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Memoir Essay Example


“there are cogent reasons connected with publicpolicy and the peace of families, where in the absence of testamentarydisposition the possession of a corpse and the right to determine itsburial should follow the administration of the estate ” inasmuch asthe husband has the first right to administer upon the estate of thewife, and the wife upon the estate of the husband, the law imposes thecorrelative duty of burial upon the person having such right. And soit has been held that the husband is liable for the necessary expenseof the decent interment of his wife from whom he has been separated, whether the writingy incurring the expense is an undertaker or merevolunteer 494where the deceased leaves a will appointing executors, the executorshave a right to the possession of the body, and the duty of burialis imposed upon them, but it has been doubted whether at common lawa direction by will concerning the disposal of the body could beenforced, and therefore the right to make such direction has beenconferred by statute in several states 495and where a widow ordered a funeral of her husband, it was held thatshe was liable for the expense, although she was an infant at the time, the court holding that the expense fell under the head of necessaries, for which infants’ estates are liable 496if there be no husband or wife of the deceased, the nearest of kinin the order of right to administration is charged with the duty ofburial 497such acts as casting a dead human body into a river without the ritesof sepulture kanavans case, 1 me , 226. Stealing a corpse 2 east, pc , 652 or stealing for dissection a dead body of one executed whenthe death sentence did not direct dissection rex v cundick, d &r , n p , 13, were indictable offences at common law 498in the works of the early dramatists, and by essay writers of fiction, it has been stated, or implied, that the body of a deceased personcould be seized and detained to compel the payment of his debts thiswas never the law in jones v ashburnham, 4 east, 460, it was heldthat to seize a dead body on pretence of arresting for debt would becontra bonos mores, and an extortion on the relatives, and that casedistinctly overrules any authority to be derived from the case of quickv coppleton, 1 vent , 161, to the effect that forbearance to seizeor hold a body upon such a pretence would afford any consideration fora promise to pay a debt so, also, where a jailer refused to give upa body of a person who had died while a prisoner in execution in hiscustody, to the executors of the deceased, unless they would satisfycertain claims against the deceased due the jailer, the court issueda peremptory mandamus in the first instance, commanding that the bodyshould be delivered up to the executors rex v fox, 2 q b , 247 and in r v scott, 2 q b , 248, it was said, that a jailer whoshould attempt to do so would be guilty of misconduct in his publiccharacter, for which he would be liable to prosecution 499how and by whom the dead human body may be removed or exhumed - wherethe right of burial has been exercised, and the body interred inits final resting-place, no person has any right to interferewith it without the consent of the owner of the grave, or of theproperly constituted public authorities in foster v dodd, 8 d & e , 842-854, it was held, that a dead body belongs to no one, andis, therefore, under the protection of the public if it lies inconsecrated ground, ecclesiastical authorities will interpose forits protection. But whether in ground consecrated or unconsecrated, indignities offered to the remains or the act of indecentlydisinterring them, are the ground of an indictment 500even the purchaser of land upon which is located a burial-ground maybe enjoined from removing bodies therefrom, if he attempts to do soagainst the wishes of the relatives or next of kin of the deceased every interment is a concession of the privilege which cannot afterwardbe repudiated, and the purchaser title to the ground is fettered withthe right of burial 501on the other hand, the right of the municipal or state authorities, with the consent of the owner of the burial lot or in the execution ofthe right of eminent domain, to remove dead bodies from cemeteries iswell settled 502after the right of burial has once been exercised by the person chargedwith the duty of burial, or where such person has consented to theburial by another person, no right to the corpse remains except toprotect it from unlawful interference 503on the other hand, where a husband did not freely consent to the burialof his wife in a lot owned by another person, it was held that a courtof equity might permit him, after such burial, to remove her body, coffin, and tombstones to his own lot, and restrain any person frominterfering with such removal 504in rhodes v brandt, 21 hun, n y , 1, the defendant brought anaction against one beelard to recover for services rendered by him, asa physician, in treating a child of beelard for a fracture of thethigh-bone, in which action beelard set up malpractice on the writing ofthe defendant as a defence during the pendency of the action the childdied and was buried subsequently beelard, the father, acting under theadvice of his counsel, directed and allowed the plaintiff, a physician, to cause the body of the child to be exhumed, and a portion of thethigh-bone to be removed, in order that it might be used in evidence onthe trial of the question of malpractice after the bone was removed, the body was returned to the grave the defendant thereupon caused theplaintiff to be arrested for unlawfully removing the body from thegrave contrary to the provisions of the statute, and the plaintiffsued the defendant for malicious prosecution the court held that theplaintiff had not removed the body from the grave “for the purpose ofdissection or from mere wantonness, ” as these terms were used in thestatute 3 r s , 6th ed , 965, for violation of which he had beenarrested, nor had he committed any offence against public decency orthe spirit of the statute 505autopsies, by whom ordered. The rights of relatives and accusedpersons - as shown in a previous article in this volume, on the powersand duties of coroners and medical examiners, in paper of sudden orsuspicious death, it has been the law for nearly a thousand yearsthat an inquisition or inquest super visum corporis must be held byan officer known as a coroner, and that this office and its powers andduties were inherited by this country as writing of the english common-lawsystem in force at the time of the formation of the republic of theunited states when a body has been buried, and the coroner believesthat an inquest is necessary, he has power to disinter the body andhold an inquest, and he may direct a post-mortem examination to bemade, but after having done so he must cause the body to be reinterred it is now well settled that in holding such an inquest, and making suchan autopsy or post-mortem examination required by his official duty, the coroner has authority to employ, and it is his duty to employ, professional skill and aid, and his contract will bind the county topay a reasonable compensation for the same 506as will be seen below from a synopsis of the statutes relating tothis matter, thesis of the states have enacted statutes defining andprescribing the duties of the coroner and other public officers in suchpaper at an early period in england see 2 and 3 will iv , chap 75, sec 7 it was enacted by the english parliament that any executoror other person having lawful possession of the body of a deceasedperson, and not being an undertaker or other writingy entrusted with thebody for the purpose only of interment, might lawfully permit the bodyof such deceased person to undergo an anatomical examination, unlessto the knowledge of such executor or other writingy such person shouldhave expressed his desire during his life in writing, or verbally inthe presence of two or more witnesses during his illness whereof hedied, that his body after death might not undergo such examination, orunless the surviving husband or wife or known relative of the deceasedshall require the body to be interred without such examination byanother section of this statute sec 10, professors of anatomy andother persons duly licensed were declared not liable to punishment forhaving in their possession human bodies when having such possessionaccording to the provisions of the act section 308 of the new york penal code, subdivision 3, as amendedby chapter 500, laws 1889, enacts that whenever and so far as thehusband, wife, or next of kin of the deceased, being charged by lawwith the duty of burial, may authorize dissection for the purposeof ascertaining the cause of death and no further, the right existsto dissect the dead human body the same statute also provides thatwhenever any district attorney of that state, in the discharge ofhis official duties, shall deem it necessary, he may exhume, takepossession of, and remove the body of a deceased person, or anyportion thereof, and submit the same to a proper physical or chemicalexamination or analysis, to ascertain the cause of death, whichexamination or analysis will be made on the order of a justice of thesupreme court of the state, or the county judge of the county in whichthe dead bodies shall be, granted on the application of the districtattorney, with or without notice to the relatives of the deceasedperson, or to any person or corporation having the legal charge ofsuch body, as the court may direct the district attorney shall alsohave power to direct the sheriff, constable, or other peace officer, and employ such person or persons as he may deem necessary to assisthim, in exhuming, removing, obtaining possession of, and examiningphysically or chemically such dead body, or any portion thereof. Theexpense thereof to be a county charge paid by the county treasurer onthe certificate of the district attorney the matter of ordering autopsies and dissections of dead bodies, orexhuming the same for that purpose or other purposes, is a matter of somuch public importance that it has been regulated in nearly all of theunited states by statutory enactments, which together with the otherstatutes relating to the subject-matter of this article are hereuntoappended the author of this article is greatly indebted for assistance inpreparing the same, and in compiling these statutes, to mr amasa j parker, jr , of the albany, n y , bar appendix statutory regulations concerning dead bodies the coroner has power to hold inquest and direct autopsy, ala , code, sec 4, 801 et seq ariz , pen code, sec 2, 309 et seq ark , r s , sec 692 cal , pen code. Sec 1, 510 col , mill stat , sec 870 conn , gen stat , secs 2, 005, 2, 008 del , r s , ch 33 fla , r s , secs 3, 011, 3, 019 ga , code, secs 590, 591, 4, 101 et seq idaho, r s , sec 8, 377 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, 606 ind , r s , secs 5, 878, 5, 879 iowa, mccl am code, sec 487 kan , gen stat , secs 1, 780, 1, 784 ky , gen stat , ch 25, secs 3, 11 la , voorh rev l , sec 653 me , r s , ch 139, sec 1 md , code, art 22, secs 3, 4 minn , gen stat , sec 1, 011 et seq miss , am code, sec 816 mo , r l , sec 2, 438 et seq mont , crim l , secs 869, 883 neb , consol stat , sec 3, 144 n h , pub stat , ch 262, sec 1 et seq n j , rev stat , p 170 et seq n c , code, sec 657 n dak , comp laws, sec 664 et seq ohio, r l , sec 1, 221 et seq oklahoma, stat , sec 1, 745 et seq ore , crim code, sec 453 et seq pa , bright pen digest, 1536, sec 37 r i , pub laws, 1884, ch 420, sec 17 s c , r s , secs 711, 2, 664 et seq tenn , code, sec 6, 139 et seq va , code, sec 2, 928 et seq wash , hill am stat , v 1, sec 245 et seq w va , code, ch 154 wis , s & b am stat , ch 200 wyo , r s , sec 1, 879 et seq medical examiner shall hold inquest and direct autopsy mass , pub stat , ch 26, secs 10, 11 r i , pub laws, 1884, ch 420 justice of the peace shall hold inquest and direct autopsy mich , how am stat , v 2, sec 9, 583 et seq nev , gen stat , sec 225 et seq n m , comp l , sec 443 et seq texas, code crim p , art 988 et seq vt , rev l , sec 3, 934 et seq wis , s & b am stat , ch 200 and may order a body to be disinterred for the purpose of holding suchinquisition ark , r l , sec 718 cal , pen code, sec 1, 510 del , r l , ch 33 ga , code, secs 590, 591, 410 et seq idaho, r l , sec 8, 377 s c , r s , sec 2, 687 texas, code crim p , art 989 and when not claimed by friends and relatives, to bury the bodydecently, and when the property of deceased is not sufficient to defrayexpenses, this may be done at public expense cal , pen code, sec 3, 094 col , mill stat , sec 882 conn , gen stat , sec 2, 015 idaho, r l , sec 2, 081 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, 606 iowa, mccl am code, sec 501 kan , gen stat , sec 1, 792 ky , gen stat , ch 25, sec 6 la , voorh rev l , sec 660 me , r s , ch 139, sec 11 md , code, art 22, sec 7 mass , laws, 1887, ch 310 mich , how am stat , v 3, sec 9, 593 minn , gen stat , sec 1, 021 miss , am code, secs 3, 145, 3, 146 mo , r l , sec 2, 456 mont , gen laws, sec 881 neb , consol stat , sec 3, 144 nev , gen stat , sec 2, 269 n h , pub stat , ch 262, sec 16 n j , rev stat , p 170, sec 5 n m , comp laws, sec 447 n dak , comp laws, sec 676 ohio, r l , sec 1, 227 oklahoma, stat , sec 1, 759 ore , crim code, sec 462 r i , pub laws, 1884, ch 420, sec 24 tenn , code, sec 6, 150 va , code, sec 3, 946 wash , hill am stat , v 1, sec 257 w va , code, ch 154, sec 8 wis , s & b am stat , ch 200 wyo , r s , sec 1, 886 removal or disinterment of a dead body without authority of law orconsent of relatives, for the purpose of selling such body or fordissection or for mere wantonness, is a a felony cal , pen code, sec 290 ga , laws, 1882, v 2, p 87 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, p 794 ind , r s , sec 2, 166 mo , r s , secs 3, 842, 3, 845 mont , laws, 1889, p 114 n c , laws, 1885, ch 90 b a misdemeanor ark , r s , secs 1, 902, 1, 903 del , laws, 1883, ch 234 kan , gen stat , sec 2, 372 et seq md , code, art 27, secs 133, 134 pa , bright pen digest, 229, sec 11 tenn , code, secs 5, 659, 5, 660 c is punishable by various sentences ala , code, secs 4, 023, 4, 028 ariz , pen code, sec 491 col , mill stat , sec 1, 367 conn , gen stat , sec 1, 880 fla , r l , sec 2, 625 iowa, mccl am code, sec 5, 328 ky , gen stat , ch 29, art 17, sec 16 me , r s , ch 124, sec 27 mass , pub stat , ch 207, secs 47, 48 mich , how stat , v 2, sec 9, 297 miss , am code, secs 1, 023, 1, 024 neb , consol stat , sec 5, 847 n h , pub stat , ch 266, sec 7 n dak , comp laws, sec 6, 559 ohio, r l , sec 7, 034 oklahoma, stat , sec 2, 198 ore , crim code, sec 656 texas, pen code, art 345 vt , rev l , secs 4, 194, 4, 196 va , code, sec 208 w va , code, ch 149, sec 13 wis , s & b am stat , sec 4, 592 wyo , r l , sec 1, 029 d a high misdemeanor n j , rev stat , p 249, sec 122 bodies of criminals executed under sentence, and those dying in jail, poor-house, etc , when to be delivered over for dissection ark , r s , sec 2, 552 cal , pen code, sec 3, 094 col , mill stat , secs 1, 547, 1, 548, 1, 204 conn , gen stat , secs 1, 729, 1, 732 ga , laws, 1887, v 2, p 87 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, 869 ill , crim code, sec 503 ill , s & c am stat , v 3, p 867 ind , r l , sec 4, 258 et seq iowa, mccl am code, sec 5, 329 kan , gen stat , sec 3, 758 me , r s , ch 13, sec 2 me , laws, 1893, ch 254 mass , laws, 1891, ch 185 mass , pub stat , ch 202, sec 8 mich , how stat , v 3, sec 2, 284 minn , gen stat , sec 678 mo , r s , sec 6, 883 neb , consol stat , secs 3, 299, 3, 301, 5, 848 n h , pub stat , ch 136 n j , rev stat , p 239, sec 69 n c , laws, 1891, ch 129 n dak , laws, 1890, ch 92 ohio, r s , sec 3, 763 ore , hill am laws, sec 3, 730 et seq pa , bright pen dig , p 94, sec 1 et seq vt , laws, 1884, ch 85 va , code, ch 80 wash , hill am stat , v 1, sec 2, 428 et seq wash , s & b am stat , sec 1, 437 duty of burial, etc ariz , pen code, sec 493 cal , pen code, sec 292 minn , gen stat , sec 6, 221 n dak , comp laws, secs 6, 550, 6, 556 oklahoma, stat , sec 2, 189 concealing birth of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, ispunishable col , mill stat , sec 1, 195 fla , r l , sec 2, 393 mass , pub stat , ch 207, sec 11 mich , how am stat , sec 9, 284 mont , crim l , sec 41 neb , consol stat , sec 5, 582 nev , gen stat , sec 4, 597 n h , pub stat , ch 278, sec 14 n dak , comp l , sec 6, 947 oklahoma, stat , sec 2, 179 ore , crim code, sec 649 pa , bright pen digest, 431, sec 158 r i , pub stat , ch 244, sec 8 wis , s & b am stat , sec 4, 585 is a misdemeanor minn , gen stat , sec 6, 210 n j , rev stat , p 241, sec 83 is a felony mo , r s , sec 3, 479 whether born dead or alivealabama removal of body wantonly for dissection or sale, purchase of abody unlawfully disinterred, violating grave with intent to stealbody, etc , or wantonly mutilating body, is punishable by fine orimprisonment code, secs 4, 023, 4, 028 coroner, or in his absence justice of the peace, to hold inquest anddirect examination of body by surgeon, etc code, sec 4, 801 etseq arizona mutilation, etc , of dead body is a felony pen code, sec 491 removal of a writing of body unlawfully is punishable pen code, sec 492 duty of burying body is, if a married woman, on husband.

3 unwarranted therapeutic claims are madefor them memoir essay example. 4 the name is misleading and not descriptive of theircomposition, and 5 the statement of their composition is indefiniteand incorrect -- from the journal a m a , july 9, 1921 toxicide report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized the publication of the following report. W a puckner, secretary toxicide toxicide laboratories, chicago is alleged to be a remedywhich “increases systemic resistance, ” is “used for immunizing againstseptic infections” and “is indicated in any case of septic infection, capable of inducing inflammation and pus formation, regardless oflocation or kind of tissue involved ” the following statementsbearing on the composition of the preparation are furnished by themanufacturers. “toxicide contains lachesis 12x, tarantula 6x, psorinum special 15x, silicia 6x and excipient q s the excipient is sweet milk “these remedies are combined in the sweet milk and put through a process of development, which produces the curative agent which we call ‘toxicide’ “put up in tablet form, sugar coated and colored red ”no information is given as to the proportions, either relative oractual, of the ingredients neither is any information given regardingthe “process of development” to which the mixture is subjected, nor theamount of the finished mixture which is contained in toxicide tablets the toxicide laboratories present the following “theory”. “in combining these remedies and processing with milk, we develop a latent immunizing active principle, which usually controls the most virulently, active, septic infections promptly ”illustration. Photographic reproduction reduced of an advertisementof the “originator” of toxicide. It ran for thesis months in the programof a burlesque theater located in ruckel neighborhood there is no evidence, however, that any effort has been made todemonstrate the presence of a “latent immunizing active principle” byscientific methods of modern immunology the following claims for theuse of toxicide appear on the label. “acne, boils, carbuncles, furuncles and abscesses of the most virulent types usually begin to show improvement within 4 to 12 hours after beginning administration “in badly infected wounds, toxicide will check the further destruction of live tissue and should always be given for a few days before and after operations on pus paper “for gunshot wounds and other conditions difficult to sterilize or drain, toxicide is the ideal remedy “for abscesses existing or threatened in any obscure location, the middle ear, the mastoid, the frontal or any accessory sinuses, toxicide is of inestimable value “if administered early, in fractures, compound or simple, or for laceration and other injuries, inflammation, swelling, soreness and destruction of tissue will be greatly mitigated ”in support of these claims there are offered letters from physicianswho have used toxicide with good results none of these testimonialspresent evidence that the reported effects were due to toxicide the asserted-- and highly improbable-- action of toxicide could bedetermined only by an extensive series of carefully controlled clinicaltrials-- and such evidence is entirely lacking in fact, the claimsappear to have no better basis than the coincidence which is stated tohave led to the discovery of the “remedy”. Namely, that a boil on theneck disappeared shortly after the administration of toxicide!. The council finds toxicide inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesbecause 1 the identity and amount of the potent constituent orconstituents have not been furnished. 2 the preparation is advertisedindirectly to the public. 3 the name “toxicide” is therapeuticallysuggestive, and 4 the therapeutic claims, being unsubstantiated byevidence, are unwarranted illustration.

Thesis small fluid hemorrhages in substance. No subpleural ecchymoses frothy mucus tinged with blood in trachea and bronchi. Bronchi congested brain and abdominal organs normal proof of death by suffocation it is essaytimes difficult in a given case to state whether death is dueto suffocation there is no lesion which of itself could be accepted asproof but a collation of the lesions found taken in connection withthe surroundings of the body will in thesis if not in most paper lead toa definite conclusion infants have been found alive four and five hours after having beenburied in the earth 923 if the pulverulent material has penetratedinto the œsophagus and stomach, the burial has occurred during life exceptionally when burial has occurred after death and traces of thematerial are found in the air-passages, they are not found in theœsophagus or stomach the committee on “suffocation, ” of the new york med leg soc , reported924 the following group of appearances as evidences of death by suffocation. The general venous character of the blood, the turgidity of the larger veins, the congestion of the parenchymatous organs, especially at the base of the brain, the lungs congested in a variable degree and œdematous, frothy mucus in the bronchi, the right side of the heart always fuller than the left fitz925 holds that suffocation is a condition composed of a group of symptoms and appearances due most probably to accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood and a deficiency of oxygen the appearances are. The blood dark and fluid though in gradual suffocation there may be clots in the right side of the heart, the right side of the heart full, venous congestion of the lungs not constant, interstitial emphysema of the lungs, and venous congestion of the liver, kidneys, and brain he prefers the word engorgement to congestion in this connection tardieu926 holds that when in infants buried in pulverulentsubstances we find emphysema of the lungs in high degree, bloody frothin the air-passages, abundant subpleural and subpericardial ecchymosesand the blood fluid, the burial has occurred during life the samelesions are found in small animals similarly treated it must not be forgotten that an intoxicated person or one in anepileptic spasm is practically helpless, and can, therefore, besuffocated, accidentally or otherwise, under circumstances in which onein possession of his senses would be able to escape accidental, homicidal, and suicidal suffocation accidental suffocation is frequent, as has already appeared suicidal suffocation is very rare homicidal suffocation occurs foreign bodies have been forced into the air-passages smothering hasbeen done by holding the face in various materials to prevent accessof air. By pressure on the chest. By forcible closure of the mouth andnose as in burking. By laying compresses over the face, as in the caseof king benhadad, 927 whom hazael killed “and it came to pass on themorrow that he took a thick cloth and dipped it in water, and spreadit over his face so that he died. And hazael reigned in his stead ”benhadad was already quite ill and not expected to live death by suffocation928 may be considered as presumptive of homicideunless the facts are already referable to accident in infants, suffocation is, of course, either accidental or homicidal;in adults usually accidental the absence of signs of a strugglein adults suggests accident. Unless there is cause of suspicion ofprevious stupefying with narcotics taylor929 calls attention to a dangerous practice among essayattendants upon infants, of putting into the mouth of the child toquiet it a bag containing sugar. And instances a case in which thechild would have died of suffocation but for the fortunate discovery ofa writing of the bag protruding from the mouth in ten years, 3, 612 deaths were reported in the city of london, ofinfants smothered by being overlaid 930infants may be born into a mass of blood and fæces, from which theunattended mother in her weakness may be unable to remove them page931 shows by experiment that the inspiratory effort when violently exerted is sufficient to convey small objects into the air-passages cinders passed thus into the trachea and œsophagus of kittens and rabbits berenguier932 experimented on new-born pups, placing them in ashes, plaster, and starch in ashes they lived fifteen hours. These found their way into the middle of the œsophagus, but were stopped at the glottis plaster and starch formed a paste with the oral mucus and the movement of the mass was not so great as the ashes in no case did either of the materials pass beyond the glottis tardieu933 examined three infants which had been buried during life one was in ashes. The nose was obstructed, mouth full. Ashes also in the œsophagus and stomach, but none in larynx or bronchi the second infant was in manure. A greenish stuff was found in the mouth and stomach the third in bran confessed to by the mother.

I shall give you rules for it in the next chapter mix them together, and drink a draught of it at your pleasure if you love memoir essay example tart things, add ten drops of oil of vitriol to your pint, and shake it together, and it will have a fine grateful taste 5 all juleps are made for present use. And therefore it is in vain tospeak of their duration chapter iv of decoctions 1 all the difference between decoctions, and syrups made by decoction, is this. Syrups are made to keep, decoctions only for present use. Foryou can hardly keep a decoction a week at any time.

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Virchow archiv, 1878, lxxiv , p 401 - suicidalhanging examination twenty-eight weeks after death the front ofthe neck showed a memoir essay example groove above the larynx, firm and of gray color;ecchymosis in subcutaneous tissue 16 bollinger. Friedreich blätt f ger med , 1889, xl , p 7 - man, age 48. Found dead had made a ligature out of a night-gownand tied it around his neck, the other end around top of a lowbed-post. His neck hung by the ligature placed below the larynx illustrated 17 med times and gaz , london, 1860, ii , p 39 - woman. Hadcollected accounts of celebrated persons who had been hanged. Finallyhanged herself 18 e hoffman. Mitt d wien med doct colleg , 1878, iv , pp 97-112 - 1st woman, age about 25. Found dead sitting in bed, ahandkerchief around her neck fastened to the bed-curtain the policethought she had been killed and then hung, but the physician concludedthat she had committed suicide an examination of the stomach showedthat she had previously tried to poison herself with arsenic 19 2d woman, age 51. Found hanging in half-lying position 20 3d man, age 50 first tried to kill himself with phosphorus, thensulphuric acid. Finally hung himself in a half-kneeling position 21 müller-beninga. Berlin klin woch , 1877, xiv , p 481 - man, age 40.