Medical School Essay Service

Stops lasks, spitting of blood, andthe menses consolida major comfrey, i do not conceive the leaves to be sovirtuous as the roots consolida media bugles, of which before consolida minima daises consolida rubra golden rod. Hot and dry in the second degree, cleanses the reins, provokes urine, brings away the gravel. Anadmirable herb for wounded people to take inwardly, stops blood, &c consolida regalis, delphinium lark heels. Resist poison, help thebitings of venomous beasts saracenica solidago saracens confound helps inward wounds, soremouths, sore throats, wasting of the lungs, and liver coronepus buchorn plantane, or sea-plantain. Cold and dry, helps thebitings of venomous beasts, either taken inwardly, or applied to thewound.

Theleaves remain a long time, before any stalk appears, afterwards risingup a reasonable medical school essay service big stalk, three or four feet high, and bravely deckedwith flowers from the middle of the stalk upwards. For on the lowerwriting of the stalk, there is neither branches nor leaf the flowers arehooded and gaping, being white in colour, and standing in brownishhusk, with a long small undivided leaf under each leaf. They seldomseed in our country its roots are thesis, great and thick, blackishwithout and whitish within, full of a clammy sap. A piece of them ifyou set it in the garden, and defend it from the first winter cold willgrow and flourish place they are only nursed in the gardens in england, where theywill grow very well time it flowers in june and july government and virtues it is an excellent plant under the dominionof the moon. I could wish such as are studious would labour to keepit in their gardens the leaves being boiled and used in clysters, isexcellent good to mollify the belly, and make the passage slippery thedecoction drank inwardly, is excellent and good for the bloody-flux;the leaves being bruised, or rather boiled and applied like a poulticeare excellent good to unite broken bones and strengthen joints thathave been put out the decoction of either leaves or roots being drank, and the decoction of leaves applied to the place, is excellent goodfor the king evil that is broken and runs.

An ideal prophylactic for all infectious diseases ” “a true alterative and tissue builder ” “the value of protonuclein depends upon its ability to increase cell power and promote tissue strength it is therefore needed whenever the organism is below the normal standard, medical school essay service more especially in anaemia, typhoid, neoplasms and as a prophylactic ”all the foregoing claims and recommendations are supposed to be basedon certain alleged discoveries which the council has previouslycharacterized as “a tissue of vague speculations in direct conflictwith the known facts of physiologic chemistry ” as for the third claim, hunt and seidell have commented on the danger of recommending thyroid, the most powerful tissue-destroying drug known, as a “tissue builder ”protonuclein beta, it is said. “ combines the reconstructive action of protonuclein with the action of the vital principle of the spleen, making it a distinct product for use in all tubercular troubles, including phthisis, localized joint affections and scrofular conditions ”this product, according to the manufacturers, is based on the work of acertain dr bayle of cannes, france dr bayle said that he had treatedtuberculous patients with fresh ground up spleen of hogs 25-100 gramsper day, mixed with fruit preserve or bouillon. In paper in which thisbrought on gastro-intestinal disorders, extract of the spleen pulp wasadministered hypodermically bayle reported extraordinary improvementsin the physical and mental conditions of his patients even after a fewdays of this treatment. Over 90 per cent of his tuberculous patients, according to him, improved or were cured this applied to all typesand stages of tuberculosis in man “with the spleen pulp treatmenttuberculous glands disappear like syphilis lesions on administration ofmercury and iodids ”this “spleen specific” of bayle lacks scientific foundation. Bayleown paper were not adequately controlled, and no notice has been takenof bayle report by experts on tuberculosis hence it practicallylacks both confirmation and contradiction the spleen is invaded by tubercle bacilli quite as frequently as arethe kidneys and the liver. It has no special toxic action on thesebacilli nor is there any reason to believe that the end products ofgastric and intestinal digestion of spleen pulp, after absorption intothe blood, exert such toxic action it cannot be assumed that theseend products indirectly aid the healing processes through improvedmetabolism, for there is no evidence that they have any specificnutritive or stimulating action after such absorption altogether, whatwe know of the physiology and pathology of the spleen does not warrantus in looking for a “specific” against tuberculosis in this organ if, however, the known facts did justify any hope that the spleenmight furnish such a specific, manufacturers would not be warranted inexploiting or physicians in prescribing spleen products as a remedyfor tuberculosis until control experiments on animals had confirmedthe therapeutic value of these products in a chronic disease liketuberculosis, no conclusions that are scientifically valid can be drawnfrom clinical paper until thesis paper have been observed for yearsunder suitable conditions right here it may be said that the clinical“evidence” offered in favor of protonuclein beta is worthless theobservations which have been reported on this product are not such asto permit any valid final conclusions to be drawn with regard to itsvalue the rational method of proving the worth of an alleged new specificsuch as this is by animal experimentation so far as we know, neitherdr bayle nor the reed and carnrick company has performed any suchexperiments with “spleen pulp” or protonuclein beta. Nor are we awarethat any competent investigator has done so there is, to the best ofour knowledge, no scientific evidence on which to base the claims forprotonuclein beta the council reaffirms its former action with regard to protonuclein the objections made to protonuclein apply with equal force toprotonuclein beta in view of the lack of evidence, the claims forprotonuclein beta are unwarranted and the product is ineligible ton n r on account of noncompliance with rules 1, 6 and 8 -- from thejournal a m a , jan 1, 1916 hydropsin report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary hydropsin is marketed by the ernst bischoff company, inc , new york its composition is thus described. “hydropsin is the standardized dialysate of digitalis purpurea, betula alba, scilla maritima, juniperis communis, and herniaria glabra. Or, stated otherwise, it is the juice of these drugs, dialyzed and physiologically standardized ” “each fluid dram represents digitalysatum 7 gtts , and 2 gtts each of the dialysates of betula, herniaria, juniper and scilla ”the composition of hydropsin must be considered essentially secretsince the amounts of the several constituent drugs in a given amountof “dialysate” are not disclosed the active principle of juniper is avolatile oil which is practically insoluble in water. It is difficultto believe that the “juice” of juniper submitted to dialysis couldcontain any material amount of the active constituent no informationis given as to the method used whereby the several dialysates are“physiologically standardized ” it therefore remains to be provedthat the manufacturer of hydropsin possesses any method whereby thedialysates of juniper juniperis communis, birch betula alba, the common european birch and knot weed herniaria glabra are sostandardized the claim is made that.

the addition of the serum does not appear to affect the activityof the fresh secretin preparation if beveridge secretin is ableto act on the pancreas when given by mouth, it is obvious that itmust run the gamut of gastric digestion, except in paper of completeachlorhydria it has been repeatedly demonstrated that all othersecretin preparations are rapidly destroyed by pepsin-hydrochloric aciddigestion is beveridge secretin an exception?. what is there in alittle serum, native albumin, or peptones to protect secretin againstgastric digestion?. The pure human gastric juice used in these tests was secured fromthe fistula case mr f v that has been under observation in ourlaboratory for years 123123 carlson. The control of hunger in health and disease, chicago, 1916 beveridge secretin and bayliss-starling secretin prepared sept 29, 1916 response of pancreas no of drops of secretin date of test quantity of ┌───────────┴───────────┐ secretin bayliss-starling beveridge injected, c c secretin secretin sept 29 10 75 78 oct 2 10 61 61 oct 6 10 28 17 oct 13 10 25 31 oct 27 10 5 6 nov 3 10 7 6 nov 17 10 4 5 nov 30 10 3 4 dec 4 10 2 2 dec 20 10 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- two cubic centimeters of fresh gastric juice added to 8-10 c c beveridge secretin, the mixture being kept at body temperature 38 c , renders the secretin completely inactive in from 5 to 8minutes fig 2 there is no exception to this rule, as we haverepeated the test on thesis different secretin preparations and usingdifferent samples of human gastric juice the secretin of beveridgeis just as vulnerable as the secretin of bayliss and starling topepsin-hydrochloric acid digestion on what kind of tests doesbeveridge base his claim that his secretin mixture acts on the pancreaswhen given by mouth?. Iii the relative rate of deterioration of the secretin solutionsprepared according to bayliss and starling and according tobeveridge -- six different preparations of the two kinds of secretinwere made, kept in dark stoppered bottles in the ice box, and tested byintravenous injection in dogs under ether anesthesia from time to timeuntil all influence on the pancreas had been lost one typical seriesof these tests is given by the way of illustration see table on page126 illustration. Fig 2 -- records of carotid blood pressure and flow ofpancreatic juice on intravenous injection of secretin prepared by usaccording to the beveridge method x, injection of 10 c c of thesecretin. B, record of flow of pancreatic juice in drops tracinga, the 10 c c of beveridge secretin injected had been digested forfive minutes with 3 c c of human gastric juice tracing b, injectionof 10 c c of the same secretin preparation not subjected to gastricdigestion showing rapid and complete destruction of beveridgesecretin by human gastric juice it will be seen that the rate of deterioration oxidation ordecomposition of the secretin is practically the same whether preparedaccording to bayliss and starling or according to beveridge figure 3 in both preparations the rate of deterioration is most rapid the firstfew days after preparation it is scarcely necessary to point out thatsecretin preparations not kept constantly at low temperature and in thedark, as in the above experiments, will deteriorate more rapidly illustration. Fig 3 -- records of carotid blood pressure and flow ofpancreatic juice on intravenous injection of secretin preparations x, injection of 10 c c secretin. B, record of flow of pancreaticjuice in drops tracing a, secretin prepared according to thebeveridge method september 30 i, injection of 10 c c october 2 ii, injection of 10 c c november 30 tracing b, secretin preparedby the bayliss-starling method september 30 iii, injection of10 c c october 2. Iv, injection of 10 c c november 30 showing nogreater stability of beveridge secretion over that of bayliss andstarling why can we hope that the addition of serum or any solution of proteinwill render secretin more stable?. in the intact man or animal undernormal conditions of digestion, secretin reaches the pancreas by wayof the blood, that is, it is in solution in blood does that factrender the secretin stable?. by no means the reader is familiar withthe fact that the response of the pancreas to a single intravenousadministration of secretin is very transitory 5-15 min thecessation of activity is due, not to fatigue of the pancreas, as asecond injection of secretin gives a prompt response of pancreaticsecretion, but to the disappearance of active secretin from the blood in fact, secretin left in the test tube or in the bottle remains activeover a much longer period of time than when introduced into the bloodstream iv beveridge secretin given by mouth to the intact animal has nospecific action on the pancreas -- active secretin prepared accordingto the method of beveridge was fed on an empty stomach to a small dog 5 kilo with permanent fistula of one of the pancreatic ducts oncontrol days we gave the dog a equal quantities of n/10 hcl, and b bread and milk the beveridge secretin was prepared with 0 3 percent hcl and the addition of 0 2 per cent serum the results may bestated by the following summary:giving beveridge secretin by mouth secretin of the number of pancreas for three material fed tests hours following the feeding 150 c c beveridge secretin 6 10 2 c c 150 c c n/10 hcl 5 22 7 c c bread soaked in milk 4 6 6 c c -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the control experiments with pure hydrochloric acid show that thesecretion of pancreatic juice following the introduction of beveridgesecretin into the stomach is due to the acid factor and the proteincontent conclusionsthe patented secretin of beveridge is rendered inactive by gastricjuice, is without effect when given by mouth, and exhibits no greaterstability or keeping qualities than the secretin prepared accordingto bayliss and starling it has no merit as a therapeutic agent it should under no conditions be administered intravenously inman, as it contains deleterious protein split products and livingbacteria -- from the journal a m a , jan 12, 1918 need for patent law revision report of the committee on patent-law revision of the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medical associationat the present critical time when the efficiency of this nation mustbe raised to the highest point, it is essential that the united statesgovernment should lead in the efforts tending to such increasedefficiency to bring this about the government must protect andstimulate science, art and industry and at the same time curb orprevent waste of the country resources in this field the unitedstates patent office has unlimited power for good and evil-- good, inthe issuance of patent grants for novel devices and substances whichgo to increase national efficiency. Evil, in the granting of patentprotection where such protection is not in the interest of nationalefficiency, conservation of energy and material resources for years the american medical association, in common with thenational pharmaceutical bodies, has been urging amendment of thelaw which governs the issuance of patents on medicinal preparationsand more writingicularly revision of the procedure under which suchpatents are issued at the chicago 1908 meeting of the americanmedical association a special committee of five was appointed bythe house of delegates to study the questions involved, and tocooperate with the association committee on medical legislation inpreparing and securing the enactment of a bill which would correctthe abuses connected with the enforcement of our patent laws thejournal a m a , june 13, 1908, p 2003 this committee presenteda comprehensive report at the atlantic city 1909 meeting of theamerican medical association the journal a m a , june 19, 1909, p 2063 a further report was presented at the st louis 1910meeting of the american medical association the journal a m a , june 18, p 2079 in 1911 the journal a m a , nov 25, 1911, p 1780 the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medicalassociation issued a report which set forth the inadequacy of ourpatent laws as they are administered in relation to medical productswritingicularly against public interestsince that time the council has continued its study of the u s patentlaw as it applies to medicine and has become convinced that in thesisinstances the patent law or its enforcement is contrary to the bestinterest of the public, both as concerns health and prosperity thecouncil feels it a duty at this time to protest against the provisionsof our patent law, or the methods of its enforcement, which permit thegranting of patents without thorough and scientific investigation ofthe claims advanced in such letters patent as one means of improvingconditions the council urges that the u s public health service, the bureau of chemistry, u s dewritingment of agriculture and otherscientific dewritingments of the united states government conversant withmedicines and related subjects be consulted before the issuance ofpatents on medicinal preparations in support of the council contention that the patent law procedurerequires revision, the following is offered.

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Reduced photographic reproduction of the stock lettersent to american physicians by the italian physico-chemical academy the “joker” lies in the requirement around which we have drawn a line “sec 19 -- the entrance fee to cover office and postal expenses, including postage of diploma is 5 dollars, and is payable once at the admission to the academy by special bulletin filled up, stamped and signed ” “sec 22 -- those to whom medals are awarded and who wish to possess them must pay for their coinage 10 dollars as the academy does not, at present, possess the necessary funds for this purpose ”in short the whole thing means that if dr doe is willing to send $15in good american money he will receive in due time from the academy a“diploma” and a gilt not gold medal about four years ago when the “academy” seemed to be making awritingicularly heavy bid for american dollars the member of the journalstaff in charge of the propaganda dewritingment wrote to the “academy, ”on his personal stationery, asking about the cost of membership in the“academy” and asking also for a copy of the “prospectus ” medical school essay service and thatwas all in reply he received a letter stating that “in considerationof” his “thesis dignities and great learning” he had been nominated “anofficer of this academy” and had been awarded “la médaille de premièreclasse” for humanitarian work and scientific merit in order to obtainthese tokens of the “academy” regard it would be necessary to informthe “academy” of acceptance “in conformity with section 19 and 22 ”as the propaganda dewritingment did not consider the diploma and giltmedal worth $15 even as exhibit for its museum of fakes, the “form ofacceptance” was not filled in and returned “in accordance with section19 and 22 ”illustration. Photographic reproduction reduced of the “form ofacceptance” to “membership” in the “italian physico-chemical academy ”filling out this blank and sending it with $15 00 to the “academy”will bring the gilt medal and “diploma ”the leading spirits in the operation of this diploma and medal mill ared and g bandiera, who, so far as we can learn, are neither physiciansnor pharmacists nor have any scientific standing the “academy” hasbeen referred to at various times294 by the journal -- from thejournal a m a , feb 26, 1916 294 j a m a 48. 2196 june 29 1907. Editorial 57. 1373, berlinletter, p 1380 oct 21 1911. 58. 1455 may 11 1912. 60.