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Mla Style Essay


Withtheir double weight of honey clarified in white wine, make them into anelectuary according to art culpeper authors say it purges hot rheums, and takes awayinflammations in wounds, i assure you the electuary works violently, and may safely be given in clysters, and so you may give two or threedrams at a time, if the patient be strong for taken otherwise it wouldkill a horse mla style essay cum privilegio cassia extracta pro clysteribus or cassia extracted for clysters college take of the leaves of violets, mallows, beets, mercury, pellitory of the wall, violet flowers, of each a handful, boil them ina sufficient quantity of water, the benefit of which let the cassia beextracted, and the canes washed. Then take of this cassia so drawn, andboil it to its consistence, a pound, sugar a pound and a half, boilthem to the form of an electuary according to art culpeper you may take it in white wine, it is good for gentlebodies, for if your body be hard to work upon, perhaps it will notwork at all. It purges the reins gallantly, and cools them, therebypreventing the stone, and other diseases caused by their heat electuarium amarum magistrale majus or the greater bitter electuary college take of agarick, turbith, species hiera simplex, rhubarb, of each one dram, choice aloes unwashed two drams, ginger, crystal oftartar, of each two scruples, orris, florentine, sweet fennel seeds, of each a scruple, syrup of roses solutive as much as is sufficient tomake it into an electuary according to art electuarium amarum minus or the lesser bitter electuary college take of epithimum half an ounce, the roots of angelicathree drams, of gentian, zedoary, acorus, of each two drams, cinnamonone dram and an half, cloves, mace, nutmegs, saffron, of each one dram, aloes six ounces, with syrup of fumitory, scabious and sugar so much asis sufficient to make it into a soft electuary culpeper both these purge choler, the former flegm, and thismelancholy, the former works strongest, and this strengthens most, andis good for such whose brains are annoyed you may take half an ounceof the former, if your body be any thing strong, in white wine, if verystrong an ounce, a reasonable body may take an ounce of the latter, the weak less i would not have the unskilful too busy about purgeswithout advice of a physician diacassia with manna college take of damask prunes two ounces, violet flowers a handfuland an half, spring water a pound and an half, boil it according to arttill half be consumed, strain it, and dissolve in the decoction sixounces of cassia newly drawn, sugar of violets, syrup of violets, ofeach four ounces, pulp of tamarinds an ounce, sugar candy an ounce andan half, manna two ounces, mix them, and make them into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it is a fine cool purge for such as are bound in the body, for it works gently, and without trouble, it purges choler, and maysafely be given in fevers coming of choler. But in such paper, if thebody be much bound, the best way is first to administer a clyster, andthen the next morning an ounce of this will cool the body, and keep itin due temper cassia extracta sine soliis senæ or cassia extracted without the leaves of sena college take twelve prunes, violet flowers a handful, frenchbarley, the seed of annis, and bastard saffron, polypodium of the oak, of each five drams, maiden-hair, thyme, epithimum, of each half ahandful, raisins of the sun stoned half an ounce, sweet fennel seedstwo drams, the seeds of purslain, and mallows, of each three drams, liquorice half an ounce, boil them in a sufficient quantity of water, strain them and dissolve in the decoction, pulp of cassia two pounds, of tamarinds an ounce, cinnamon three drams, sugar a pound, boil itinto the form of an electuary cassia extracta cum soliis senæ or cassia extracted with the leaves of sena college take of the former receipt two pounds, sena in powder twoounces, mix them according to art culpeper this is also a fine cool gentle purge, cleansing thebowels of choler and melancholy without any griping, very fit forfeverish bodies, and yet the former is gentler than this they bothcleanse and cool the reins. A reasonable body may take an ounce and anhalf of the former, and an ounce of the latter in white wine, if theykeep the house, or their bodies be oppressed with melancholy, let themtake half the quantity in four ounces of decoction of epithimum diacarthamum college take of diatragacanthum frigidum, half an ounce, pulp ofpreserved quinces an ounce, the inside of the seeds of bastard saffronhalf an ounce, ginger two drams, diacrydium beaten by itself threedrams, turbith six drams, manna two ounces, honey of roses solutive, sugar candy, of each an ounce, hermodactils half an ounce, sugar tenounces and an half, make of them a liquid electuary according to art diaphœnicon college take of the pulp of dates boiled in hydromel, penids, ofeach half a pound, sweet almonds blanched, three ounces and an half, toall of them being bruised and mixed, add clarified honey two pounds, boil them a little, and then strew in ginger, long pepper, mace, cinnamon, rue leaves, the seeds of fennel and carrots, of each twodrams, turbith four ounces, diacridium an ounce and an half, make ofthem an electuary according to art culpeper i cannot believe this is so profitable in fevers takendownwards as authors say, for it is a very violent purge diaprunum lenitive college take one hundred damask prunes, boil them in water tillthey be soft, then pulp them, and in the liquor they were boiled in, boil gently one of violet flowers, strain it, and with two pounds ofsugar boil it to a syrup, then add half a pound of the aforesaid pulp, the pulp of cassia, and tamarinds, of each one ounce, then mix with itthese powders following.

The reply contained nothing to permit a revision of theprevious conclusions the council declared brom-i-phos inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , june 30, 1917 creosote-delson and creofos report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycreosote-delson and creofos, or creosote with hypophosphites, were submitted by the delson chemical co , inc , new york city creosote-delson is said to be “beechwood creosote from whichthe irritating and caustic properties are removed by fractionaldistillation ” it is claimed that creofos contains “2 grains ofcreosote-delson and 3-3/5 grains of the combined hypophosphites in eachfluidrachm of the mixture or emulsion, the lime salt predominating ”it is also claimed that “the primary object of the hypophosphites inthis preparation is that of maintaining the refined creosote in apure, unoxidized state, and that no writingicular claim for therapeuticaction on their writing is advanced ” it is explained further, however, “the addition of the lime was prompted by the belief that thefundamental cause of pulmonary tuberculosis is lime starvation ”the assertions are made that creosote-delson is superior to theofficial creosote because it can be taken “abundantly and persistentlywithout harm to or interference with stomach and kidneys” and canbe “taken uninterruptedly and indefinitely, ” while the dosageis “unlimited by any former knowledge of creosote therapy ”creosote-delson is not on the market except in the combination creofos, although it is supplied on request creofos is advised in the treatment of tuberculosis, whooping cough, measles, “grippe and colds, ” bronchitis, asthma, “intestinal affections colitis, summer diarrhoea, etc , ” while its use is suggested for the“prevention of the spread of contagious diseases, ” and for “preventingcontagion in minor contagious diseases at any rate, in schools andfamilies ”the following advertisement has recently appeared in the new yorkmedical journal and in the therapeutic gazette. creofos medication is the successful development of the most advanced practice in the treatment of infectious diseases it destroys completely the causative organisms by a bactericide thesis times more powerful than phenol, yet absolutely harmless to animal life unlike serums, its activity is not confined to any specific disease, and its use insures against sequelae as pneumonia following grippe especially valuable in the treatment of infants and patients of delicate constitution and in paper where time is of importance the delson chemical co was requested to supply information regardingthe identity of creosote-delson and to support the claim that althoughit is “the whole drug” its dosage is “unlimited by any former knowledgeof creosote therapy ” the reply was virtually an admission that thetoxic, caustic, phenolic components of creosote were present increosote-delson just as in the official creosote the referee of the committee on therapeutics in submitting his reportto the council pointed out that it is difficult to discuss thepharmacologic merits of a semisecret preparation, like creosote-delson, claimed to be more acceptable to the human organism than the officialproduct it is intended to supplant, when the action of the parent drugis still questioned or disputed by eminent clinicians absorption experiments have been carried out with creosote and creosotecompounds, such as creosote with hypophosphites or calcium or creosotecarbonate, chiefly by a study of the elimination products in the urine but any evidence so far offered that these combinations increaseabsorption and lessen the irritating, caustic or toxic properties hasbeen wholly inconclusive the evidence offered by the delson chemicalco presented no control experiments with the official creosote and didnot prove that either creosote-delson or creofos was less toxic than acorresponding amount of ordinary beechwood creosote the referee concluded that no proof had been offered that thesepreparations are materially superior to ordinary creosote preparationsfrom the pharmacologic or therapeutic standpoint, and that the claimsmade for creosote-delson and creofos are unwarranted in the light ofour knowledge of the properties of creosote the advertisement quotedabove is an example of unproved and unwarranted claims on the recommendation of the referee, the council declaredcreosote-delson and creofos inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies, for conflict with the rules as follows:creosote-delson. The information so far available is not sufficientto define the nature, or composition, of creosote-delson, or toindicate in how far this product differs, if at all, from theofficial creosote conflict with rule 1 no methods are furnishedfor determining the identity or composition of creosote-delson conflict with rule 2 the available information does not show thatcreosote-delson has advantages over creosote conflict with rule 6 creofos. The composition of creosote-delson not having beenfurnished, the statement concerning the composition of creofos isalso unsatisfactory conflict with rule 1 the therapeutic claimsare unsubstantiated and grossly exaggerated conflict with rule 6 the name is not descriptive of its composition as is required forpharmaceutical mixtures conflict with rule 8 there is no evidencethat hypophosphites prevent decomposition of creosote if thisoccurs hence the inclusion of hypophosphites must be consideredirrational conflict with rule 10 the council report was sent to the delson chemical co forconsideration the firm reply contained nothing to warrant a revisionof the report, and the council voted that creosote-delson and creofoswere inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies and authorized thepublication of this report -- from the journal a m a , july 7, 1917 triner american elixir of bitter wine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytriner american elixir of bitter wine is a wine to which bitter drugsand laxatives have been added though evidently intended for publicconsumption, it is also advertised to physicians, and consequently thecouncil publishes this report essay recent advertisements read. “it acts well and is very palatable these are the reasons why so thesis physicians recommend triner american elixir of bitter wine free from any chemicals prepared from bitter herbs roots and barks of eminent medicinal value and pure natural red wine a safe relief in auto-intoxication, constipation, weakness, etc price $1 00 at drug stores samples gratis upon request only to physicians ” “a laxative tonic in paper of constipation and its sequelæ, autointoxication, weakness and nervousness you should try triner american elixir of bitter wine this preparation consists of cascara sagrada, dandelion, gentian root, with licorice in pure red wine as a base, with aromatics ”triner american elixir of bitter wine is put up in bottles said tohold 1 pint, 5-1/3 fluidounces the label declares the presence of from16 to 18 per cent alcohol by volume, and states that “no special taxis required by the laws of the u s for the sale of this medicinalpreparation ” the circular contains the following recommendations forits use. “ it should be used in all paper calling for a safe evacuation of the bowels, without weakening the body or causing any pain or other discomfort. In loss of appetite, nervousness and weakness ” “triner american elixir of bitter wine consists of two principal ingredients, viz , red wine and medicinal herbs ” “red wine strengthens the intestines and regulates their work it also increases the appetite, stimulates and strengthens the body ” “use triner american elixir of bitter wine always when a thorough cleaning out of the intestines is needed arrange the dose to suit your condition and habits ” “in chronic constipation the dose of triner american elixir of bitter wine should be increased or taken oftener ” “thesis female troubles are caused or aggravated by constipation and ladies should always pay good attention to this fact ”in addition to triner elixir of bitter wine, the circular-- inenglish, polish, russian, spanish and other languages-- advises theuse of triner angelica bitter tonic, triner red pills, trinerliniment and triner cough sedative the composition of this “wine”-- essay bitter drugs, a laxative and atannin-containing, constipating red wine-- and advertising propagandaall tend to the continued use of this alcoholic stimulant and thus tothe unconscious formation of a desire for alcoholic stimulation asthe medical journal advertisements may lead physicians to prescribethis secret and irrational preparation and thus unconsciously lead toalcoholism, the council authorized publication of this report -- fromthe journal a m a , july 14, 1917 trimethol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytrimethol is the trade name for a substance said to betrimethyl-methoxy-phenol of the formula c₆h ch₃₃ och₃ oh-- 1:2:4:5:6, originated by j t ainslie walker it is sold as a nontoxic germicide, having a rideal-walker phenol-coefficient of 40, even in the intestinalcanal it is described as insoluble in water and not to be decomposedin the alimentary tract, and to be excreted unchanged in the feces trimethol itself is not obtainable pharmaceuticalpreparations-- trimethol syrup, trimethol capsules and trimetholtablets, said to contain trimethol-- are prepared by the walker-leeminglaboratories and sold by thos leeming and co , new york trimethol preparations are advertised for use in all conditionsdependent on intestinal putrefaction the advertising claims made arevery extensive and essay of them give to “trimethol” the scope of apanacea for example. “physicians are constantly reporting paper where trimethol has been especially efficient, and describing conditions until recently not associated with intestinal infection which have been distinctly benefited by its use this would seem to bear out the contentions of charcot and metchnikoff that 90% of all human ailments have their origin in intestinal infection “the careful practitioner, when in doubt, will bear this in mind, now that we have a really efficient and non-toxic intestinal germicide-- not a mere antiseptic ”the walker-leeming laboratories have not formally requested the councilto consider the trimethol preparations, though in a personal letter toa member of the council j t ainslie walker invited an investigationof his compound for the investigation of trimethol and its preparation the councilsecured the aid of a bacteriologist who has given much attention tothe study of the intestinal flora the walker-leeming laboratories andj t ainslie walker were both asked to submit details of experimentalstudies and also to furnish a supply of the pure “trimethol ” but theonly data sent that had any definiteness set forth the bacterial countsmade of plate cultures of stools of one patient before and after theadministration of trimethol capsules refuse to furnish trimetholthe request for the pure substance was refused, on the grounds that thesubstance was not used in the undiluted form the failure to furnishthe chemical substance claimed as the essential constituent of thetrimethol preparations is to be deprecated if indeed it has not greatersignificance at least it made it impossible for the council expertto express his results in terms of absolute trimethol of establishedcomposition the data obtained apply only to the market preparationsclaimed to contain trimethol so far as the investigation and reportgo, “trimethol” is a hypothetical substance clinical or animal tests of the asserted intestinal antiseptics havehitherto given equivocal results because it is impossible, on theone hand, to predict the course of any intestinal infection, or, on the other hand, to determine what effect, if any, was producedby administration of the medicament it therefore seemed unwise toundertake this line of investigation until the more direct laboratorybacteriologic methods had been exhausted consequently the investigatorchecked, in the first place, the phenol coefficient of one of thetrimethol preparations and then also determined its “penetrability”coefficient although by both methods trimethol was found to be agermicide, the results did not indicate any remarkable potency or otherproperties suggesting that the drug possessed special therapeuticvalue from the results obtained it appeared inadvisable to proceedfurther with the work until more definite evidence of the nature andof the value of the substance should be at hand the report of thebacteriologic investigation follows. the bacteriologist report“i have made no attempt to study the effects of internal administrationof trimethol on the intestinal flora the methods available at thepresent time of enumerating the numbers of viable bacteria inthe feces are probably not accurate within 100 per cent and theprecision of such determinations is equally variable the physiologicfactors involved are so complex that they would appear to make areally valuable assay a question of thesis months’ careful study ifit were possible to administer known amounts of trimethol, as such, the problem might be worth while.

In 29, he was satisfied that mla style essay the hanging occurred during life in 3 of these the skin of the neck alone showed any lesion. There was a double mark, the skin being otherwise bloodless in 5 the deeper soft writings were the only ones affected in 3 the skin showed lesions, the deeper soft writings none, but either the hyoid bone, larynx, or vertebræ were involved in 12 the skin showed no mark, but the deeper soft writings and either the larynx or hyoid bone were involved. And in 6 the hyoid bone only or the bone and larynx were injured in the remaining paper it was not possible to say that the hanging occurred during life in 2 paper there were no marks at all. In 9 there were changes in the skin. In 4, changes in the skin and deeper writings. In 2, changes in the skin, deeper writings, and hyoid bone or larynx. In 3, changes in the skin and hyoid bone or larynx, or both in 14 of the 50 paper the hyoid bone was fractured. In 20 the larynx. And in 1 the vertebræ the common carotid arteries were injured in 6 the number and severity of the lesions bore no constant relation to the thickness of the ligature, nor to the force used, but rather to the position of the body ecker865 reported a case of suicidal hanging in a man, age 40, where the soft palate was swollen and filled up the passage so that the air evidently could not enter the larynx and the trachea are usually deeply congested, of a redcolor.

Heelsraised. Knees half bent the text says that the knot was nearly underthe right ear, but the illustration shows a different position seefig 22, p 743 23 allison. Lancet, 1869, i , p 636 - three paper of suicide byhanging, in which there was no mark. 1st woman, hung herself with apiece of sheep-net band. Cut down before death 2d man, hung withplough-string. Cut down in about six minutes 3d a heavy man 24 tardieu. Op cit , pp 93-105 - woman, died of coma and asphyxiafrom suicidal hanging, according to report of drs costan and facieu tardieu approved their report it was at first thought a case ofhomicide with subsequent hanging, more especially because of the kindof knot used, nœud d’artificier but tardieu showed that it was alsoa nœud de batalier her feet touched a chair, and her knees werebent there was a neckcloth in front of her mouth, but it did not seemto have interfered with respiration 25 ibid , pp 67-72 - the famous case of marc-antoine calas, whocommitted suicide by hanging see voltaire, “traité sur le tolérance, ”etc , in nouv philos histor , 1772, xxxii , p 30 he hung himselfto a door no sign of violence the city hangman said it was impossiblefor a man to commit suicide in that way the father was accused andconvicted of homicide tardieu shows that the act was a suicide 26 ibid , p 72 - another famous case a woman, age 30, hung herselfto the key of her bedroom door her husband cut her down he wasaccused and convicted of the crime and condemned to prison, where hedied tardieu showed that the case was one of suicide 27 hofmann. Wien med presse, 1880, xxi , p 201 - man, age 68, suicide by hanging there was profuse hemorrhage from both ears 28 ibid. 1878, xix , pp 489-493 - woman, found dead sitting inbed she first tried to poison herself with arsenic, then hung herself 29 ibid - man, tried to poison himself with phosphorus and sulphuricacid, then hung himself there was a transverse rupture of thesterno-cleido mastoid muscle and suffusion in its sheath 30 maschka. Wien med woch , 1880, xxx , pp 714, 747, 1075 - man, age 63 it was at first a question of suicide by hanging or homicide bystrangling he concluded that it was the former 31 ibid - also man, age 58 similar case same opinion 32 ibid 1883, xxxiii , pp 1118-1120 - woman age 23 questionwhether she committed suicide by hanging or was strangled and thenhung opinion, that it was a case of suicide 33 hofmann. Allg wien med zeit , 1870, xv , pp 192-214 - man, age 60 suicide by hanging or homicide. Opinion, that it was the former 34 van haumeder. Wien med woch , 1882, xxxii , pp 531-533 - suicide by hanging or homicide there were thesis wounds inthe head. These occurred during the delirium of typhus 35 maschka. “sammlung gericht gutacht , ” etc prag, leipzig, 1873, p 137 - boy, age 9. Found dead in sitting position injuries on neckand elsewhere question, had he hung himself or been choked?. were theinjuries inflicted before or after death?. opinion, suicide 36 ibid , p 144 - boy, age 13 found hanging in sitting position question whether murder, suicide, or accident opinion, suicide 37 ibid , p 149 - woman, age 60.

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Ztschr f chemotherap , 1914, orig , ii, 188 keysser most important conclusions, however, were obtained byfollowing an altogether different line of procedure it has beenpointed out by carl lewin272 that the therapeutic results obtainedfrom subcutaneous mouse tumors, however encouraging, could not belogically applied to the treatment of human cancers the subcutaneoustransplanted tumors, as is well known, are as a rule limited by adistinct capsule and show no tendency to infiltrative growth in thiswritingicular they present a most striking difference when comparedwith human tumors on the other hand, the metastases of mouse tumorsin the internal organs present an infiltrative mode of growth andthus approximate very much more closely to the human type of tumors keysser, therefore, determined to test the therapeutic effectivenessof his compounds on tumors implanted in various organs he developed atechnic which enabled him to implant tumors in the liver, the spleen, the kidneys and other writings of the mouse by means of injection throughspecial needles, often without the assistance of a cutting operation the tumors so implanted grew rapidly, and within from two tothree weeks reached the size of cherry pits the growth wascharacteristically infiltrative animals with these tumors were thensubmitted to intravenous injection of the therapeutic agents in exactlythe same fashion as the animals carrying subcutaneous tumors theresults, however, were absolutely different whereas the subcutaneoustumors invariably showed a much more intense discoloration than theother tissues of the mouse, this feature was entirely lacking in thecase of the internal tumors softening and liquefaction, which almostinvariably follows on the third or fourth injection in the case ofsubcutaneous tumors, and which is the first symptom of cure, neverpresented itself in the case of the internal tumors their consistencythroughout the treatment was indistinguishable from that of the tumorsof control animals the treatment, in fact, appeared to exercise notthe slightest influence mla style essay on internal tumors there was neither cessationnor retardation in growth, but the tumors continued their normal rateof destructive increase with the production of metastases, leadingeventually to the death of the animal either during the course of thetreatment or shortly thereafter microscopic changes, such as had beenobserved by hansemann in the case of subcutaneous tumors, were entirelylacking no matter in what organ the tumors were implanted, theseresults remained the same no matter what type of tumor was employed, whether carcinoma, adenocarcinoma or sarcoma, the therapeutic outcomewas regularly and consistently nil these results induced keysser to determine whether or noteosin-selenium could actually be shown to exercise a deleteriouseffect on cancer cells outside the body in order to do this he made asuspension of mouse tumor cells in salt solution and mixed this withthe eosin-selenium-vanadium, using the latter in amounts equivalent tothree times the fatal dose for a mouse after the mixture had stoodfrom one to three hours, it was injected either subcutaneously orintravenously into mice in order to test the vitality of the cells in every instance the injections resulted in the production of tumorswhich could be in no way distinguished from the tumors produced byuntreated cancer cells in other words, the therapeutic preparation hadabsolutely no effect on the tumor cells in the same way keysser carried out experiments along the linesinaugurated by neuberg, using a combination of glycocoll and copper he also tested the combination of borcholin with selenium-vanadiumused by werner and szécsi he was able to confirm the fact that bothof these substances produced an unmistakable therapeutic effect onsubcutaneous tumors on the other hand, they were absolutely withoutinfluence on the internal tumors in this respect, therefore, they wereentirely comparable with the eosin-selenium compound the theoreticalbasis constructed by neuberg, which rests on the assumption that themetallic compounds stimulate autolytic processes in the tumors, wasalso subjected by keysser to destructive criticism finally, keysser showed that none of these therapeutic agents wereeffective even in the case of subcutaneous tumors, unless the latterhad reached at least the size of cherry pits if a therapeuticinjection were made immediately after inoculation of the tumors, noeffect was observed the tumors grew exactly as in the control animals, and the injected animals died in about the same period of time as they all of these facts, which taken together constitute a very remarkableand convincing piece of scientific investigation, permit of butone conclusion it is quite clearly established that none of thepreparations of which the therapeutic effectiveness has hitherto beenproclaimed exercise any direct influence on the life or developmentof the tumor under certain very definite and restricted conditions, however, they do appear to produce certain changes in the tumors, and in a small proportion even cures these results, however, areobtained only in the case of tumors which are subcutaneous in locationand not smaller than a cherry pit in size keysser interpretationof the striking differences between tumors is of interest in thisconnection he believes that the constant palpation and examinationof the subcutaneous tumors, which is prompted by interest in theexperiment, produces circulatory changes with hyperemia and hemorrhage these circulatory changes are responsible for the increased tendencyof the injected substances to lodge in the tumors, thereby possiblyincreasing the tendency to autolysis which the circulatory changes haveinaugurated it is, of course, questionable whether this explanationcan be regarded as final in a series of experiments which i performedthesis years ago, i was able to show that sodium iodid when injectedintravenously accumulates in tumors in larger amounts than in any othertissue of the body in rats a similar observation has been recordedby wells, de witt and corper 278 in the same way i found thatvarious dyes, such as congo red, when injected intravenously, could bedemonstrated in tumors long after the rest of the body had recoveredits normal color. The liver alone vied with the tumors in this respect the dyestuff was invariably sharply localized in the necrotic portionsof the tumor the conclusion seemed obvious that, owing to circulatoryconditions or possibly even to chemical conditions, the dye wasretained longest in the necrotic writings of the tumor this effect wasunquestionably not due to handling, inasmuch as the animals in myexperiments were not palpated from the time of injection until death 278 wells, h g , de witt, and corper. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1914, orig , ii, 110 i have, however, had an even more striking demonstration of the samefact i have given intravenous injections of dyes to patients sufferingwith various forms of internal tumors, as, for example, cancer of thebreast, in the hope of favorably influencing the growths at operation, the picture presented by the tumor is striking in the extreme itpresents areas of various size which are intensely discolored by thedye these areas, both to the naked eye and under the microscope, are the necrotic writings of the tumor the actively growing areas oftumor tissue and all the normal tissues of the organ present theirnormal color all of these observations lead to the conclusion thatthe necrotic areas in tumors either possess a higher affinity forsodium iodid and for the dyes than do the normal tissues, or thatthese substances are more slowly absorbed from the necrotic areasowing to the circulatory deficiency whichever of these explanationsis accepted, it is quite reasonable to believe that necrotic areasmight well undergo liquefaction under the influence of the varioussubstances which have been used for therapeutic injection such aresult is, of course, without direct effect on the growth or vitalityof the living writing of the tumor this fact is quite clearly evidencedby the experimental data, which show that the internal portions of thetumor might undergo liquefaction and yet the tumors were not cured indeed, löhe, who made microscopic examinations of the tumors treatedby caspari and neuberg, states writingicularly, with reference to a tumorwhich had been subjected to treatment, that “the central portion ofthe tumor showed softening, while the external margin was composed ofactively growing cells ” the central portions of implanted tumors are, of course, those which first undergo spontaneous necrosis it still remains to explain the small percentage of cures achieved bywassermann and by keysser it does not appear to me that this problempresents any insuperable difficulties the fact must be emphasizedthat practically 95 per cent of the animals die under the treatment, which sufficiently indicates the toxic effects of the agent used wemust remember that transplanted tumors are under all circumstancesat a certain disadvantage as compared with the normal tissues of thebody after all, they are implanted on a foreign soil their bloodsupply is impoverished and imperfect they have a natural tendency toundergo necrosis, and in thesis paper spontaneous retrogression it isnot strange, therefore, that they should prove in slight degree moresusceptible to toxic effects than are the normal tissues of the body if we remember that the various therapeutic agents introduced in allprobability reach a essaywhat higher degree of concentration in thenecrotic areas of the tumor than in the normal tissues of the body, anassumption which is entirely in accord with the facts as observed inthe case of sodium iodid and of various dyes, we may be quite preparedto believe that this factor is sufficient to induce the destruction ofthe marginal healthy and living cells of the tumor the fact that smallsubcutaneous tumors were found by keysser to be entirely refractoryto the treatment is entirely in accord with this assumption, in viewof the fact that tumors of this size present practically no centralnecrosis the same explanation holds of the observation previouslycited from caspari that the primary spontaneous tumors of animalsdo not yield to the treatment indeed, he himself states that thetreatment is effective only in tumors in which autolysis takes placeduring life the word autolysis, however, in this connection is amisnomer and represents a gratuitous assumption. As an actual fact, one is entitled to say only that such tumors undergo central necrosis, in all probably owing to defective circulatory supply the process isexactly similar to the coagulation necrosis described in the case oftubercles by weigert if autolysis occurs, it is only secondary to thepreceding necrosis this explanation, however, is confronted by the fact that the internaltumors produced by keysser showed no tendency to effect a localizationof the dyes, and correspondingly no tendency to be affected by thetherapeutic agents one might be permitted to inquire whether theseinternal tumors had undergone any necrosis keysser unfortunately makesno mention of this matter it is certainly true that the infiltrativemode of growth of the internal tumors, which is entirely differentfrom that of the subcutaneous implantations, is associated with amuch better blood supply and a lessened tendency to undergo necrosis that such tumors can undergo necrosis, however, is evidenced bycertain illustrations given by carl lewin in his paper on internaltumors but such changes usually occur only in advanced stages tojudge from his plates, keysser worked with relatively small tumors, an assumption which is rendered even more likely by the fact that hisinjections were undertaken in a fairly early stage of their growth inthis connection i may quote certain experiments of my own on internaltumors 279 the implantations made in my experiments were produced byintravenous injections of a tumor suspension into the jugular vein ofrats such injections resulted almost invariably in the production ofa large number of tumors in the lungs, which, as is well shown in thefigures accompanying the original article, differed very markedly insize the smaller of these tumors are composed throughout of activelygrowing cells, while the large tumors present an area of centralnecrosis exactly as do the subcutaneous tumors if such an animal begiven an intravenous injection of a dye such as congo red, it will befound that the larger tumors present an area of central discolorationcorresponding to the area of previous necrosis, while the smallertumors, like normal tissues, are not colored thus, it is clear thatthe internal tumors implanted in animals are subject to the same lawsconcerning the distribution of dyes and, of course, other substances asare the subcutaneous tumors as i have stated previously, an exactlyanalogous observation has been made in a human breast tumor in theabsence of any contradictory evidence, therefore, i think that it isperfectly justifiable to assume that keysser failed to achieve a resultin the internal growths simply owing to the fact that those growthspresented practically no areas of necrosis at the time of his injection 279 j m research, 1913, p 497 another theoretical question which bears closely on the recenttherapeutic investigations in human beings concerns the rôle ofcolloids, as such, in the procedure it is quite clear from what hasalready been said that all experiments with animal tumors have beenlargely influenced by the belief that metals in the colloidal formexercise a peculiar and characteristic influence on the destructionof tumors even when the therapeutic agents have been introducedin crystalline form, as by neuberg and caspari, the authors findthemselves compelled to assume that the metals are reduced to colloidalform within the tumors for the latter assumption there is absolutelyno evidence.