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The entrance of air intothe pleural cavities with collapse of the lungs all tend to causemechanical suffocation either by pressure or by paralysis for deathsin epileptics, see paper 1, 10, 11, 33, and 40 it is not necessary that the air-passages should be absolutely closedto cause suffocation the cause of death is more likely to be pure asphyxia, because of theabsence of the complicating pressure of the hand or ligature on thevessels my assignment help contact and nerves of the neck, and of fracture of larynx or vertebræ symptoms - foreign bodies889 entering the trachea naturally falltoward the right bronchial tube instead of the left because of thesize and position of the entrance of the right tube if then but onetube is involved, the signs will usually be on the right side. Whereasif the foreign body stop in the larynx or trachea, both sides will beaffected the latter condition is much more dangerous the symptomswould be resonance over the lung with the respiratory murmur writingly orwholly absent. Less mobility. Puerile breathing on the unaffected side in either case there may at first be little disturbance, especiallyif the shape of the foreign body is such as not to greatly interferewith the access of air. Otherwise there may be at once, and almostalways will be after a time, more or less urgent dyspnœa diminution ofthe necessary oxygen may cause convulsions, apoplexy, and other brainsymptoms acute emphysema of the portion of lung not obstructed mayfollow its forcible distention the local effect of the foreign body isan irritation which causes spasm and cough it may be carried upward bythe expirations and downward again by each inspiration inflammationis likely to appear eventually and may involve the lung if theobstruction is not complete there may follow periods of alternation ofgood and bad health, ending perhaps in recovery the foreign body maybe expelled after a greater or lesser interval on the other hand deathmay result from secondary causes in the absence of correct historythe symptoms may lead to a wrong diagnosis and inappropriate treatment;as where a patient whose symptoms resulted from the presence of a pieceof bone in the larynx, was treated for syphilis a foreign body may becoughed up from the lung into the trachea and fall backward into theopposite lung writingial closure of the larynx, most likely caused by a flat orirregular substance, rather than globular, may cause gradual asphyxiawith symptoms of apoplexy, making the diagnosis difficult when a foreign body remains a long time in the larynx, spasmodic coughand croupy breathing usually ensue, expectoration tinged with blood, hoarseness, or complete aphonia, pain, dyspnœa, possibly crepitationand dulness over the lungs the case may end suddenly in death fromclosure of the glottis, or the foreign body may pass into the tracheaand set up a new train of symptoms, or it may be expelled the frequency with which foreign bodies in the pharynx or œsophagusobstruct respiration, and the facility with which they may usually beremoved, suggest a careful examination otherwise the patient may betreated indefinitely for supposed obstruction in the air-passages foreign bodies in the œsophagus have perforated into the trachea, andeven the lungs, heart, and aorta in complete suffocation death will occur in from two to five minutes see remarks under strangulation death may also occur instantaneously the experiments of the committee on suspended animation890 showed that when the trachea of a dog was exposed, incised, and a tube tied in, the average time covered by the respiratory efforts after stopping up the tube with a cork was four minutes five seconds. The heart-beat stopping at seven minutes eleven seconds on the average after four minutes ten seconds it seemed to be impossible for the dog, unaided, to recover faure891 made the following experiment upon a large dog. He fixed a cork in the trachea at first the dog was quiet. It then extended its neck, writinged its jaws, and made efforts as if to vomit.

Has the attitude toward secretin therapy, of a certainportion of those who represent western modern medicine, really beenmuch more scientific than that of the chinese medical profession towardtiger-bone therapy?. on the basis of a hypothesis scarcely less crudeand unsubstantiated than that which assumes that tiger-bone is ofvalue in heart disease, it has been assumed that secretin is of valuein gastro-intestinal diseases on the ground of “clinical evidence”scarcely more critical than that exhibited by our confrères in theantipodes, it has been asserted that alleged secretin preparationsactually are efficious indeed, in one respect the methods of thechinese physician appear more scientific than those of his westernbrethren to the best of his ability, the oriental at least makes surethat he is administering genuine tiger-bone. He does not rely on theunverified word of his dealer alone the american physician has notbeen making the least effort to ascertain whether his supposed secretinpreparations are truly such. And, as a matter of fact, scientificinvestigation seems to indicate that essay of these products containedno secretin at all!. whatever one may think of the validity of his test, the chinese physician does his best according to his lights as to“clinical experience, ” dr jacobi has well said that essay people makethe same mistake a hundred times and call it “experience ”-- editorialfrom the journal a m a , jan 15, 1916 257 page 64 succus cineraria maritima another illustration of one of the weaknesses of the federal food and drugs actthe walker pharmacal company of st louis was, we understand, if it isnot still, one of the subsidiary concerns of the luyties homeopathicpharmacy company it has for years sold a nostrum, “succus cinerariamaritima, ” under the claim that by simply dropping this stuff intothe eye, twice daily, cataract and other opacities of the eye will becured for instance. “ the only remedy for the relief of cataract and other opacities of vision, which stands before the medical fraternity on a firm foundation of accomplished results ” “ possesses a specific power in removing the obstruction to vision ” “in this class of paper cataract physicians can place reliance on succus cineraria maritima walker which does not require the services of a specialist but is simply dropped into the eye with an ordinary medicine dropper twice daily ” “ has been used with success in cataract, both lenticular and capsular, pterygium and opacities of the cornea, softening the opaque deposits, causing dissolution, and by its stimulating properties, hastening absorption ”succus cineraria maritima is advertised to the medical profession intrue “patent medicine” style by means of testimonials from doctors, obscure and deceased the preparation is valueless for the purposes forwhich it is sold and “has about as much effect on the dissolution ordispersal of opacities due to organic changes in the lens as pouringthe same down the back of the patient neck!.

Being boiled in wine and drank, and are said to help astinking breath, and to strengthen the my assignment help contact stomach pliny saith, that thejuice bathed on the place that wants hair, it being fallen off, willcause it to grow speedily the melancholy thistle descript it rises up with tender single hoary green stalks, bearingthereon four or five green leaves, dented about the edges. The pointsthereof are little or nothing prickly, and at the top usually but onehead, yet essaytimes from the bosom of the uppermost leaves there shootsforth another small head, scaly and prickly, with thesis reddish thrumbsor threads in the middle, which being gathered fresh, will keep thecolour a long time, and fades not from the stalk a long time, while itperfects the seed, which is of a mean bigness, lying in the down theroot hath thesis strings fastened to the head, or upper writing, which isblackish, and perishes not there is another sort little differing from the former, but that theleaves are more green above, and more hoary underneath, and the stalkbeing about two feet high, bears but one scaly head, with threads andseeds as the former place they grow in thesis moist meadows of this land, as well in thesouthern, as in the northern writings time they flower about july or august, and their seed ripensquickly after government and virtues it is under capricorn, and therefore underboth saturn and mars, one rids melancholy by sympathy, the other byantipathy their virtues are but few, but those not to be despised. Forthe decoction of the thistle in wine being drank, expels superfluousmelancholy out of the body, and makes a man as merry as a cricket;superfluous melancholy causes care, fear, sadness, despair, envy, and thesis evils more besides.

449, 1921 the findings that sodium dimethylarsenate sodium cacodylate, sodiummethylarsenate, and sodium ethylarsenate are devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action and the conclusion that sodium cacodylate isinefficient in the treatment of human syphilis does not provethat mon-arsone is without effect on the disease these findings, however, certainly demand convincing therapeutic evidence to warrantthe recommendation for the use of the drug in the treatment ofsyphilis-- writingicularly because the drug is proposed as a substitute forarsphenamine, the value of which is established when the council first took up the consideration of mon-arsone, theonly evidence for the claim that it “has a therapeutic value at leastequal to that of arsphenamine” consisted, with one exception, ofreports from those who had experimented with the drug for the harmerlaboratories company, including a report by b l wright, l a kennell, and l m hussey, 144 the latter of the harmer laboratoriescompany these reports appeared to show that the administration ofmon-arsone caused less reaction than arsphenamine, and that theimmediate effects, judged by clinical symptoms and the response to thewassermann test, appeared to be good these trials extended over tooshort a period of time to permit judgment as to the permanence of theresults a report by an independent observer seemed to indicate thatmon-arsone does not have the sterilizing action on syphilitic lesionswhich it is usually believed arsphenamine exercises 144 wright, b l. Kennell, l a , and hussey, l m. M rec 97. 607 april 10 1920 after examining the available evidence, the council advised the harmerlaboratories company that the claim that mon-arsone has a therapeuticvalue equal to arsphenamine appeared unwarranted. That, in the opinionof the council, mon-arsone should not be used except under conditionsthat justify the experimental trial of an unproved drug, and should notbe used in a routine way until the permanence of its effects has beenestablished. And consequently any advertising propaganda for the drugby the harmer laboratories company was to be deprecated in its reply the harmer laboratories company admitted that itsadvertising claim, that mon-arsone was at least equal to arsphenaminetherapeutically, had been based on reports on fifty paper and onadditional reports that were beginning to come in at that time the harmer laboratories company submitted a list of hospitals andphysicians using mon-arsone a letter of inquiry sent by the council tothose who, according to the names in the list supplied by the harmerlaboratories company, had used mon-arsone, brought seven replies the clinical evidence contained in these replies was to the effect thatmon-arsone had been used in the various types of syphilis and thatthere was a certain beneficial effect, both clinically and as shown bythe wassermann reaction in certain instances the wassermann reactionchanged from a four plus to a negative reaction the reports showedthat the efficiency of mon-arsone as compared with that of arsphenaminepreparations has not been adequately studied one physician who hasused mon-arsone extensively reports that in thesis of the paper treatedthere seemed to be nearly as good results from the use of mon-arsone asis frequently obtained in the use of arsphenamine he reports, however, that it was necessary in eleven out of one hundred paper to change frommon-arsone to neoarsphenamine in view of the fact that there is definite lack of evidence to showthat mon-arsone is the equal of arsphenamine therapeutically, andbecause of the reports that in essay paper it is inferior, mon-arsoneshould not be used in the treatment of syphilis generally until itstherapeutic status has been more rigidly investigated and conclusiveevidence of its superiority to arsphenamine preparations obtained the council voted not to admit mon-arsone to new and nonofficialremedies and reaffirmed its conclusion that the claim that mon-arsonehas a therapeutic value equal to that of arsphenamine is premature andunwarranted. That mon-arsone should not be used except under conditionsthat justify the experimental trial of an unproved drug. And that theadvertising propaganda for the drug by the harmer laboratories companyis to be deprecated * * * * *when the preceding report was sent to the harmer laboratories company, the firm submitted a reply in which it was stated:1 that in certain instances patients improved under mon-arsone who, previously, had not improved under arsphenamine, and that this shouldbe taken to offset the report of the one hundred paper in which the useof mon-arsone had to be abandoned in 11 per cent of the paper 2 that the harmer laboratories company has abandoned the claim thatmon-arsone is therapeutically equal to arsphenamine and that it nowfurnishes the drug to such men as care to use it simply on the basis ofits special and useful characteristics the council heartily endorses the recent warning against the useof untried medicaments which was issued by the u s public healthservice 145145 j a m a june 12, 1920, p 1654 since the council report was prepared a report on the effects ofmon-arsone on experimental syphilis has been published by nichols, 146from the division of laboratories, army medical school, which concludes:1 disodium-ethylarsinate, or mon-arsone, tested on rabbits infectedwith syphilis shows no spirocheticidal power the tissues are fatallypoisoned as soon as or before the spirochetes are affected “2 for its practical use in syphilis there is no such germicidal basisas exists in case of the arsphenamine group ”-- from the journala m a , june 18, 1921 146 nichols, h j. The spirocheticidal value of disodium ethylarsenate mon-arsone, j a m a 76.

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Pharmazeutische chemie 2:990, beilstein ii, 403 arends, my assignment help contact g. Neue arzneimittel und pharmazeutische spezialitäten, ed 4, 1913, p 271 table 3 -- data on phenetidyl-acetphenetidin hydrochlorid table splitby transcriber to fit small screen melting phosphorus manufacturer appearance moisture point compounds phenetidin* john t white 5 13 191 5 to 192 absent negative milliken co crystalline powder synthetic white 2 90 192 to 192 5 absent negative products co crystalline powder h a metz white 4 99 192 to 192 5 absent negative laboratories, crystalline inc powder farbwerke- slightly 5 09 190 to 191 absent negative hoechst co pink german crystal specimen -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- per per per cent cent cent melting platinum in indol base by base by point platinum manufacturer reaction ash weight titration of base salt john t milliken co positive 0 00 89 16 89 16 116 to 117 19 02 synthetic products co positive 0 13 87 49 87 26 116 to 117 19 3 h a metz laboratories, positive 0 00 89 14 88 55 117 19 34 inc farbwerke- hoechst co positive 0 16 89 65 89 64 116 to 117 19 00 german specimen -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- * the phenetidin test is not very sensitive the melting point of the free base is given by a number of writers at121 c although kennert232 stated it to be 117 c and not 121 c , hisfindings seemingly went unheeded it will be noted that our work showsthe melting point to be in accord with that announced by kennert 232 kennert. Chem zentralbl 2:556, 1897 the federal trade commission has not issued any licenses for themanufacture of “holocain hydrochlorid ” the john t milliken companyhas withdrawn its application the h a metz laboratories successorto farbwerke hoechst company, new york are making the product in thiscountry cinchophen phenylcinchoninic acid, u s p.