History

Mettaton Essay


No human beingcould survive the passage through his body of an alternating currentof more than 1, 500 volts for a period of even twenty seconds, contactbeing perfect ”the physical phenomena caused in the body by electrocution as atpresent conducted are comparatively simple, and such as we shouldlogically expect the instant the body of the patient enters into thecircuit of the current, all the voluntary muscles appear to be throwninto a condition of violent contraction which continues so long asthe current lasts, and on cessation of the current is replaced bya condition of extreme muscular relaxation all consciousness isapparently lost immediately on the application of the current thisprobably has never returned in any case, but on the removal of the bodyfrom the circuit of the current the relaxation of the muscles causesmovement, and essaytimes, as in the case of kemmler, slight spasmodicmovements of the chest have occurred the pupils in this case weredilated the condition of contraction and rigidity is renewed at eachnew application of the current, to cease immediately when the currentis removed in kemmler chest movements and possibly heart-beat occurred after thefirst contact, the former perhaps half a minute after the cessation ofthe current in slocum there were chest movements and radial pulsation after thefirst contact in smiler no movement of the chest, but radial pulsationafter the third contact in jugigo a slight fluttering of the radialpulse when final contact was broken, which rapidly ceased in hood nomovement or pulse-beat in essay of the patients superficial burns have been caused by imperfectcontact of the electrodes, either on the head or at the position of thelower electrode in kemmler case the cerebral cortex was essaywhataffected under the head-electrode the practical effect of the application of the current to the criminalfastened in the death-chair, as seen by the bystander, is thatimmediately on its reaching him the whole body is straightened andrendered rigid in extension, the extremities tend to straighten out, and the face may grow red and turgid there is reported at timesswelling and turgidity of the neck the whole body remains in thistetanic, stiffened condition until the removal of the current, when allthe muscles relax and the body sinks back into the chair in a state ofcomplete muscular collapse mental or psychical symptoms the third class of results which are found after electrical shocksfrom high-tension currents are the mental or psychical by the use ofthese terms we do not wish to imply that they are voluntary they are, however, so far as our present knowledge of pathology reaches, largelyfunctional this is precisely the class of paper which, when resultingfrom railway accidents, are placed under the head of railway-brainor railway-spine they may be considered in the present state of ourknowledge as traumatic functional neuroses, though it is probable thatwhen our means of examination and investigation are more completewe may succeed in discovering a visible or perceptible lesion thesymptoms affecting motion and sensation in these paper are frequentlyaccompanied by others of an emotional character, and in thesis paperthere seem to be writingially or wholly voluntary conditions and symptomswith the involuntary there is in thesis paper a characteristic loss ordiminution of the force and power of volition, but in others this isnot perceptible these conditions are so well known when produced by other causes thatwe do not consider it proper to enter into a full consideration of themhere, but we cannot leave this important subject without a few generalremarks no form of affection or disease has caused more discussion among themedical profession or figured more prominently in the courts mettaton essay than this, and even now there are thesis questions in relation to these conditionsstill under dispute our own view, confirmed both by observation andexperience, is that the tendency in new england, at least, has beenon the whole to underrate the severity, the duration, and the amountof suffering caused by these conditions that because there havebeen paper of malingering, of deception, and of rapid cure afterthe receipt of damages, and because in addition to this a certainvisible emotional and at times apparently controllable element exists, the profession, and above all the laity, are led to conclude thatthis forms the essential condition and basis of the disease on thecontrary, in a very large proportion of paper the symptoms are such ascannot possibly be voluntarily assumed. They produce extreme discomfortand often much suffering for the patient, and frequently last foryears, rendering their victims incapable of carrying on their formeroccupations fortunately in the patients suffering from electric shock theseverer forms of these affections are not so common in most of thepaper reported recovery has been more or less rapid paper in whichprevious hysteria or neurasthenia have existed are more liable tothese manifestations than persons of a previously equable nervousconstitution, but these latter are by no means wholly exempt toconsider these conditions, as is essaytimes done, as the fault of thepatient seems to us both unwarrantable and unjust lightning we now come to the consideration of the action of electricity inanother form, that of natural electricity or lightning the effectsof this are practically the same as those of the forms previouslydescribed, except such differences as seem to be fairly accounted forby the vastly greater force of the currents with which we have todeal injuries and deaths from lightning stroke have been recognizedand described for thesis centuries, and we have now a large collectionof careful observations on them they occur in most temperate regionswith comparative frequency in france the number of deaths from 1835to 1852 inclusive eighteen years was 1, 308 in england, includingwales, there were in twenty years, 1865 to 1884 inclusive, 416 deaths in 1846 mr eben merriam, of brookline, wrote to mr arago that in thethree last years about 150 persons had been killed by lightning in theunited states in thirty years, from 1855 to 1884 inclusive, we find101 deaths in massachusetts from this cause exposure - injuries and deaths from lightning may occur in variousplaces and under various conditions the severe lightning strokes arepopularly supposed to occur only during thunder-storms, and in thislatitude this is undoubtedly, as a rule, true, but lightning strokesare reported to have occurred, writingicularly in the south, from a clearsky, and there seems no reason to doubt that this may happen it issaid also that dangerous discharges from the earth to the atmospheremay take place at a considerable distance from an atmospheric storm as a rule, the lightning is more likely to strike essay tall object, as a tree or a tower or steeple, and for this reason, and to avoidinjury from falling branches, the shelter of trees should not be soughtduring thunder-storms if lightning stroke be dreaded ships at sea arefrequently struck by lightning, writingly perhaps on account of the heightof the masts and writingly on account of the metal in or on them lightning obeys the same general laws as the other forms ofelectricity and naturally follows the paths of least resistance persons, therefore, who are in the neighborhood of or in contactwith good conductors are in more danger of injury by lightning thanwhen surrounded by or in contact with poor conductors the proximityor contact of a large metallic object exposed in a thunder-storm isconsequently more or less dangerous on the other hand, the absenceof tall objects or of specially good conductors of any kind does notinsure safety in thesis paper persons in fields are struck, and paperare related of persons struck on the prairies in the west in fredetcase a shepherd was found dead in the midst of the barren moors landes in southern france more accidents appear to occur directly to persons out-of-doors thanto those in houses or other buildings when inside buildings, personsstruck are usually near an open door or window through which thelightning enters, and they are more exposed to danger from this sourceif there be essay metal object or good conductor in the vicinity persons carrying or wearing metallic objects render themselves therebymore liable to be injured in this way not only does the liability to injury from lightning vary essaywhataccording to the exposure or position of the person, both in relationto the free access of the atmospheric air and to the contact with orneighborhood of metallic objects or other good conductors, but alsothe severity of the injuries may be largely dependent upon what theyare wearing or carrying and the condition of their clothing at thetime if the clothing be wet it will act as a good conductor, as willalso any metallic object about the person we have already referred tothe action of metallic objects upon the passage of the electricity toand from the body and to the condition of the skin in relation thereto the laws of conduction and resistance are precisely the same for theelectricity of lightning as for the other forms hence the greater theresistance to the electricity at the points where it enters or leavesthe body, the deeper will be the burn thus we find not infrequentlythat the lightning, in its course from the head to the feet, meets witha chain or a truss, and almost invariably at least a portion of thecurrent follows this, causing a deep burn where it again passes intothe skin all the external burns of the lightning, except the initialone, are determined by the position and conditions of the body, theclothing, and the conductors near all electricity obeys the same lawand, roughly speaking, follows the path or paths of least resistance the clothing worn by a person when struck by lightning may be actedupon in the most various ways essaytimes it is wholly stripped off theunfortunate sufferer, who, as in a case reported by cook and boulting, may have to be protected with sacks or other hastily improvisedcoverings in a case reported by nason, a girl of thirteen was struckwhile in the street and most of her clothes stripped off and torn toshreds, and the top of her hat, which contained steel wires, was tornfrom the brim in the case of wilks the body was stripped entirelynaked and absolutely nothing left on except a portion of the left armof the man flannel shirt the clothing is essaytimes torn to thefinest shreds, like those of a mouse nest, as described by van horn, and in another case claes, where the patient was struck while onboard ship, his woollen jacket was torn into fine bits, which stuckto the ropes, and the deck was covered with fibres of wool as fine asthose of cotton-wool in this case the woof of the trousers was said tohave been wholly destroyed, while the web was untouched the clothing is also often burnt not only are holes burnt in it as isusually the case at the point where the lightning strikes and at thepoint where it leaves the body, but it may be set on fire it may befound smoking or in flames of all portions of the clothing injured, perhaps the coverings of thefeet are the most frequently so, as the electricity is very apt toleave the body through the feet, and the resistance opposed is great hence the boot or shoe is frequently injured essaytimes it is piercedas by a bullet, or a large hole is torn in it, or it may be torn topieces or reduced almost to lint, while the foot remains uninjured itmay be torn, shrivelled, and burnt in one case the soles of the shoeshad disappeared. In another the leg of the boot was clearly dividedfrom the sole and both straps were torn out. While again in another theshoe was carried wholly off the amount of injury to the clothing does not necessarily correspond tothe amount done to the body a person may be killed by lightning whilethe clothing is uninjured on the other hand, the clothing may be tornto pieces, carried away, or even writingially burnt, while the portion ofthe body underneath remains unhurt symptomatology - the symptoms of stroke by lightning resemble, in ageneral way, those due to high-tension currents of electricity as inthe case of the latter, they can be divided into the direct, producedimmediately by the lightning itself, and the indirect, or secondary, produced through the medium of other factors in the milder paper the person struck feels dazed and benumbed andmay or may not lose consciousness for a short time at the momentstruck they may have the sensation of a blow, and they often see ablinding flash on recovery of their faculties there may be a temporaryanæsthesia or weakness of one or more extremities, which rarely lastsmore than twenty-four hours there is a general shock to the system, essaytimes slight loss of memory for a time, and occasionally nauseaand vomiting there are often discolorations of the skin of mediumextent, and frequently burns and blisters these persons have usuallyreceived the stroke on one extremity or have escaped the full force in the more severe paper the patient loses consciousness immediatelyand may continue unconscious for essay hours he passes into a conditionof collapse with rapid, feeble pulse and cold extremities, and thepupils are dilated on recovery of his senses the same symptoms as inthe less severe paper, only more pronounced, are found the loss ofmemory may be marked and the intellect temporarily weakened, while theweakness and anæsthesia of the extremities persist longer the externalinjuries, burns, and wounds are liable to be more severe in the fatal paper where death is directly due to the electricity it isusually instantaneous or at least without recovery of consciousness itmay be caused by shock or by apoplexy, i e , intracranial hemorrhageor by the direct effect of the electricity on the brain of coursedeath is often due to burns or to indirect traumatic injuries the indirect traumatic injuries caused by lightning are due either tothe loss of consciousness of the patient, which causes him to fall andthus sustain injury, or to the direct action of the electricity uponhim, knocking him down or throwing him to essay distance, essaytimeswith great violence, or lastly, and perhaps the most frequent cause, to the impact or pressure of objects which are torn or cast down bythe electricity and by striking or falling on a person produce greatinjury thus persons have been killed by the fall of buildings, sheds, or trees which were struck by the lightning, or their branches ofcourse all kinds of traumata may be produced thus the direct external injuries caused by lightning are burns, subcutaneous hemorrhages, discolorations and markings of the skineither dendritic or metallic, lacerations or wounds burns occur in nearly all, perhaps all, severe paper of lightningstroke they may be of any or all degrees, and may extend over verysmall points or over the whole or nearly the whole body they mayconsist in a simple singeing of the hair, or they may be very deep andextend to the bone as before stated, the deep burns are found at thepoints of resistance to the current, at its points of entrance and exitfrom the body, and, to a lesser degree, at all points where its courseis impeded this occurs wherever the clothes are fastened tightly orpressed against the body, hence especially at the neck, waist, knees, and essaytimes at the ankles the position of the burns is determined, therefore, by the point at which the lightning strikes the person, theposition at the moment, and by the arrangement of the dress and thepresence of metallic substances in the large majority of paper theupper portion of the body is the writing first touched by the lightning, and thence it descends along the body to the ground we are apt, therefore, to find a severe burn about the upper portion of the body, the head, neck, or shoulders. Then a scorching, singeing, or burning, more or less severe, in the form of a stripe or stripes more or lessbroad down the body. The burns being deeper where the clothes aretighter or where metallic objects come into contact with or are nearthe body. And finally a deep burn at the nearest point of contact withthe ground, usually the heel or essay portion of the foot the burns, however, vary greatly the eyes may be burnt and severelyinjured or destroyed the lightning has been known to enter the mouthand burn the mucous membrane within the deeper burns not infrequentlyassume the form of holes in heusner paper about twenty whitish-grayspots, varying from the size of a lentil to that of a pea, were foundon the soles of the feet the hair is usually singed and may be burntoff in large areas, or wholly as in a case reported by bernard wounds - these may be direct or indirect we shall speak here onlyof the first like burns they occur usually at the points of greatestresistance, that is, the places of entrance and exit, but they maybe found in any writing of the body they may be clean-cut, as if madeby a sharp knife, or they may be lacerated and ragged with the edgescontused or burnt they may consist of holes which look as if they hadbeen punched out contusions or ecchymoses these may also be produced directly by thelightning, and like burns and wounds are most apt to occur where theresistance is greatest they may be of considerable importance in amedico-legal sense, as in fredet case, where there were ecchymoseson the neck similar to those produced by the fingers of a hand appliedfor strangulation in the case related by cook and boulting the rightside of the body appeared like an exaggerated example of post-mortemstaining there are essaytimes found also dark-brown spots, small orlarge, which may be soft and, when cut, containing fluid blood, or theymay be hard and like parchment, dry, and bloodless on section closely connected with these are the so-called dendroid or dendriticmarks, which are dark-colored reddish bands or stripes, often more orless dichotomously branched, not disappearing under pressure, found onthe bodies of those struck by lightning though usually of the formmentioned, they may assume other shapes, as that of an irregular starwith zig-zag rays balfour has figured an excellent example of these metallic staining of the skin has been known to occur where metalswere in contact with it at the time of the lightning stroke thesestains may be permanent and are due to the introduction of the finelydivided metal richardson has succeeded in producing this artificiallyin animals he found two conditions required, that the metallicconductor should be sufficiently fine to offer resistance to thecurrent and that the current itself should be an electric discharge oflow tension loss of hair is said to have occurred from lightning, though the hairwas not burnt one case has been reported where after a severe strokeall the hair on the body is said to have fallen out symptoms under this heading we shall consider only such symptoms as are, so faras can be ascertained, the direct result of the electricity and notthose secondary to injuries we will consider first those relating to the nervous system loss of consciousness - this occurs to a greater or less extent inall but the very mildest paper it varies throughout all degrees froma slight momentary benumbing of the faculties to the most profoundstupor or coma it may then last hours or even days on recoverythe patient is apt to have essay loss of memory, to be dazed andconfused for essay time, and a certain obtuseness or blunting of theintellectual faculties may persist for a considerable period thisloss of consciousness is often accompanied by flushing of the face anddilatation of the pupils, or on the other hand the patient may presentall the symptoms of collapse loss of memory in regard to the lightning stroke after recovery ofconsciousness is not rare it is frequently complete so far as anyrecollection of the lightning goes, and there may be no remembrance ofthe thunder-storm essaytimes a defective memory persists together withgeneral mental impairment james mental disease - a condition of mental impairment lasting at leastweeks or months may occur mania and the delirium of terror are said tohave occurred various symptoms of the disturbance of the nervous equilibrium are notuncommon among these we may mention tremor, insomnia, and nervousdread of thunder-storms and of electricity there is no doubt that essaypersons who have been exposed to lightning stroke do, at least for atime, become unusually susceptible to the influences of atmosphericelectricity loss of motion paralysis - this is a very frequent result of astroke from lightning hemiplegia is not uncommon in bonnet casethe patient was struck on the head by the lightning, which caused alacerated wound in the left temple, but did not injure the aponeurosis on recovery of consciousness the patient was found to have a lefthemiplegia involving the face and both extremities accompaniedby a diminution of sensation over the left half of the body thesensation became normal in two days, but a writingial hemiplegia remainedpermanently in the case of durand there was a nearly complete righthemiplegia with accompanying hyperæsthesia and essay affection ofspeech deglutition and mastication were difficult, and there waspersistent hiccough there was photophobia and hyperæsthesia thepatient improved in two weeks and finally recovered there is often atemporary hemiplegia nearly all forms of paralyses of the extremities may occur we mayhave paralysis of all the extremities or of both arms or legs, ormonoplegias paraplegia occurs not very rarely it is usually of shortduration it may be accompanied by paralysis of the bladder singlemuscles or muscle groups only may be affected ptosis may occur with paralysis of other branches of the third nerve, causing diplopia facial paralysis occurs also alone.

Proprietary products writing iv journal contributions. Miscellany press of american medical association, five hundred and thirty-five north dearborn street, -- chicago 1922 copyright, 1922 by the american medical association preface to volume 2there were nine editions of the first volume of the propaganda forreform in proprietary medicines the ninth edition contained the mostimportant reports of the council on pharmacy and chemistry and of thechemical laboratory it contained also those articles from the journalof the american medical association up to, and including, 1916which dealt with the problems of proprietaryship in medicine and thefurtherance of rational drug therapy the present volume contains similar material covering the period fromjanuary, 1917, to april, 1922, inclusive like volume 1, this volume isdivided into four writings:writing i the council on pharmacy and chemistry. This section presentsthe principles and rules which govern the council in the examination ofmedicaments, together with articles and reports bearing on the work ofthe council, and the most important reports of the council from 1917 toapril, 1922, inclusive writing ii the a m a chemical laboratory. This section, besidespresenting the aims and objects of the association chemicallaboratory, also outlines essay of the laboratory work which is ofwritingicular interest to physicians writing iii contributions from the journal. Proprietary products.

And while it hasessay therapeutic value, this has been greatly overestimated, and itshould be used only in amounts deemed necessary for each patient, preferably alone succinate of sodium was introduced mettaton essay as a saline cathartic, with theclaim that it exerts an antiseptic action on the biliary passages andgallbladder there is no satisfactory evidence to substantiate thisclaim the council maintains a liberal attitude toward new preparations, butit feels that it is impossible to determine the value of the severalconstituents of such complex mixtures when used as such. It holdsthat these mixtures are superfluous and that the several substancesof which they are composed should be used singly or at most withgreater attention to the individual requirements of the patient than ispossible when these fixed mixtures are prescribed despite the fact that these mixtures have been in use for more thannine years, there is no satisfactory evidence that they possess anyadvantage over the simple laxatives or the preparations of bile orpancreatic extract they are therefore held to be in conflict with rule10, and the council has directed that they be not included in n n r after dec 31, 1918 having adopted the preceding report, the council, in accordance withits regular procedure, submitted this to fairchild bros and foster forcomment the following reply was received. We are entirely at variance with you in the arbitrary conclusion expressed concerning the inimical influence of mixtures on therapeutic progress, the practice of medicine and the public welfare if the combinations of holadin and bile salts, etc , in capsules, were ever properly within the scope of new and nonofficial remedies, they should be retained if, however, complex mixtures are to be held as, a priori, unworthy of consideration, the rejection of all would naturally be a logical proceeding we believe that the writingicular combination of holadin and bile salts etc , have been clearly in the line of therapeutic progress-- a natural evolution, improvement and development for thesis years combinations of pancreatic extract and ox gall had naturally suggested themselves when we realized the fact that the bile salts were quite clearly the active principles of the bile, and that they must necessarily exist in greatly varying percentages in the official inspissated or ox gall, and also because these ox gall products of pharmacy were of extremely varying density, even from that of treacle to resin-- and of other objectionable character, we undertook to prepare bile salts these combinations are now further justified in view of physiological considerations, the simultaneous secretion of the pancreas and bile, and the state of our knowledge of the function of bile salts, and as co-ferments, promoting and supplementing the pancreas enzymes the question suggested as to whether the cholagogic action of ox gall and bile salts has been overestimated seems to us no clear purport the bile salts are obviously employed as the means of administering and thus realizing whatever properties this secretion may have in medicine, of which the cholagogic action is by no means the only consideration as for phenolphthalein, which is credited with purely laxative properties, we are at a loss to see any bearing in the remark that phenolphthalein was popularized by nostrum makers we cannot see that the physician or chemist estimate of phenolphthalein, its properties and uses, can be in the least degree influenced one way or the other by the statement that “phenolphthalein has been popularized by nostrum makers ” the phenolphthalein and succinate of soda combinations were originally both prescribed, and we have simply placed them at the service of the physician without other exploitation of them than that designed to call attention to their use in the conditions indicated these combinations are offered in a form which may be administered by the mouth with the best promise of introducing the substance more directly in the intestinal tract during the digestion period or at such interval after or prior to, the digestion period, as would best, in the judgment of the physician, meet the indications these writingicular combinations are especially desirable in these “fixed forms” since they are stable and reliable resources at the command of the physicians, the enzymes retaining their stability and potency without material deterioration for thesis years, and they naturally possess the advantages which are obviously due to the character of the writingicular pancreas and bile products used in the combinations furthermore, the hygroscopic and soluble organic substances in admixture cannot extemporaneously be so prepared in sealed capsules as to be readily available under the practical requirements of prescribing and dispensing and we do not believe that those who practice medicine will be in accord with your view that the pancreas substance should necessarily be administered alone, or the bile substance alone it now appears that these combinations are to be dropped from new and nonofficial remedies in consequence of the view, so stated, that in clinical experience “for more than nine years there is no satisfactory evidence that they possess any advantage over the simple laxatives or preparations of bile or pancreatic extract ” in reply to this we would simply make the following comment. During these “nine years” these combinations have inevitably been put to an informing clinical trial, because of the fact that they have been employed with success in disorders of the pancreas and bile functions and often in chronic and serious paper where the clinical conditions were obvious and unmistakable the reports of these paper come to us from physicians widely separated and each of his own independent initiative it would seem gratuitous, to say the least, to state that the observers are “disinterested, ” since it is quite clear that there is no other interest than that of the practitioner and his patient it is not a case of a new drug or combinations of new remedies, but simply resources which, upon well grounded reasons, both from a theoretical and material standpoint, justify clinical trial, and with results which would seem from any ordinary human standpoint to be satisfactory clinical evidence as to the interpretation of competent clinical evidence by the council, we would, in view of the circumstances and without comment, ask to embody in this text this rule. “clinical evidence ”-- “to be acceptable, the clinical evidence must offer objective data with such citation of authority as will enable the council to confirm the facts and establish the scientific value of the conclusions drawn clinical data are worthless when the author is not cited the facts on which claims with regard to the value of a remedy are based must have been rendered accessible for investigation and confirmation by disinterested observers, either through publication or through the records of a hospital or other institution ” to discredit these combinations would seem to us not only unjustified, but sterile of any real advancement in medicine, or of anything in the way of helpfulness to the patient in the class of paper in which these products have been resorted to with benefit. This on no other ground really than the opinion “that they have no advantage over the simple preparations themselves ” naturally we shall continue to prepare these products and shall continue to take such action as we deem best to bring them to the attention of the physician, for the conduct of our business must remain in the hands of those who are personally responsible for it and it is now forty years since we took up this line of work and with the declared intention of devoting ourselves to the applied science of the digestive ferments and “to their development and practical application in every useful purpose in medicine ” we have been consistently in sympathy with the fundamental purpose of the council, which must first rest upon fact as to the character of the products offered as medicinal agents the weight of evidence justifies the position that these writingicular products rationally should be, and as a matter of fact are, of important special service in the utilization of these organic secretions in medicine as explained in the preceding report, the council holds that complexmixtures of remedial agents are from every point of view inimicalto therapeutic progress and therefore to the public welfare theyare especially objectionable because it is impossible to determineaccurately the effects which follow the simultaneous administrationof a number of drugs having dissimilar actions, and because such apractice tends strongly to discourage careful consideration of thespecial needs of individual patients without which there can be notherapeutic progress on the contrary, with their use, therapeutictreatment becomes haphazard and mere guesswork the dismissal of the holadin and bile salts mixtures does not involvethe question of the usefulness of holadin or of bile salts alone. Onthe contrary, the possible usefulness of these preparations is admittedin the report it is the combination of holadin, bile salts, sodiumsuccinate and phenolphthalein to which objection is made the statement of fairchild bros and foster that “these combinationsare now further justified in view of physiological considerations”is essaywhat misleading it is true that bile and the pancreaticsecretion cooperate in intestinal digestion, but there is no evidencethat in every case in which there is a deficiency of one of thesesecretions there is also a deficiency of the other, and it is an axiomof scientific therapeutics that no drug or remedial agent should beadministered except to fill a definite want otherwise the practice oftherapeutics becomes mere empiricism the properties of phenolphthalein are not in the least influenced bythe manner of its introduction, as messrs fairchild bros and fosteremphasize. But the important fact in this connection is that thepopular conception of their actions is greatly influenced by the modeof introduction, and phenolphthalein has been widely advertised in avariety of conditions, so that the popular notion concerning it is notthat of scientific therapeutics in short, the entire argument of messrs fairchild bros and fosterconcerning the exploitation of these preparations may be summed up bysaying that they have been used by clinicians who believe that goodresults have followed their use, and that the firm will thereforecontinue to supply the demand the tendency of essay to use anythingbrought to their notice, and the readiness of manufacturers to marketanything that physicians will use, presents the greatest obstacleto therapeutic progress there was never a nostrum so irrational orworthless that honest but undiscriminating clinicians could not befound who reported wonderful results from its use according to fairchild bros and foster, these holadin and bile saltsmixtures have been in use for essay nine years yet the council is notaware of any investigation of their merits that meets the requirementsof scientific research the council is not acquainted with a single clinical investigation oftheir action under conditions which afford satisfactory evidence oftheir therapeutic value it is obviously wholly insufficient for a clinician to report that theuse of a mixture was followed by good results the fallacy of sucharguments was demonstrated long ago he must make a comparison of theresults obtained with the remedial agent with those obtained in asnearly similar conditions as possible except for the use of the agent we are not aware that any such study of the mixtures in question hasbeen made it is in the last degree irrational to hold that becausebile salts are the active constituents of bile, therefore such complexmixtures as these are necessary -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 59 liquor santaiva, s & d , omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of liquor santaiva, s & d , has been authorized forpublication w a puckner, secretary so far the council has applied rule 10 concerning the recognition ofmixtures with the greatest leniency compatible with consistency whenthere has been a reasonable doubt concerning the value of a mixture, ithas frequently directed that rule 10 should not apply, pending furtherclinical trial of such mixture in no instance has subsequent experience shown that a strictinterpretation of the rule would have worked hardship or injustice thecouncil feels that there is no longer any warrant for the admission ofcomplex mixtures to new and nonofficial remedies or for the retentionof any that have been admitted, unless definite evidence of thetherapeutic value of such combinations is available the council being engaged in the annual revision of new and nonofficialremedies, the referee in charge of santal preparations reported thatthe three year period of acceptance had expired for liquor santaiva sharp & dohme the referee held that liquor santaiva, s & d , declared to be asolution of santal oil and copaiba with aromatic oils, in a mixtureof alcohol and water, is plainly in conflict with the currentinterpretation of rule 10, because there was no sound evidenceto indicate that any useful end is gained by the simultaneousadministration of santal oil and copaiba in any proportion, and thatso, of course, there is no evidence of the special advantage in thefixed proportions represented by the mixture he pointed out that theformula is essentially a survival of the discredited shotgun gonorrheamixtures and therefore recommended that its acceptance be not continued the council agreed to the recommendation of the referee and directedthat liquor santaiva, s & d , be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 66 maltzyme, maltzyme with cascara sagrada, maltzyme with cod liver oil, maltzyme ferrated and maltzyme with yerba santa omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of the maltzyme preparations has been authorized forpublication w a puckner, secretary in 1916, the council voted to omit maltzyme with hypophosphites, andmaltzyme with phosphate of iron, quinine and strychnine at thattime the labels used on the maltzyme preparations still in new andnonofficial remedies contained a list of maltzyme combinations whichincluded those which had been dismissed as the council does not permitan accepted article to be used as a means of advertising an articlenot accepted, it voted to continue the following preparations fora period of three years on condition that reference to the deletedarticles be omitted from the labels when those then in stock had beenused up. Maltzyme, maltzyme with cascara sagrada, maltzyme with codliver oil, maltzyme ferrated and maltzyme with yerba santa while themaltzyme company made no definite agreement to revise its advertisingpropaganda in accordance with the council requirements, the maltzymepreparations were retained in the belief that in due time the requiredrevision of the labels would be made the council being engaged in preparing the 1919 edition of new andnonofficial remedies, the referee in charge of malt extracts reportedthat the maltzyme company had not revised its labels in accordance withthe stipulation of the council the referee further reported he hadbecome convinced that the claim that maltzyme is “rich in malt enzymes”is unwarranted and that the term “maltzyme” malt plus enzyme ismisleading. This because of the recognized instability of malt extracts jour a m a , march 30, 1912, p 954 and because the maltzymecompany makes no definite statement with regard to the diastase maltenzyme content of its preparations 126 for this reason it hadbeen the referee intention to propose the deletion of all maltzymepreparations when their period of acceptance expired in 1919 as, however, the present maltzyme preparations are in contravention withthe council requirements, he recommended that the acceptance of thesepreparations be canceled now 126 manufacturers are warned by the dewritingment of agriculture, through the bureau of chemistry, that combinations claiming to containdigestive enzymes must be active when sold if preparations tend todeteriorate in a short time, each lot should be dated and not soldafter the period when they become inactive while every manufacturermust be considered innocent until proved guilty, and ignorant untilproved knowing, it is a matter of knowledge that manufacturers havemarketed their various digestive mixtures with full appreciation oftheir worthlessness -- jour a m a , dec 19, 1914, p 2234 the council agreed to the recommendation of the referee and directedthat maltzyme, maltzyme with cascara sagrada, maltzyme with cod liveroil, maltzyme ferrated, and maltzyme with yerba santa be omitted fromn n r -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 67 methaform omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of methaform has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary methaform is the proprietary name applied by f stearns & co tochlorbutanol being engaged in the annual revision of new and nonofficial remedies, and the term of acceptance for methaform having expired, a tradepackage was purchased to determine if the product was marketed incompliance with the rules of the council it was then found that acircular was wrapped with the trade package which advertised methaforminhalant, a preparation not accepted for new and nonofficial remedies for obvious reasons, the council does not countenance the use of anaccepted article as a means of advertising an article not accepted accordingly f stearns & co was advised that the council wouldbe obliged to withdraw the acceptance of methaform unless theobjectionable circular was omitted from the methaform packages stearns & co did not give the requested assurance, and therefore thecouncil directed that methaform be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 68 pineal gland, red bone-marrow and thymus gland and their preparations omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of pineal gland, red bone-marrow and thymus gland and theirpreparations has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary pineal gland, red bone-marrow and thymus gland were admitted to newand nonofficial remedies when these products gave promise of havingtherapeutic value the term of acceptance for the preparations of pineal gland, redbone-marrow and thymus gland having expired, the referee in charge ofanimal organ preparations recommended in his report for the annualrevision of n n r that these products and the general articlesdescribing them be omitted from new and nonofficial remedies he heldthat the experimental and clinical experience with them leads to theconclusion that they are without value in accordance with the recommendation of the referee, the council votedthat the following preparations be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies. Desiccated pineal gland-armour. Pineal gland tablets-armour;extract of red bone-marrow-armour. Desiccated thymus-armour.

Also that mettaton essay the dog could not stand sixtytablets at all gar nicht vertragen, such doses causing vomiting, diarrhea and intestinal hemorrhages. On repeated administration thesymptoms became progressively more severe joachimoglu also found that, compared on the basis of arsenic content, elarson, given intravenously, is from ten to twelve times as poisonous as arsenic trioxid elarsonis recommended for the class of paper in which fowler solution isused to sum up. None of the special claims made for elarson-- the arseniccontent, ready absorbability, freedom from irritating action on thegastro-intestinal tract and its alleged better adaptation for continuedadministration-- have been substantiated. On the contrary, they havebeen disproved as well as the theory of its mode of absorption proposedby fischer and klemperer furthermore, joachimoglu found that when itactually got into the circulation intravenous injection in the formin which fischer and klemperer supposed it to be absorbed, it was fromten to twelve times as toxic as arsenic trioxid the council voted to omit elarson from new and nonofficial remediesbecause it is sold under unproved and consequently unwarranted claimsand because it is an unscientific and relatively useless article elarson has not been shown to have advantages over fowler solution;on the contrary, in essay respects at least, it is inferior -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 75 iodiphos report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrya report which appears below was sent charles l heffner forconsideration no reply having been received, the council authorizedits publication w a puckner, secretary iodiphos, marketed by charles l heffner, brooklyn, n y , is declaredto contain ferric citro-iodine, 6 grains. Calcium glycerophosphate, 8 grains. Sodium glycerophosphate, 8 grains, and hypophosphorousacid, 2 minims in each fluidounce, and to present “the metallic andnon-metallic elements. Iron, iodine, phosphorous, calcium and sodium each in separate basic combination ”according to the label, iodiphos is “alterative, tonic, nervine andanti-tubercular” and is “for treatment of blood, nerves and pulmonaryorgans ” an advertising circular129 asserts that “iodiphos exerts itsphysiological action rapidly in hardening of the arteries, high bloodpressure, anaemia, glandular swelling, neurasthenia, hypochondria, phthisis, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia and as an intestinal antisepticand appetizer, ” and declares it to be “indispensable as a tonic andrestorative ”129 after publication of the foregoing report had been authorized bythe council, a letter was received from charles l heffner, advisingthat the distribution of the circulars has been discontinued in the advertising circular it is averred that in the production ofiodiphos “chemistry again aids the modern physician ” iodiphos isanother instance when a decadent polypharmacy proposes haphazardmedication and so obstructs the efforts of modern medicine to establishthe use of single drugs to meet definite indications iodiphos is inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because itis an irrational mixture of drugs sold with therapeutic claims thatare unwarranted, and under a name which is not descriptive of itscomposition -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 81 mervenol and armervenol not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the report which appearsbelow declaring mervenol and armervenol, marketed by the hillelaboratories, inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary mervenol is stated by the proprietors-- the hille laboratories, chicago-- to be a hydrosol colloidal suspension of the sulphides ofmercury and copper, containing sufficient sodium chloride to make itisotonic with blood serum, and “inert proteid” and “carbohydrate” tostabilize the colloidal suspension. Each cubic centimeter is stated tocontain 0 005 gm mercury, 0 0016 gm copper, and 0 0016 gm sulphur it is claimed that this preparation is of value in pneumonia, influenza, and other conditions and diseases requiring increasedleukocytosis it is further claimed that the properties and therapeutic effects ofthis preparation are as follows.

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“the creator of nature has disclosed his benevolenceby wise care for all his creatures, in that he has bestowed upon eachone what is truly of service to it ”this teleological idea of all earthly becoming, being, and passing awaywas henceforth destined to be a permanent factor in human speculation christianity received it as a possession from antique civilization, andonly the philosophy and natural science of modern times have been ableto threaten its permanence biology, as of modern creation, teachesus that all natural phenomena owe their existence to natural causes, that the natural world is subject to natural laws and, accordingly, teleology, as we encounter it in the works of mettaton essay the heathen galen andin the writings of the christian church fathers, has turned out tobe superstition, which, however, must by no means be classed withthe vagaries of mere medico-physical superstition in coming to thisdecision, however, we must beware of rash generalization in thisconnection we refer only to that kind of teleology which dominated theworld previous to the teachings of descartes and spinoza, and previousto the advent of modern natural science, with its biological methods whether, after all, a theory of life might be possible which, whileavoiding the reproach of superstition, might be traced to teleologicalprepossessions, is a question we can not here discuss it is admittedlytrue that the deeper we penetrate into the secrets of nature the moreenergetically the existence of a marvelous, intelligent will manifestsitself as permeating all domains of nature however, if this fact isnot denied on principle, as modern materialism denies it, and properallowance is made for it, a rehabilitation of teleology as a necessaryfactor of our theory of life would be the logical consequence ofcourse, this teleology would bear a stamp entirely different fromthat of antiquity and of the middle ages, which is recognized to besuperstition it should not pretend to include the consideration of theentire organic world, but confine its conclusions to the last linksin the chain of experience and argument which science has forged fromnatural phenomena now this could be accomplished, in our opinion, evenwithout apprehension of interfering with the indispensable requirementsof modern naturalists. “the terrestrial world in its forms andprocesses is governed solely by terrestrial laws ” what the appearanceof such a teleology should be is expressed by william hartpole lecky inthe following:“this conception, which exhibits the universe rather as an organismthan a mechanism, and regards the complexities and adaptations itdisplays rather as the results of gradual development from withinthan of an interference from without, is so novel, and at first sightso startling, that thesis are now shrinking from it in alarm, underthe impression that it destroys the argument from design, and almostamounts to the negation of a supreme intelligence but there can, i think, be little doubt that such fears are, for the most writing, unfounded that matter is governed by mind, that the contrivancesand elaborations of the universe are the products of intelligence, are propositions which are quite unshaken, whether we regard thesecontrivances as the result of a single momentary exercise of will, or of a slow, consistent, and regulated evolution the proofs of apervading and developing intelligence, and the proofs of a coordinatingand combining intelligence, are both untouched, nor can any conceivableprogress of science in this direction destroy them if the famoussuggestion, that all animal and vegetable life results from a singlevital germ, and that all the different animals and plants now existentwere developed by a natural process of evolution from that germ, werea demonstrated truth, we should still be able to point to the evidenceof intelligence displayed in the measured and progressive development, in those exquisite forms so different from what blind chance couldproduce, and in the manifest adaptation of surrounding circumstancesto the living creature, and of the living creature to surroundingcircumstances the argument from design would indeed be changed. Itwould require to be stated in a new form, but it would be fully ascogent as before indeed, it is, perhaps, not too much to say that themore fully this conception of universal evolution is grasped, the morefirmly a scientific doctrine of providence will be established, and thestronger will be the presumption of a future progress ”1 1 “history of the rise and influence of the spirit of rationalism in europe, ” vol i , chapter iii , pages 294-295 compare also magnus, “medicine and religion, ” page 24, sqq in such a manner, despite the fact that in teleology the point ofagreement between theistic and physico-mechanical medical thought hasbeen now found, theism, in the course of the history of our science, continually attempted new attacks upon the physical tendency inmedicine. And with each assault superstition in medicine, as well as inthe natural sciences, was most palpably exposed after having satisfied ourselves in this second chapter regardingtheism and its attitude with reference to the physico-mechanical theoryof life, we shall now enter upon the consideration of the variousforms of medical superstition, and it is our intention, as stated inthe first chapter, so to arrange the enormous material at hand as todiscuss medical superstition according to the sources from which it hassprung we shall begin by pointing out the intimate relations whichhave prevailed between the teachings of religion and superstition iiireligion the support of medical superstitionreligion undoubtedly plays the most conspicuous writing in the historyof medical superstition religious teaching, of whatever character, has fostered medical superstition more than any other factor ofcivilization not only has religion called forth and nourished medicalsuperstition, but it has also defended it with all the influence at itsdisposal indeed, it has not infrequently happened that those who werereluctant to believe in the blessings of a medical theory ridiculouslyperverted by religion were exposed to persecution by fire and sword and this not only from one or other religious denomination, for allreligious believers, without exception, had proved to be the mostassiduous promotors of medical superstition. So that we are probablynot wrong in designating priesthoods in general, whatever their creed, as the most prominent embodiment of medical superstition during certainperiods of the world history but the details will be learned fromthe following paragraphs:§ 1 priesthood the support of medical superstition - the principalreason for a not quite reputable activity in the chosen representativeof a deity is probably the fact that, with the appearance of aphysico-mechanical contemplation of the world, the theistic theory oflife, which until then had exclusive sway, was forced into a pitchedbattle with a newly formulated definition of nature this struggle wascarried on principally by the priesthood, who, as a matter of fact, had most to lose from the ascendency of a new theory of life whichonly reckoned with natural factors they indeed had been the means, until then, of procuring for the people the assistance of the godsin all bodily ailments, as they had been the exclusive depositoriesof physical knowledge and it could scarcely be expected that thepriesthood would at once willingly relinquish the extensive supremacyhitherto exercised by it as the oracle of divine guidance in allmedico-physical questions. For humanity has always considered thepossession of authority much more delightful than submission, and theruler has always objected most energetically to any attempt whichdisputes his rule this was precisely what was done by priests of allcreeds when the mechanico-physical theory of life began to supersedethe obsolete dreams of theistic medicine fair-minded persons willsurely allow that such action was natural but they can not approve ofthe methods resorted to, unless they belong to those who feel boundalways to discern nothing but what is sacred in every action of aservant of heaven in order to wage war most effectively against the physico-mechanicaltheory of life, the priesthood at once claimed for themselves the powerof completely controlling nature they made the people believe thatthe celestials had bestowed upon them the faculty of dominating naturein the interests of the sick, and that all powers of the universe, theobvious ones as well as those mysteriously hidden in the depths ofnature, were obedient to sacerdotal suggestions the servant of heavenprofessed that he could regulate the eternal processes of matter, withits becoming, being, and passing away, quite as irresistibly as his eyewas able to survey the course of time in the past, present, and future equipped with these extensive powers, a priest necessarily appearedto the people not only as physician, but also as a miraculous beingcrowned with the halo of the supernatural and this was the rôle heactually played in thesis ancient religions with the peoples of italythe priest appeared at a period, indeed, which was previous to thebeginning of rome as physician, prophet, interpreter of dreams, raiser of tempests, etc he held exactly the same offices among theceltic tribes in gaul and britain his position was the same in theoriental world, and by the medians and the persians especially werepriests considered to be persons endowed with supernatural powers we may notice that members of a certain median tribe formed thesacerdotal caste, and bore the name of “magi ” however, this name, which originally was confined to the priestly order, obtained, in thecourse of time, a distinctly secular meaning very soon thesis cunningfellows arrived at the conclusion that the trade of a sacerdotalphysician and conjurer might bring a profitable livelihood to itsprofessor, even if this professor were not a priest but a layman thusthere arose a special profession of sorcerers, miracle workers, andmedicine-men, who protested with solemn emphasis that they were ableto cure all physical as well as psychical ailments of their fellowmen as thoroughly as the priests had done but in order to bestowthe required consecration upon this art, these gentlemen usurped thevenerable name of the above-mentioned median sacerdotal caste andcalled themselves “magi ” thus it happened that the name “magus” magician, which originally served to designate a distinct sacerdotalcaste, deteriorated into a designation of charlatans and swindlers this could never have occurred unless the priests had prostituted theirsublime profession and degraded it to various kinds of discreditablemedico-physical deceptions this alone is why priesthood is responsiblefor the rise of the magicians, of these worthless fakirs but if pliny book 30, chapter i , § 2 attempts to rank magic as an offshoot ofmedicine, he is justified in doing so only in so far as the priest, during the theistic period, was also the physician, as is well known only from this point of view is it possible to trace a genetic relationbetween medicine and magic but medicine in itself has not takenthe slightest writing in the promotion of magic and the success of itsunsavory reputation indeed, our science has suffered too much throughthe practise of magic to burden itself with the paternity of thisdisreputable child of civilization it appears that the name of the celtic priests “druids” had becomesubject to the same abuse as the name of the median priests ofsacerdotal caste thus we learn of female fortune-tellers of thethird century, a d , who call themselves “druidesses ” but it seemsthat this application of the word “druid” has remained a localone and strictly limited, whereas the expression “magician, ” quitegenerally employed, became, in the course of time, the designation ofcharlatans and medical impostors for these swindlers, who carried onmedico-physical hocuspocus, and who claimed to exercise supernaturalpowers, were called “magicians” during the entire period of classicantiquity, and we find the same use of the word in the middle ages, andessaytimes also in more modern times but this profession of magician, which sprang from priesthood, haslargely promoted superstition in medicine, and was writingicularlyinstrumental in bringing it into extraordinary repute it is ourintention to concern ourselves a little more minutely with magiciansand magic §2 the spread of the word “magic ” how and when magic wastransplanted from its oriental home to the occident can not bedetermined with certainty. For the greeks, as well as all antiquepeoples, probably all nations, had a belief in ghosts and demons, infortune-telling, and in sorcery but it appears, nevertheless, thatthe ancient civilized peoples of the orient, and writingicularly thepersians, cultivated the magic arts with especial devotion, and itis more than probable that it was from the east that the prevailingcult of magic had been imported into the west pliny, for one, tellsus book 30, chapter i , § 8 that magic was brought to europe bya certain osthanes, who accompanied king xerxes on his militaryexpedition against greece this man osthanes, as pliny reports further, is said to have disseminated the seeds of this supernatural art velutsemina artis portentosæ insparsit wherever he went, and with suchsuccess that the hellenic peoples were actually mad after it, andprominent men traveled through writings of the orient, there to acquirepersonally and thoroughly these magic arts, thus, as was the case withpythagoras, empedocles, democritus, and plato in fact, it is said ofdemocritus that he opened the tomb of a celebrated magician dardanus ofphœnicia that he might restore to publicity the mysterious writings ofthe latter it appears, moreover, that alexander the great entertainedan implicit belief in magic at least, pliny reports that during hiswars he was always accompanied by a celebrated magician magic arts were likewise in favor among the romans even nero attemptedto master the secrets of magic, altho unsuccessfully pliny, book 30, chapter ii , § 5 a writingicular impetus was given to magic toward theend of the last century before christ and during the first centuryof the christian era, when the rise of thesis fantastic philosophicalsystems greatly promoted and supported the belief in the supernaturalpowers of magic subsequently, in the middle ages, magic experienced anaccepted and systematic development these conditions, however, will bemore explicitly referred to later on the treatment of the sick through supernatural agencies assumedquite astonishing dimensions under the roman emperors the beliefin magicians was so generally disseminated that even the emperorsthemselves and the imperial authorities were almost completely devotedto it thus, for instance, the emperor hadrian 117-138, a d causedhimself to be treated by physicians who claimed miraculous powers, and he is said to have written a book on theurgy in fact, suidas 62julianus reports that hadrian, on account of a severe outbreak ofpestilence in rome, sent for the son of the chaldean, julian, who, simply by the power of his miracles, arrested the progress of thedisease under antoninus pius official proclamations were made in theforum, directing the attention of the people to the importance ofmagicians philostratus, 43, and the emperor marcus aurelius evenrelates that, when in caieta, the gods in a dream prescribed a remedyfor the hemorrhagic cough and vertigo from which he was suffering “marcus aurelius, ” chapter i , § 17, page 11 but it appears that the magicians finally went too far with theirtricks, and endangered human life by their treatment. So that severalemperors decided upon adopting more rigorous measures against theirknaveries the emperor septimius severus 193-211, altho himselforiginally devoted to magic, prohibited, when on a visit in egypt, all books which taught curious arts aelius swritingianus, “hadrianus, ”chapter xv , § 5, page 146 later the emperor diocletian tookenergetic steps toward abating the mischief done by magical treatmentof the sick, and the magicians were permitted to carry on such artsonly so far as would not be detrimental to the health of the people however, this order did not check the magicians any more than itbenefited those who were still tortured and brought to the pointof death by magic quackery neither did medical science derive anyadvantage whatever from this well-meant but completely abortive effortof the emperor, for the magic physicians persisted in carrying ontheir hocuspocus, and unconcernedly debased the pharmacopœia by theintroduction of nonsensical and loathessay substances let us examinemore in detail this dewritingment of medical practise among the magicians § 3 the medical practise of the magicians - the magicians adoptedvarious modes of procedure in the treatment of the sick. They eitherattempted, as do our modern quacks, to create the impression, byadministering medicine, that they were actually able to direct thetreatment of the ailing in a rational manner, or they restrictedthemselves to various kinds of magical observances the drug therapy of the magicians actually utilized everything underthe sun as a remedy the more out of the way and the less suitablefor a remedy a substance seemed to be, the more likely it was to bechosen by the magician intent upon healing for it was always themain object of these practising quacks to make their treatment assensational as possible in this they succeeded best by employingthe most extraordinary substances as remedies thus they made use ofgold, silver, precious stones and pearls, just because these, owing totheir value, were held in great esteem, and their medical application, therefore, was bound to create a sensation but the most loathessaysubstances were quite as readily employed, for here, too, the mostgeneral attention was bound to be attracted by their application human feces, urine, and menstrual blood were introduced into themateria medica in such a manner the awe with which writings of corpsesusually inspired the non-medical writing of the public was relied upon bythe magicians to advertise their cures thus these quacks administeredpowders of human bones to the ailing but inasmuch as what is conspicuous and unusual has always enjoyedan especial esteem with humanity, the incredible remedies of themagicians naturally found everywhere an abundance of believers. Andas writingicularly the most nonsensical theory is most tenacious oflife, provided it has been presented in apparent combination with themiraculous, the medical armamentarium rapidly took on a very peculiaraspect until the present more modern times medicine was condemnedto the encumbrance of this rubbish, this list of odd and loathessayremedies, whose admission to the pharmacopœia was only due to the whimof a human mind that constantly hankers after the extraordinary and themiraculous finally the magic observances to which the magicians resorted in thetreatment of the sick, have shown a remarkable vitality, for theyare in vogue even in modern times, and thesis sections of our peopleeven to-day swear unconditionally by the curative efficacy of variousagencies which demonstratively have been derived from the medicine ofthe magicians but now such agencies are no longer ascribed to magic orsorcery, but they are called “cures by means of sympathy ” and as thesismodern people believe that various incomprehensible mystic performancescause certain mysterious powers, otherwise absolutely unknown, toexert a curative influence upon certain diseases, so did the ancientsbelieve exactly the same this was the origin of exorcism as a remedyfor disease exorcism played a conspicuous writing in the middle ages asa means of stopping hemorrhages, and even in these modern times, as iswell-known, this method of cure finds thesis adherents this magic treatment was believed to be especially efficacious if theexorcisms had been written or engraved upon paper, gold, preciousstones, etc , in which case they were suspended around the neck ofthe patient countless talismans from the arabic tilsam, magicimage and amulets from the arabic hamalet, trinket were thusmanufactured, and even to our own time there are survivals of thismedical superstition altho these mystic observances are performed invarious ways, and their modifications are practically innumerable, yetcertain radical resemblances are continually appearing among the magicrites of the most diverse races, and essay of these practises have evenpersisted up to the present time thus the rope of the hung criminalplays a conspicuous writing in antique magic as well as in modern sympathytreatment. The same importance is attributed to shooting-stars, tothe moon, to crossroads, to certain numerals, such as 3, 7, 9, etc it is a highly interesting fact that such conceptions, as remarkablefor their therapeutical associations as for their crass superstition, are possessed of a vitality which persists for centuries peoples, religions, philosophical systems, political revolutions have risenand vanished, but the belief in the curative action of the rope of ahung criminal or the therapeutic significance of the crossroad hassurvived the mystic influence which is exerted by the numerals 3, 7, 9, and still more so by the dreadful 13, upon the life and health ofman, haunts the minds of the multitude in this century of physicalenlightenment exactly as it did in remote antiquity but we can nothere enter into the reason for these interesting facts, and we mustrefer those who desire more detailed information on this subject to thevoluminous literature of superstition furthermore, the belief in magic cures was not more prevalent amongthe ancient professors of medicine than among the laity, and even themost prominent practitioners were not able to emancipate themselvesfrom this belief galen, for instance, who, as is well-known, masteredthe entire literature of antique medicine as none before or after himhas ever done, openly avows his belief in the efficacy of magic cures, and, what is more remarkable, galen in this respect has changed from asaul to a paul he ruefully recalled, later, the condemnatory decreewhich he had originally promulgated regarding the magic treatment ofthe sick let us call to mind how he expresses himself in his essayon medical treatment in homer.