History

My Responsibility To America Essay


Hon wm a my responsibility to america essay poste. Edward s wood, m d. e v stoddard, m d. Hon goodwin brown. J c cameron, m d. E d fisher, m d. H p loomis, m d. Roswell park, m d. Irving c rosse, m d. f p vandenbergh, m d.

To the my responsibility to america essay beeswax is added oil of eucalyptus, u s p , 2 percent , and betanaphthol, u s p , 0 25 per cent the manufacturerfurther states that the myricyl palmitate is a purified form ofbeeswax, free from all impurities, acids, etc , which is solelymanufactured by this company and for which patents are pending theproperties described for “cerelene” were as follows. When cold, cerelene is a solid wax-like cake of a fine yellow brown color on exposure to air for long periods, the amber color darkens to essay extent it is entirely free from solids, odorless and tasteless. Does not separate or change when melted repeatedly, and cannot in the melted state be separated by fractional crystallization it is entirely neutral to indicators being perfectly free from both acids and bases tests. Melting point, u s p method, 126 f density, u s p method, 0 907 iodin value, 0 5 saponification number, 0 9 “stanolind surgical wax” is manufactured by the standard oil company ofindiana in the submission of the product to the council on pharmacyand chemistry, it was stated that the product was a specially preparedparaffin “free from dirt or other deleterious matter it hasbeen steamed and resteamed to drive out any free oil and repeatedlyfiltered ”the examination of the foregoing products yielded the figures describedin table “b ”-- from the journal a m a , may 19, 1917 the stability of iodine ointments l e warren, ph c , b s in general, the literature on the keeping qualities of iodine ointment, and on the stability of iodine if mixed with ointment bases, isconfusing the recorded evidence is often contradictory the attentionof the writer was brought to this condition by studies of severalproprietary preparations, iodex, 184 iod-izd-oil, 185 iocamfen, andiocamfen ointment 186184 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 89 185 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 106 186 rep chem lab , a m a , 1916, 9, 118 iodex was sold under the claim that it is “ an embodiment of vaporized iodine, in an organic base, reduced and standardized at 5 per cent by incorporation with a refined petroleum product ”the exact composition of iodex is a trade secret analysis showed thatit contains petrolatum-like substances and combined iodine, the latterprobably in combination with oleic acid tests for free iodine weremade in five specimens of iodex in one of these no free iodine waspresent. In the others the merest traces were found two years ago a preparation called “iod-izd-oil” was examined this wasclaimed to contain 2 per cent of free iodine in liquid petrolatum at the time of the examination the age of the preparation was notknown, but it had been obtained just prior to the analysis, and wasthought not to be very old the analysis showed that it contained butabout 0 43 per cent of iodine, all of which was in a free state thefact that all of the iodine present was in the free state appearedto indicate that iodine is relatively stable in liquid petrolatumsolutions iocamfen is a liquid composed of iodine, camphor and phenol it wasclaimed to contain 10 per cent of free iodine analysis showed thatit contained 9 3 per cent of total iodine of which 7 5 per cent was present in an uncombined state, 66 1 per cent of camphor and19 7 per cent of phenol after storing for several months a secondassay of iocamfen showed no appreciable loss in iodine content this would indicate that iodine is relatively stable in presenceof phenol and camphor, although immediately after mixing there isessay loss of free iodine the iocamfen ointment was supposed tocontain 50 per cent of iocamfen equivalent to 5 per cent of freeiodine in a lard-wax-cacaobutter base the analysis showed that theointment contained but 0 4 per cent of free iodine, the balancebeing in combination from the results of the examination, and fromcorrespondence with the manufacturers schering and glatz, it becameevident that the only plausible explanation for the loss of free iodinein the preparation of iocamfen ointment from iocamfen lay in thecombination of the free iodine with the ingredients of the ointmentbase it seems likely that the free iodine originally present iniocamfen for the most writing had gradually gone into combination with thefatty substances after the ointment had been prepared the literature was then examined to determine the consensus of opinionconcerning the stability of iodine in iodine ointment in the olderliterature the belief that iodine ointment is unstable appears to bequite general such statements as the following are typical. The ointment should be prepared only when wanted for use, for it undergoes change if kept, losing its deep, orange-brown color, and becoming pale upon its surface 187 187 u s disp , ed 19, p 1315 it is better to prepare it only as it is required for use 188 188 am disp , ed 2, p 2022 this ointment must not be dispensed unless it has recently been prepared 189 189 u s pharmacopeia, ix, p 481 in 1909 lythgoe, 190 of the massachusetts board of health laboratory, reported an examination of four samples of iodine ointment three werefound to be pure, the fourth was low in iodine experiments showedthat iodine ointment deteriorates rapidly. Consequently, no furthercollections of samples were made 190 rep mass bd health, 1909, 41, 477 in 1912 pullen191 reported that he had prepared two specimens ofiodine ointment according to the british pharmacopeia, one beingfrom new lard and the other from a specimen of lard at least 2 yearsold assays for free iodine were carried out immediately after thepreparations were made, and at intervals afterward up to four months the following values were found:191 pharm jour , 1912, 89, 610 sample i sample ii ointment from ointment from new lard, old lard, per cent per cent iodine introduced 4 0 4 0 iodine found immediately after making 3 95 3 38 iodine found after twenty-four hours 3 30 3 15 iodine found on the third day 3 18 2 62 iodine found on the seventh day 3 15 2 46 iodine found on the fourteenth day 3 00 2 45 iodine found after one month 3 00 2 39 iodine found after two months 2 90 2 31 iodine found after four months 2 92 2 26pullen found that the loss in free iodine could be accounted for by theiodine which had gone into combination with the fats of the ointmentbase pullen also found that if the potassium iodide and glycerin wereomitted in the preparation of the ointment, the loss in free iodinewas very rapid, the preparation containing practically no free iodine only 1/20 after a few hours he concludes that the use of potassiumiodide and glycerin is necessary for the preservation of the ointment he obtained specimens of iodine ointment in drug stores, and assayedthem for free iodine it is to be presumed that the ages of the severalspecimens were not known the results are found in the following table. Specimen no 1 2 74 per cent specimen no 2 2 85 per cent specimen no 3 2 62 per cent specimen no 4 2 48 per cent specimen no 5 2 53 per cent specimen no 6 2 79 per cent fried192 prepared iodine ointment according to the u s p viiiformula, and assayed it at intervals his results are tabulatedherewith:192 pharm jour , 1912, 89, 610 per cent iodine introduced 4 00 iodine found immediately after making 3 89 iodine found one hour after making 3 51 iodine found one day after making 3 48 iodine found five days after making 3 06 iodine found ten days after making 2 84 iodine found thirty days after making 2 81 iodine found ninety days after making 2 81 iodine found eight months after making 2 81iodine ointment has been official in the u s pharmacopeia since 1870 briefly, the method now used for making the preparation is as follows. Four gm of iodine, 4 gm of potassium iodide and 12 gm of glycerin are weighed into a tared mortar and the mixture triturated until the iodine and potassium iodide are dissolved and a dark, reddish-brown, syrupy liquid is produced eighty gm of benzoinated lard are then added in small portions and with trituration after each addition the mass is then triturated until of uniform consistence 193193 the time required to complete the process after the initialportion of lard has been added should be about twenty minutes paraffins and paraffin preparations-- table a key. A. Formula b. Substance c. Melting point, u s p d. Ductility limit e. Plasticity limit f. a adhesiveness and detachability b strength of film at 38 c a b c d e f 1 “parowax, ” 50 8 32 5 29 0 a adheres and stand oil co of ind detaches well.

Theleaves remain a long time, before any stalk appears, afterwards risingup a reasonable big stalk, three or four feet high, and bravely deckedwith flowers from the middle of the stalk upwards. For on the lowerwriting of the stalk, there is neither branches nor leaf the flowers arehooded and gaping, being white in colour, and standing in brownishhusk, with a long small undivided leaf under each leaf. They seldomseed in our country its roots are thesis, great and thick, blackishwithout and whitish within, full of a clammy sap. A piece of them ifyou set it in the garden, and defend it from the first winter cold willgrow and flourish place they are only nursed in the gardens in england, where theywill grow very well time it flowers in june and july government and virtues it is an excellent plant under the dominionof the moon. I could wish such as are studious would labour to keepit in their gardens the leaves being boiled and used in clysters, isexcellent good to mollify the belly, and make the passage slippery thedecoction drank inwardly, is excellent and good for the bloody-flux;the leaves being bruised, or rather boiled and applied like a poulticeare excellent good to unite broken bones and strengthen joints thathave been put out the decoction of either leaves or roots being drank, and the decoction of leaves applied to the place, is excellent goodfor the king evil that is broken and runs. For by the influence ofthe moon, it revives the ends of the veins which are relaxed there isscarce a better remedy to be applied to such places as are burnt withfire than this is, for it fetches out the fire, and heals it without ascar this is an excellent remedy for such as are bursten, being eithertaken inwardly, or applied to the place in like manner used, it helpsthe cramp and the gout it is excellently good in hectic fevers, andrestores radical moisture to such as are in consumptions briony, or wild vine it is called wild, and wood vine, tamus, or ladies’ seal the white iscalled white vine by essay. And the black, black vine descript the common white briony grows ramping upon the hedges, sending forth thesis long, rough, very tender branches at the beginning, with thesis very rough, and broad leaves thereon, cut for the most writinginto five writingitions, in form very like a vine leaf, but smaller, rough, and of a whitish hoary green colour, spreading very far, spreading and twining with his small claspers that come forth at thejoints with the leaves very far on whatsoever stands next to it atthe several joints also especially towards the top of the branchescomes forth a long stalk bearing thesis whitish flowers together on along tuft, consisting of five small leaves a-piece, laid open like astar, after which come the berries separated one from another, morethan a cluster of grapes, green at the first, and very red when theyare thorough ripe, of no good scent, but of a most loathessay tasteprovokes vomit the root grows to be exceeding great, with thesis longtwines or branches going from it, of a pale whitish colour on theoutside, and more white within, and of a sharp, bitter, loathessay taste place it grows on banks, or under hedges, through this land. Theroots lie very deep time it flowers in july and august, essay earlier, and essay laterthan the other government and virtues they are furious martial plants the rootof briony purges the belly with great violence, troubling the stomachand burning the liver, and therefore not rashly to be taken. But beingcorrected, is very profitable for the diseases of the head, as fallingsickness, giddiness, and swimmings, by drawing away much phlegm andrheumatic humours that oppress the head, as also the joints and sinews;and is therefore good for palsies, convulsions, cramps, and stitchesin the sides, and the dropsy, and for provoking urine. It cleanses thereins and kidneys from gravel and stone, by opening the obstructionsof the spleen, and consume the hardness and swelling thereof thedecoction of the root in wine, drank once a week at going to bed, cleanses the mother, and helps the rising thereof, expels the deadchild. A dram of the root in powder taken in white wine, brings downtheir courses an electuary made of the roots and honey, doth mightilycleanse the chest of rotten phlegm, and wonderfully help any old strongcough, to those that are troubled with shortness of breath, and is goodfor them that are bruised inwardly, to help to expel the clotted orcongealed blood the leaves, fruit, and root do cleanse old and filthysores, are good against all fretting and running cankers, gangrenes, and tetters and therefore the berries are by essay country people calledtetter-berries the root cleanses the skin wonderfully from all blackand blue spots, freckles, morphew, leprosy, foul scars, or otherdeformity whatsoever. Also all running scabs and manginess are healedby the powder of the dried root, or the juice thereof, but especiallyby the fine white hardened juice the distilled water of the rootworks the same effects, but more weakly.

The root isvery full of threads or strings the red blite is in all things like the white but that its leaves andtufted heads are exceeding red at first, and after turn more purple there are other kinds of blites which grow different from the twoformer sorts but little, but only the wild are smaller in every writing place they grow in gardens, and wild my responsibility to america essay in thesis places in this land time they seed in august and september government and virtues they are all of them cooling, drying, andbinding, serving to restrain the fluxes of blood in either man orwoman, especially the red. Which also stays the overflowing of thewomen reds, as the white blites stays the whites in women it is anexcellent secret. You cannot well fail in the use they are all underthe dominion of venus there is another sort of wild blites like the other wild kinds, buthave long and spiky heads of greenish seeds, seeming by the thicksetting together to be all seed this sort the fishers are delighted with, and it is good and usualbait. For fishes will bite fast enough at them, if you have wit enoughto catch them when they bite borage and bugloss these are so well known to the inhabitants in every garden that i holdit needless to describe them to these i may add a third sort, which is not so common, nor yet sowell known, and therefore i shall give you its name and description it is called langue de bœuf. But why then should they call one herbby the name of bugloss, and another by the name langue de bœuf?. it isessay question to me, seeing one signifies ox-tongue in greek, and theother signifies the same in french descript the leaves whereof are smaller than those of bugloss butmuch rougher. The stalks rising up about a foot and a half high, and ismost commonly of a red colour. The flowers stand in scaly round heads, being composed of thesis small yellow flowers not much unlike to thoseof dandelion, and the seed flieth away in down as that doth. You mayeasily know the flowers by their taste, for they are very bitter place it grows wild in thesis places of this land, and may beplentifully found near london, as between rotherhithe and deptford, bythe ditch side its virtues are held to be the same with borage andbugloss, only this is essaywhat hotter time they flower in june and july, and the seed is ripe shortlyafter government and virtues they are all three herbs of jupiter andunder leo, all great cordials, and great strengtheners of nature the leaves and roots are to very good purpose used in putrid andpestilential fevers, to defend the heart, and help to resist and expelthe poison, or the venom of other creatures. The seed is of the likeeffect. And the seed and leaves are good to increase milk in womenbreasts. The leaves, flowers, and seed, all or any of them, are good toexpel pensiveness and melancholy. It helps to clarify the blood, andmitigate heat in fevers the juice made into a syrup prevails much toall the purposes aforesaid, and is put, with other cooling, opening andcleansing herbs to open obstructions, and help the yellow jaundice, andmixed with fumitory, to cool, cleanse, and temper the blood thereby;it helps the itch, ringworms and tetters, or other spreading scabs orsores the flowers candied or made into a conserve, are helpful in theformer paper, but are chiefly used as a cordial, and are good for thosethat are weak in long sickness, and to comfort the heart and spiritsof those that are in a consumption, or troubled with often swoonings, or passions of the heart the distilled water is no less effectual toall the purposes aforesaid, and helps the redness and inflammations ofthe eyes, being washed therewith. The herb dried is never used, butthe green. Yet the ashes thereof boiled in mead, or honied water, isavailable against the inflammations and ulcers in the mouth or throat, to gargle it therewith. The roots of bugloss are effectual, being madeinto a licking electuary for the cough, and to condensate thick phlegm, and the rheumatic distillations upon the lungs blue-bottle it is called syanus, i suppose from the colour of it. Hurt-sickle, because it turns the edge of the sickles that reap the corn. Blue-blow, corn-flower, and blue-bottle descript i shall only describe that which is commonest, and inmy opinion most useful.

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The distilled water is effectual to drink in pestilentialfevers, and to wash the sores you see here what virtues this common herb hath, and that is thereason the french and dutch so often eat them in the spring my responsibility to america essay. And nowif you look a little farther, you may see plainly without a pair ofspectacles, that foreign physicians are not so selfish as ours are, butmore communicative of the virtues of plants to people darnel it is called jam and wray. In sussex they call it crop, it being apestilent enemy among corn descript this has all the winter long sundry long, flat, and roughleaves, which, when the stalk rises, which is slender and jointed, arenarrower, but rough still. On the top grows a long spike, composed ofthesis heads set one above another, containing two or three husks, witha sharp but short beard of awns at the end. The seed is easily shakenout of the ear, the husk itself being essaywhat rough place the country husbandmen do know this too well to grow amongtheir corn, or in the borders and pathways of the other fields that arefallow government and virtues it is a malicious writing of sullen saturn asit is not without essay vices, so hath it also thesis virtues the mealof darnel is very good to stay gangrenes, and other such like frettingand eating cankers, and putrid sores. It also cleanses the skin of allleprosies, morphews, ringworms, and the like, if it be used with saltand raddish roots and being used with quick brimstone and vinegar, it dissolves knots and kernels, and breaks those that are hard to bedissolved, being boiled in wine with pigeon dung and linseed. Adecoction thereof made with water and honey, and the places bathedtherewith, is profitable for the sciatica darnel meal applied in apoultice draws forth splinters and broken bones in the flesh. The reddarnel, boiled in red wine and taken, stays the lask and all otherfluxes, and women bloody issues. And restrains urine that passes awaytoo suddenly dill descript the common dill grows up with seldom more than one stalk, neither so high, nor so great usually as fennel, being round and fewerjoints thereon, whose leaves are sadder, and essaywhat long, and so likefennel that it deceives thesis, but harder in handling, and essaywhatthicker, and of a strong unpleasant scent. The tops of the stalks havefour branches and smaller umbels of yellow flowers, which turn intosmall seed, essaywhat flatter and thinner than fennel seed the root isessaywhat small and woody, perishes every year after it hath borne seed:and is also unprofitable, being never put to any use place it is most usually sown in gardens and grounds for thepurpose, and is also found wild in thesis places government and virtues mercury has the dominion of this plant, andtherefore to be sure it strengthens the brain the dill being boiledand drank, is good to ease swellings and pains. It also stays the bellyand stomach from casting the decoction therefore helps women thatare troubled with the pains and windiness of the mother, if they sittherein it stays the hiccough, being boiled in wine, and but smelledunto being tied in a cloth the seed is of more use than the leaves, and more effectual to digest raw and vicious humours, and is used inmedicines that serve to expel wind, and the pains proceeding therefrom the seed, being roasted or fried, and used in oils or plasters, dissolve the imposthumes in the fundament. And dries up all moistulcers, especially in the fundament.