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It is binding and stops blood, the menses. And cools inflammations buglossom buglosse its virtues are the same with borrage bugula bugle, or middle comfrey. Is temperate for heat, but verydrying, excellent for falls or inward bruises, for it dissolvescongealed blood, profitable for inward wounds, helps the rickets andother stoppings of the liver. Outwardly it is of wonderful force incuring wounds and ulcers, though festered, as also gangreens andfistulas, it helps broken bones, and dislocations inwardly you maytake it in powder a dram at a time, or drink the decoction of it inwhite-wine. Being made into an ointment with hog grease, you shallfind it admirable in green wounds buphthalmum, &c ox eye matthiolus saith they are commonly usedfor black hellebore, to the virtues of which i refer buxus boxtree.

They are in their prime in may fumitory water is usual with the city dames to wash their faces with, to take away morphey, freckles, and sun-burning. Inwardly taken, ithelps the yellow jaundice and itch, cleanses the blood, provokes sweat, strengthens the stomach, and cleanses the body of adust humours. It isin its prime in may and june the water of nightshade helps pains in the head coming of heat takeheed you distil not the deadly nightshade instead of the common, if youdo, you may make mad work let such as have not wit enough to know themasunder, have wit enough to let them both alone till they do the water of white poppies extinguishes all heat against nature, helps head-aches coming of heat, and too long standing in the sun distil them in june or july colt-foot water is excellent for burns to wash the place with it;inwardly taken it helps phthisicks and other diseases incident to thelungs, distil them in may or june the water of distilled quinces strengthens the heart and stomachexceedingly, stays vomiting and fluxes, and strengthens the retentivefaculty in man damask rose water cools, comforts, and strengthens the heart, so dothred rose-water only with this difference, the one is binding, the otherloosening. If your body be costive, use damask rose water, because itis loosening. If loose, use red, because it is binding white rose water is generally known to be excellent against hotrheums, and inflammations in the eyes, and for this it is better thanthe former the water of red poppy flowers, called by thesis corn-roses, becausethey grow so frequently amongst corn, cools the blood and spiritsover-heated by drinking or labour, and is therefore excellent insurfets green walnuts gathered about the latter end of june or july, and bruised, and so stilled, strengthen the heart, and resist thepestilence plantain water helps the headache. Being dropped into the ear ithelps the tooth-ache, helps the phthisicks, dropsy and fluxes, and isan admirable remedy for ulcers in the reins and bladder, to be used ascommon drink. The herb is in its prime in may strawberry water cools, quenches thirst, clarifies the blood, breaksthe stone, helps all inward inflammations, especially those in thereins, bladder and passages of the urine.

Physicians describehardness to be two-fold 1 a distention or stretching of a writing by too much fulness 2 thick humours which are destitute of heat, growing hard in that writingof the body into which they flow mla essay format so thesis properties then ought emolient medicines to have, viz tomoisten what is dry, to discuss what is stretched, to warm what iscongealed by cold. Yet properly, that only is said to mollify whichreduceth a hard substance to its proper temperature dryness and thickness of humours being the cause of hardness, emolientmedicines must of necessity be hot and moist. And although you mayperadventure find essay of them dry in the second or third degrees, yetmust this dryness be tempered and qualified with heat and moisture, forreason will tell you that dry medicines make hard writings harder mollifying medicines are known, 1 by their taste, 2 by their feeling 1 in taste, they are near unto sweat, but fat and oily. They areneither sharp, nor austere, nor sour, nor salt, neither do theymanifest either binding, or vehement heat, or cold to be in them 2 in feeling you can perceive no roughness, neither do they stick toyour fingers like birdlime, for they ought to penetrate the writings tobe mollified, and therefore thesis times if occasion be, are cuttingmedicines mixed with them chapter ii of hardening medicines galen in lib 5 de simple, med facult cap 10 determineshardening medicines to be cold and moist, and he brings essay argumentsto prove it, against which other physicians contest i shall not here stand to quote the dispute, only take notice, thatif softening medicines be hot and moist as we shewed even now thenhardening medicines must needs be cold and dry, because they arecontrary to them the universal course of nature will prove it, for dryness and moistureare passive qualities, neither can extremeties consist in moisture asyou may know, if you do but consider that dryness is not attributed tothe air, nor water, but to the fire, and earth 2 the thing to be congealed must needs be moist, therefore themedicine congealing must of necessity be dry, for if cold be joinedwith dryness, it contracts the pores, that so the humours cannot bescattered yet you must observe a difference between medicines drying, makingthick, hardening, and congealing, of which differences, a few wordswill not do amiss 1 such medicines are said to dry, which draw out, or drink up themoisture, as a spunge drinks up water 2 such medicines are said to make thick, as do not consume themoisture, but add dryness to it, as you make syrups into a thickelectuary by adding powders to them 3 such as congeal, neither draw out the moisture, nor make it thickby adding dryness to it, but contract it by vehement cold, as water isfrozen into ice 4 hardness differs from all these, for the writings of the body swell, and are filled with flegmatic humours, or melancholy blood, which atlast grows hard that you may clearly understand this, observe but these two things 1 what it is which worketh 2 what it worketh upon that which worketh is outwardly cold that which is wrought upon, is acertain thickness and dryness, of humours, for if the humour were fluidas water is, it might properly be said to be congealed by cold, but notso properly hardened thus you see cold and dryness to be the cause ofhardening this hardening being so far from being useful, that it isobnoxious to the body of man i pass it without more words i supposewhen galen wrote of hardening medicines, he intended such as makethick, and therefore amongst them he reckons up fleawort, purslain, houseleek, and the like, which assuage the heat of the humours inswellings, and stops subtil and sharp defluxions upon the lungs. But ofthese more anon chapter iii of loosening medicines by loosening here, i do not mean purging, nor that which is oppositeto astringency. But that which is opposite to stretching. I knewnot suddenly what fitter english name to give it, than loosening orlaxation, which latter is scarce english the members are distended or stretched divers ways, and ought to beloosened by as thesis, for they are stretched essaytimes by dryness, essaytimes by cold, essaytimes by repletion or fullness, essaytimes byswellings, and essaytimes by essay of these joined together i avoidterms of art as much as i can, because it would profit my countrybut little, to give them the rules of physic in such english as theyunderstand not i confess the opinion of ancient physicians hath been various aboutthese loosening medicines galen opinion was, that they might bereferred either to moistening, or heating, or mollifying, or evacuatingmedicines, and therefore ought not to be referred to a chapter bythemselves it is likely they may, and so may all other medicines be referred toheat, or coldness, or dryness, or moisture.

1997 june 241905. Ibid 45. 935 sept 23 1905. Ibid 46. 134 jan 13 1906;ibid 46. 290 jan 27 1906. Ibid 58. 280 jan 27 1912 long after the death of dr cyrus edson, the claim was made thatphenalgin was made under his direction and that it was his “discovery ”as a matter of fact, dr edson had favored the use of ammonol at onetime, and when the council exposed the false claims then being madefor phenalgin, the journal charged that a fraud was being perpetratedon the medical profession despite the exposure of the methods used inexploiting ammonol and phenalgin, one finds just as glaringly falsestatements made in the advertisements of phenalgin today as weremade in its unsavory past this would seem to indicate either thatphysicians have short memories or that they are strangely indifferentto the welfare of their patients, to their own reputations and to thegood name of medicine the new york medical journal of dec 22, 1917, contained anadvertisement of phenalgin-- it has been running for months-- from whichthe following is quoted. “for the relief of pain the ‘logical supplanter of opium and other habit-forming drugs’ is phenalgin no matter how severe or where located pain is promptly and satisfactorily controlled by this effective anodyne-- and without disturbing the digestion, suppressing the secretions, causing constipation or inducing a drug habit “this is why phenalgin has superseded opium and its derivatives for relieving headaches, rheumatism, gout, la grippe, lumbago, neuralgia, disorders of the female, dysmenorrhea, and painful conditions generally to thousands of physicians phenalgin ‘is the one dependable analgesic-- the logical supplanter of opium ’”if we are to suppose that the composition of phenalgin is todayessentially the same as when it was examined, the claims just quotedare obviously false for, of course, such a mixture must have theproperties of acetanilid with all of its drawbacks and limitations we may contrast the statements made in the advertisement just quotedwith those made in bulletin 126 of the bureau of chemistry of theu s dewritingment of agriculture this bulletin on “the harmfuleffects of acetanilid, antipyrin and phenacetin” summarizes thereplies received from 400 physicians to whom a questionnaire had beensent the information thus gained was tabulated and the figures thatfollow are from these tables there were reported no fewer than 614paper of poisoning by acetanilid with 16 deaths and 112 paper of itshabitual use the larger number of paper of poisoning followed theadministration of the drug, by physicians, in doses larger than thosenow regarded as fairly safe this large number reported by only 400physicians indicated an excessively large number in the whole country since the questionnaire was sent to nearly a thousand physicians, ofwhom about 500 failed to reply, it may be assumed that had it been sentto the entire 130, 000 physicians in the country, at least 75, 000 paperof poisoning would have been reported prior to the passage of the federal food and drugs act the “purefood law” thesis nostrum makers had declared that their preparationscontained no acetanilid when that law went into effect, essay of thesemanufacturers triumphantly pointed to the fact that they were stillable to make the same claim without conflicting with the requirementsof the law this was accomplished in fact by changing the formula andsubstituting acetphenetidin phenacetin for the acetanilid whileacetphenetidin is essaywhat less toxic than acetanilid, bulk for bulk, the toxicity and therapeutic activity of the two drugs are nearlyproportional the claim made by thesis proprietary medicine manufacturers that they are“strictly ethical” because they advertise only to physicians is mereverbal camouflage there may be no more certain way of insuring thecontinued use of a nostrum by the public than to have it prescribed byphysicians. And none know this better than the makers of nostrums aproprietary individuality is obtained by giving essay special form tothe tablets and package or a special coloring to the capsules “specify‘phenalgin pink top capsules’” so as to indicate the identity of theproducts in such a way that the patient may in the future procure themwithout the advice or warning of the physician when a proprietarypreparation with the name or initials stamped on it or attached toit is prescribed, the patient immediately is aware of the fact, andhis respect for the physician intelligence and wisdom is naturallylessened the physician should never place such dangerous drugs as acetanilid andacetphenetidin, or ready made mixtures of them, in the hands of thepatient in such a way that they can be employed without his supervisionor control he should never prescribe more than is needed at the timeand should not form the habit of using fixed doses or combinationsof drugs without a special reference to the writingicular needs of theindividual certain forms of headache yield more readily to a mixture of caffeinand acetanilid or caffein and acetphenetidin than to either acetanilidor acetphenetidin alone when the physician wishes to prescribe sucha mixture he may combine 1 grain of caffein or 2 grains of citratedcaffein with 3 grains of acetanilid or 4 grains of acetphenetidin ina powder or capsule under supervision such a dose may be repeatedat intervals of from two to four hours if necessary to control pain it is necessary to remember, however, that when small doses fail togive relief, increase in the dose is useless this fact is especiallyimportant, and disregard or ignorance of it has been responsible forthesis paper of poisoning further, it should be remembered that while itwas taught for thesis years that the admixture of caffein with acetanilidlessened the effect of the latter drug on the heart, hale has shownthat this is not the case and such mixtures must be used with specialcaution -- from the journal a m a , feb 2, 1918 article vi fellows’ syrup, and other preparations of the hypophosphiteswe hope that it is clear to those who have read the several articlesof this series that their purpose is to present evidence that willenable the reader to form a correct estimate of the literatureemployed in the exploitation of various nostrums the distinctionbetween mere assertion-- however plausible, and from however eminentan authority-- and evidence should again be emphasized satisfactoryevidence rests on careful observation by those who are capable ofaccurately determining to what extent any changes that may be observedare due to the therapeutic agent employed and not mere accompanimentsof such treatment when the council on pharmacy and chemistry was organized in 1905, the greater writing of the literature of the nostrums was so palpablymisleading, the statements often so ludicrously false, that it was onlynecessary to call attention to this fact to have those claims collapse as a result of the council work, the exploiters of worthless nostrumshave developed a greater degree of shrewdness in avoiding the easilyexploded falsehoods this has made it increasingly difficult to pointout the exact statements on which thesis of the false claims now rest, even though the exploitation as a whole is as inherently dishonest asbefore if a nostrum is worthless, any exploitation must be false andmisleading in effect, even though not one single false direct statementis made a platitude may be given an appearance of importance if uttered in animpressive manner, and it may be employed to suggest far more than itcategorically affirms these two facts are appreciated by thesis nostrumexploiters and we find that they have adopted the impressive manner tosecure attention, and the platitude to suggest far more than they coulddefend in direct statement thus we have the “lie with circumstance ” fellows’ syrupa full page advertisement, which has been appearing regularly forabout a year and which must represent a good deal of money, is used togive an appearance of importance to a few words which, if printed inordinary type, would either pass wholly unnoticed or would lead one toassume that essaything essential to the full meaning had been omitted the statement, in full reads. “fellows’ syrup differs from other preparations of the hypophosphites leading clinicians in all writings of the world have long recognized this important fact have you?. to insure results, prescribe the genuine ℞ syr hypophos comp fellows’ reject cheap and inefficient substitutes reject preparations ‘just as good ’”the only direct statement contained in the advertisement is to theeffect that thesis clinicians have observed that fellows’ syrup and otherpreparations of the hypophosphites are not alike in truth, fellows’is not like the better preparations of this type, since after standingit contains a muddy looking deposit that any pharmaceutical tyro wouldbe ashamed of technically, then, the statement is true, but it ishardly credible that the manufacturer is paying for an entire page in amedical journal to make this statement without any attempt to suggestessaything else the advertising pages of six medical journals were examined in theorder in which they chanced to come to hand in five of these, theentire advertisement of fellows’ syrup was in the words just quoted;not a single word more in one there was the further statement. “not a new-born prodigy or an untried experiment, but a remedy whose usefulness has been fully demonstrated during half a century of clinical application ”these advertisements show that the exploiters of fellows’ syrup arespending a great deal of money to induce physicians to prescribe thepreparation, and it is equally evident that they wish to convey theimpression that the preparation has essay therapeutic value since wefind nothing directly false, in the first mentioned advertisement atleast, we must take the evident intent for consideration and determinewhat therapeutic value, if any, this preparation has, and whether it isadvisable for physicians to employ it in any case the preparation, according to the statement just cited, has been inuse for fifty years as the exploiter of any preparation cites themost convincing evidence in his possession in support of his views, this claim may be assumed to be the strongest available, and if thisevidence fails we must reject the contention as not proved herewe face a dilemma, for examination of the literature used in theexploitation of fellows’ syrup fails to disclose any evidence of thekind that we have described as satisfactory. And we are, therefore, forced to conclude that none has ever been found by this it is notto be implied that no reputable physician has ever reported favorablyconcerning the therapeutic effects of this preparation it is quitepossible that an extensive literature of that sort might be found ifone examined the older medical journals but the day has passed whenevery improvement that follows the administration of a preparation isblindly attributed to the drug in question clinical research today isfar more exacting we will assume that the reader who has investigated the question withan open mind will have come to the decision that the contention thatfellows’ syrup is of especial therapeutic value is not proved we mightrest with that assumption and ask the clinician whether he is preparedto use a nostrum that has been before the medical profession for halfa century without any satisfactory evidence having been gained thatit possesses therapeutic value we might ask him whether he would bewilling to tell his patients that he was prescribing such a nostrumfor them in the face of the absence of any such evidence of its value the inertness of the hypophosphitesbut we prefer to go even further and show him that not only is therean entire absence of any evidence of its therapeutic value so far aswe have been able to learn, but in addition there is an abundance ofevidence that the hypophosphites are devoid of any such therapeuticeffect as they were formerly reputed to have, and that, in fact, they are, so far as any effect based on their phosphorus content isconcerned, singularly inert while we have thus far taken the fellows’ preparation as the subjectof the discussion, we may take a broader view and examine the subjectof the hypophosphites in general, and the substitutes containingphosphorus that have been introduced from time to time it hardly needsto be said that if the hypophosphites are without therapeutic value, itis impossible to give them value by combining them in a muddy-looking, ill-made preparation such as fellows’ syrup such evidence wassubmitted to the medical profession in a report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry j a m a 67:760 sept 2 1916. And wewould strongly advise any one who is disposed to act on the suggestioncontained in the advertisements of fellows’, and other hypophosphitepreparations, to read that report in full and to think the matter overbefore prescribing one of these nostrums quoting briefly from thereport in question. “although the overwhelming weight of evidence was against the probability that the hypophosphite preparations are of value as therapeutic agents, the council thought it well to investigate the subject dr w mckim marriott of baltimore was therefore requested to review the evidence for and against the therapeutic usefulness of the hypophosphites and to conduct such experiments as seemed necessary ”the council was not content to rest on the mere absence of evidencefor the value of these preparations or any one of them, but soughtto obtain evidence that would fulfil the conditions mentioned above, and in pursuance of this plan it secured the cooperation of a trainedinvestigator, one who would work under the best of conditions forlearning the truth the results of dr marriott investigation werepublished in the journal, feb 12, 1916, p 486, and should be read byeveryone who has any interest in the problem lest essay of our readersmay fail to refer to the original of marriott paper, we will quotebriefly from it.

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Theherb also bruised, and with essay salt and vinegar and hog-grease, laid upon a hard tumour or swelling, or that vulgarly called theking evil, do help to dissolve or discuss them mla essay format. And being in likemanner applied, doth much allay the pains, and give ease to the gout, sciatica, and other pains of the joints and sinews it is also veryeffectual to heal green wounds, and old ulcers. Also to stay theirfretting, gnawing, and spreading it draws forth splinters, and suchlike things gotten into the flesh, and is very good against bruises andburnings but the yellow archangel is most commended for old, filthy, corrupt sores and ulcers, yea although they grow to be hollow, and todissolve tumours the chief use of them is for women, it being a herbof venus arssmart the hot arssmart is called also water-pepper, or culrage the mildarssmart is called dead arssmart persicaria, or peach-wort, becausethe leaves are so like the leaves of a peach-tree. It is also calledplumbago description of the mild this has broad leaves set at the great redjoint of the stalks. With semicircular blackish marks on them, usuallyeither blueish or whitish, with such like seed following the root islong, with thesis strings thereat, perishing yearly. This has no sharptaste as another sort has, which is quick and biting but rather sourlike sorrel, or else a little drying, or without taste place it grows in watery places, ditches, and the like, which forthe most writing are dry in summer time it flowers in june, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues as the virtue of both these is various, sois also their government. For that which is hot and biting, is underthe dominion of mars, but saturn, challenges the other, as appears bythat leaden coloured spot he hath placed upon the leaf it is of a cooling and drying quality, and very effectual for putrifiedulcers in man or beast, to kill worms, and cleanse the putrifiedplaces the juice thereof dropped in, or otherwise applied, consumesall colds, swellings, and dissolveth the congealed blood of bruises bystrokes, falls, &c a piece of the root, or essay of the seeds bruised, and held to an aching tooth, takes away the pain the leaves bruisedand laid to the joint that has a felon thereon, takes it away thejuice destroys worms in the ears, being dropped into them. If the hotarssmart be strewed in a chamber, it will soon kill all the fleas;and the herb or juice of the cold arssmart, put to a horse or othercattle sores, will drive away the fly in the hottest time of summer;a good handful of the hot biting arssmart put under a horse saddle, will make him travel the better, although he were half tired before the mild arssmart is good against all imposthumes and inflammations atthe beginning, and to heal green wounds all authors chop the virtues of both sorts of arssmart together, as menchop herbs for the pot, when both of them are of contrary qualities the hot arssmart grows not so high or tall as the mild doth, buthas thesis leaves of the colour of peach leaves, very seldom or neverspotted. In other writingiculars it is like the former, but may easily beknown from it, if you will but be pleased to break a leaf of it crossyour tongue, for the hot will make your tongue to smart, but the coldwill not if you see them both together, you may easily distinguishthem, because the mild hath far broader leaves asarabacca descript asarabacca appears like an evergreen, keeping its leavesall the winter, but putting forth new ones in the time of spring ithas thesis heads rising from the roots, from whence come thesis smoothleaves, every one upon his foot stalks, which are rounder and biggerthan violet leaves, thicker also, and of a dark green shining colouron the upper side, and of a pale yellow green underneath, little ornothing dented about the edges, from among which rise small, round, hollow, brown green husks, upon short stalks, about an inch long, divided at the brims into five divisions, very like the cups or headsof the henbane seed, but that they are smaller. And these be all theflower it carries, which are essaywhat sweet, being smelled to, andwherein, when they are ripe, is contained small cornered rough seeds, very like the kernels or stones of grapes or raisins the roots aresmall and whitish, spreading divers ways in the ground, increasing intodivers heads.