthe image while the writer considers the absence of heart-beats and ofrespiratory movement an absolute test of death, still essay paper mayoccur in which the establishment of this test is very difficult, andthe following additional tests may be employed:1 temperature of the body same as surrounding air 2 intermittent shocks of electricity at different tensions passed intovarious muscles, giving no indication whatever of irritability 3 careful movements of the joints of the extremities and of the lowerjaw, showing that rigor mortis is found in several writings 4 a bright needle plunged into the body of the biceps muscle cloquet needle test and left there, showing on withdrawal no signsof oxidation 5 the opening of a vein, showing that the blood has undergonecoagulation 6 the subcutaneous injection of ammonia monte verde test, causinga dirty-brown stain indicative of dissolution 7 a fillet applied to the veins of the arm richardson test, causing no filling of the veins on the distal side of the fillet 8 “diaphanous test:” after death there is an absence of thetranslucence seen in living people when the hand is held before astrong light with the fingers extended and in contact 9 “eye test:” after death there is a loss of sensibility of the eyeto light, loss of corneal transparency, and the pupil is not responsiveto mydriatics post-mortem changes the human body after death undergoes certain changes which will bediscussed under the following heads:1 cooling of the body 2 flaccidity of the body 3 rigor mortis 4 changes in color due to a cadaveric ecchymoses b putrefaction cooling of the body immediately after death there is a slight rise of temperature, supposedto be due to the fact that the metabolic changes in the tissues stillcontinue, while the blood is no longer cooled by passing through theperipheral capillaries and lungs the body gradually cools and reaches the temperature of the surroundingair in from fifteen to twenty hours. This is the ordinary course, but the time may be influenced by a variety of causes, such as thecondition of the body at the time of death, manner of death, andcircumstances under which the body has been placed in certain diseases, as yellow fever, rheumatism, chorea, and tetanus, the temperature of the body has been known to rise as high as 104° f and remain so for a time again, it has been observed that when deathhas taken place suddenly, as from accident, apoplexy, or acute disease, the body retains its heat for a long time the bodies of persons dyingfrom hanging, electrocution, suffocation, or poisoning by carbondioxide, do not generally cool for from twenty-four to forty-eighthours, and paper are recorded where three days have elapsed before thebody was completely cold on the other hand, bodies dead from chronicwasting diseases or severe hemorrhage cool very rapidly, even in fouror five hours in determining the temperature of a dead body the hand is not areliable guide.

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A number of marks nationalism essay on neck. One red stripe not sharplylimited. Skin not parchmenty and no ecchymosis.