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Lord Of The Flies Symbolism Essay


Chlorlyptus exp 3 10%, 2 to 4 hours 10% for lord of the flies symbolism essay 1 hour 5% for 2 hours eucalyptus oil exp 1 5% within 5 minutes no data phenol exp 5 1% within 10 min no data streptococci and staphylococci in olive oil. Chlorlyptus exps 7 and 8 1%, almost at once, no data essaytimes eucalyptus oil no data no data phenol exps 9 and 10 1%, almost at once, no data staphylococci in pus. Chlorlyptus exp 11 10% for 1 hour 10% for 1/2 hour 5% for 2 hours eucalyptus oil no data no data phenol no data no data staphylococci in human blood serum. Chlorlyptus exp 12 5% in 1 hour 1% in 1 hour eucalyptus oil no data no data phenol 5% almost at once 1% in 1 hour -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- infection experiments in vivodr rivas reports two series of experiments, in each of which threeguinea-pigs received staphylococcus suspensions in the peritoneum one guinea-pig in each series was left untreated. The others receivedinjections of chlorlyptus into the peritoneum at various intervals the following results were obtained. Chlorlyptus results exp 19, no 1 none survived exp 20, no 1 none died exp 19, no 2 at once died exp 19, no 3 after 24 hours survived exp 20, no 2 after 18 hours died exp 20, no 3 after 24 hours died -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- this shows mortalities of.

At first it ispale, afterward livid. Congested and swollen, if the subject has beenlong suspended roth found the face pale in 43 of 49 paper in aboutone-half the paper the features are calm and placid syncope maschkafound the lips bluish in 98 of 153 paper the eyes are often prominent, staring, and congested, and usually the pupils are dilated lacassagneand maschka848 look upon ecchymoses of the eyelids and conjunctivæ, “piqueté scarlatin, ” as important as favoring the idea of hangingor strangulation roth found in 49 paper the eyelids closed 28 times;half open, 12. Congested in 6. Ecchymosed in 2 pupils dilated in 31;narrowed in 2 dilated in 97½ per cent of ogston paper paper 85, 86. Rupture of crystalline lens harvey849 says the blood was foundflowing from the ear in 6 paper of nearly 1, 500, but no details weregiven ogston, one case hofmann saw a case in which there was bleedingfrom the ears he says this is not due, as has been supposed, torupture of the tympanic membrane, but to hemorrhage from subcutaneousvessels case 27 the tongue is usually livid and swollen, especially at the base according to tidy, dr guy looks on this as showing that suspensiontook place very probably during life in about one-third of the paperthe tongue is protruded and compressed between the teeth. Essaytimesbitten essay observers found it protruded only as a result ofputrefaction the protrusion of the tongue is not believed to dependon the position of the ligature hackel in 67 paper found the tonguelying forward in all paper where the cord was between the larynx andthe hyoid. In 55 per cent in front of the teeth, in 18 per cent betweenthe teeth. Where the ligature was lower down, the tongue was behindthe teeth he found by experiment that in the spasmodic expiratoryeffort the tongue was thrust forward. In the inspiratory movement, drawn backward he concluded that the forward movement was the resultof reflex action maschka850 found the tongue between the teeth 58times in 149 paper roth in 49 paper found the tongue projecting andbitten in 22, the teeth shut in 15 others. In 15 the mouth was open;the tongue was retracted in 30 paper harvey, after examining reports of nearly fifteen hundred hangings, says.

The hydrocarbons in paraffinhave the general formula of c↓{n}h↓{2n2}, ranging as high as c₂₄h₅₀ toc₂₇h₅₆ paraffin may be found in crude form in coal, from which sourcethe first paraffin candles were made it may be produced from thedistillation of brown coal, as in gerthesis, or from bituminous shale in america, it is obtained chiefly from the distillation of crudepetroleum, being in the residue after the distillation of such productsas naphtha gasoline, kerosene and the lubricating oils the residueis treated by one of a number of processes causing the unpurifiedsolid paraffin to be made available the crude paraffin is eithersold as such, or is refined paraffin or “paraffin waxes”179 aredesignated in the trade by their melting points which in the “americanstandard” is expressed in fahrenheit degrees, and as to their stateof refinement as “crude, ” “semirefined” and “fully refined” paraffin there are certain chemical and physical differences so that two refinedwaxes having the same melting point would not have the same plasticity the higher melting point varieties of paraffin are hard and tough atroom temperature. When melted, paraffin expands and forms a thin mobileliquid 179 paraffin is essaytimes spoken of as “white wax ” this isunfortunate, as “white wax” is an official name for “white beeswax, u s p ” the term “white wax” is also often applied to “chinese wax, ”which is formed from an insect living on the tree ligustrum lucidum illustration. Photographic reproduction from a booklet on “thermozine”giving the conditions in which the stuff was alleged to be “veryuseful ”the significant requirements of paraffin for surgical dressings arethat it should be solid at body temperature, at the same time havingflexibility and adhesiveness, together with a certain amount ofstrength a number of brands of paraffin are sold in the united states, so that it seemed advisable to examine essay of them and compare themwith certain paraffin-film preparations they were tested as to theirmelting points, plasticity, ductility, strength of film, etc melting point determination -- the melting point was determined bythe method of the u s pharmacopeia ix, p 596 the melting pointas obtained by this method is lower than the melting point used bymanufacturers of paraffin after conversion to fahrenheit pliability and ductility, limit temperature 180-- a little of themelted wax was poured from a teaspoon on the surface of the water atabout 40 c , in a tin pan bread mold this formed a fairly thin film the temperature of the water was then lowered by the addition of coldwater at each temperature the pliability and ductility were testedthus:180 i am indebted to dr torald sollmann for these methods pliability test -- the film, immersed in water, was doubled on itself, note being taken whether or not it broke ductility test -- the film was pulled under water, note being takenwhether it stretched on being pulled and broke with a ragged fracture;or whether it broke sharp without stretching it is desirable thatthe pliability and ductility be preserved at as low a temperature aspossible cotton films, adhesives and detachability 180-- the melted wax wasapplied as it would be for burns. Namely, a thin layer was painted onthe inner surface of the forearm with a camel hair brush, 181 atransverse strip about an inch wide being made this was covered witha very thin layer of absorbent cotton, and over this another layer ofmelted wax was painted as soon as this had cooled a little, it wascovered by a few layers of bandage and left on for at least an hour atthe end of that time, the bandage was removed the cotton film shouldbe found at the place at which it was applied, showing that it issufficiently adherent it should detach without “pulling” the skin 181 when painting a surface with a paraffin film, i found that thetemperature of the paraffin should not be too close to the meltingpoint, but several degrees above. Otherwise it does not “set” well illustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of thecarton in which “ambrine” is now sold the results of these tests are given in the accompanying table it canbe seen that nearly all the paraffins examined have properties whichwould make them useful, the notable exceptions being nos 8, 15 and16 the more satisfactory products would be those having a meltingpoint about 47 c , ductility of 30 or below, and plasticity of 28 orbelow the paraffin described in the u s pharmacopeia is not sosatisfactory, the required melting point being between 50 and 57 c the use of paraffin bandages has been suggested by fisher182 andsollmann 183 in such paper, it may very likely be that a paraffin ofhigher melting point would be more satisfactory, owing to its greaterresistance and tougher fiber 182 fisher, h e. Nonadhering surgical gauze, the journal a m a , march 25, 1916, p 939 183 sollmann, torald. Paraffin-covered bandages, the journala m a , april 21, 1917, p 1178 summary1 “ambrine” is essentially paraffin in which a small amount of fattyand asphalt-like body is incorporated. Like most secret mixtures, itscomposition varies 2 a simple formula for a paraffin film, similar in chemicalcomposition but superior in physical properties to “ambrine, ” is thatdescribed as formula 21 the superiority is due to using a grade ofparaffin that is better adapted to the purpose the cost of materialsis about 10 cents a pound 3 the properties of the paraffin used for a surgical dressing areimportant a number of different grades have been examined, in order todetermine the ones that appear most promising paraffins nos 3, 4, 10, 11 and 25 are the best in the table, and surpass “ambrine” itself 4 it is exceedingly probable that further experience will show thatfor most purposes simple paraffin will serve just as well as themixtures-- if, indeed, not better addenda reprinted from the annual report of the chemical laboratory of theamerican medical association, vol 10 1917, p 32since the foregoing was published, two other products-- “cerelene” and“stanolind surgical wax”-- were submitted to the council on pharmacy andchemistry for investigation as to their acceptability for inclusion innew and nonofficial remedies in this connection the laboratory wasrequested to examine them “cerelene” is manufactured by the holliday laboratories, pittsburgh according to the manufacturers, “cerelene” is a compound composed of84 per cent paraffin, 15 per cent myricyl palmitate and 1 per cent elemi gum as ordinarily marketed, “cerelene” contains the followingmaterials. To the beeswax is added oil of eucalyptus, u s p , 2 percent , and betanaphthol, u s p , 0 25 per cent the manufacturerfurther states that the myricyl palmitate is a purified form ofbeeswax, free from all impurities, acids, etc , which is solelymanufactured by this company and for which patents are pending theproperties described for “cerelene” were as follows. When cold, cerelene is a solid wax-like cake of a fine yellow brown color on exposure to air for long periods, the amber color darkens to essay extent it is entirely free from solids, odorless and tasteless. Does not separate or change when melted repeatedly, and cannot in the melted state be separated by fractional crystallization it is entirely neutral to indicators being perfectly free from both acids and bases tests. Melting point, u s p method, 126 f density, u s p method, 0 907 iodin value, 0 5 saponification number, 0 9 “stanolind surgical wax” is manufactured by the standard oil company ofindiana in the submission of the product to the council on pharmacyand chemistry, it was stated that the product was a specially preparedparaffin “free from dirt or other deleterious matter it hasbeen steamed and resteamed to drive out any free oil and repeatedlyfiltered ”the examination of the foregoing products yielded the figures describedin table “b ”-- from the journal a m a , may 19, 1917 the stability of iodine ointments l e warren, ph c , b s in general, the literature on the keeping qualities of iodine ointment, and on the stability of iodine if mixed with ointment bases, isconfusing the recorded evidence is often contradictory the attentionof the writer was brought to this condition by studies of severalproprietary preparations, iodex, 184 iod-izd-oil, 185 iocamfen, andiocamfen ointment 186184 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 89 185 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 106 186 rep chem lab , a m a , 1916, 9, 118 iodex was sold under the claim that it is “ an embodiment of vaporized iodine, in an organic base, reduced and standardized at 5 per cent by incorporation with a refined petroleum product ”the exact composition of iodex is a trade secret analysis showed thatit contains petrolatum-like substances and combined iodine, the latterprobably in combination with oleic acid tests for free iodine weremade in five specimens of iodex in one of these no free iodine waspresent. In the others the merest traces were found two years ago a preparation called “iod-izd-oil” was examined this wasclaimed to contain 2 per cent of free iodine in liquid petrolatum at the time of the examination the age of the preparation was notknown, but it had been obtained just prior to the analysis, and wasthought not to be very old the analysis showed that it contained butabout 0 43 per cent of iodine, all of which was in a free state thefact that all of the iodine present was in the free state appearedto indicate that iodine is relatively stable in liquid petrolatumsolutions iocamfen is a liquid composed of iodine, camphor and phenol it wasclaimed to contain 10 per cent of free iodine analysis showed thatit contained 9 3 per cent of total iodine of which 7 5 per cent was present in an uncombined state, 66 1 per cent of camphor and19 7 per cent of phenol after storing for several months a secondassay of iocamfen showed no appreciable loss in iodine content this would indicate that iodine is relatively stable in presenceof phenol and camphor, although immediately after mixing there isessay loss of free iodine the iocamfen ointment was supposed tocontain 50 per cent of iocamfen equivalent to 5 per cent of freeiodine in a lard-wax-cacaobutter base the analysis showed that theointment contained but 0 4 per cent of free iodine, the balancebeing in combination from the results of the examination, and fromcorrespondence with the manufacturers schering and glatz, it becameevident that the only plausible explanation for the loss of free iodinein the preparation of iocamfen ointment from iocamfen lay in thecombination of the free iodine with the ingredients of the ointmentbase it seems likely that the free iodine originally present iniocamfen for the most writing had gradually gone into combination with thefatty substances after the ointment had been prepared the literature was then examined to determine the consensus of opinionconcerning the stability of iodine in iodine ointment in the olderliterature the belief that iodine ointment is unstable appears to bequite general such statements as the following are typical. The ointment should be prepared only when wanted for use, for it undergoes change if kept, losing its deep, orange-brown color, and becoming pale upon its surface 187 187 u s disp , ed 19, p 1315 it is better to prepare it only as it is required for use 188 188 am disp , ed 2, p 2022 this ointment must not be dispensed unless it has recently been prepared 189 189 u s pharmacopeia, ix, p 481 in 1909 lythgoe, 190 of the massachusetts board of health laboratory, reported an examination of four samples of iodine ointment three werefound to be pure, the fourth was low in iodine experiments showedthat iodine ointment deteriorates rapidly. Consequently, no furthercollections of samples were made 190 rep mass bd health, 1909, 41, 477 in 1912 pullen191 reported that he had prepared two specimens ofiodine ointment according to the british pharmacopeia, one beingfrom new lard and the other from a specimen of lard at least 2 yearsold assays for free iodine were carried out immediately after thepreparations were made, and at intervals afterward up to four months the following values were found:191 pharm jour , 1912, 89, 610 sample i sample ii ointment from ointment from new lard, old lard, per cent per cent iodine introduced 4 0 4 0 iodine found immediately after making 3 95 3 38 iodine found after twenty-four hours 3 30 3 15 iodine found on the third day 3 18 2 62 iodine found on the seventh day 3 15 2 46 iodine found on the fourteenth day 3 00 2 45 iodine found after one month 3 00 2 39 iodine found after two months 2 90 2 31 iodine found after four months 2 92 2 26pullen found that the loss in free iodine could be accounted for by theiodine which had gone into combination with the fats of the ointmentbase pullen also found that if the potassium iodide and glycerin wereomitted in the preparation of the ointment, the loss in free iodinewas very rapid, the preparation containing practically no free iodine only 1/20 after a few hours he concludes that the use of potassiumiodide and glycerin is necessary for the preservation of the ointment he obtained specimens of iodine ointment in drug stores, and assayedthem for free iodine it is to be presumed that the ages of the severalspecimens were not known the results are found in the following table.

Theexpert capacity for drawing conclusions, as well as his premises, may be assailed paper of conflict are to be determined, not by thenumber of witnesses, but by the weight of their testimony, and thoughthe opinion of an expert of high character may be entitled to greatrespect, yet if questioned, its authority must ultimately rest upon thetruth, material and formal, of the reasoning on which it depends ”judge davis, of the supreme court of maine, in neil case citedin wharton and stille “medical jurisprudence, ” vol i , section294, said. “if there is any kind of testimony that is not only of novalue, but even worse than that, it is in my judgment that of medicalexperts they may be able to state the diagnosis of a disease morelearnedly, but upon the question whether it had at a given time reacheda stage that the subject of it was incapable of making a contract, orirresponsible for his acts, the opinions of his neighbors, of men ofgood common sense, would be worth more than that of all the experts inthe country ”such stinging criticisms as these, and others which might be cited, of a like character, may not be always merited it is certain thatmedical experts’ opinions, if fully enlightened by scientific researchand free from writingisan bias, ought to occupy a position like thatof judicial opinions in weight and decisiveness upon the questionssubmitted to them such was the position occupied in the publicestimation, and in that of judges and counsel, by the great dr casparin gerthesis, and foedere or pinel, and others since their time, infrance but this position was acquired chiefly because of the factalready mentioned, that under the system of administration of justicewhich prevails in those countries these great men were regarded, andacted, as a component writing of the judicial system they were calledin as officers of the law to assist the court in forming a judgment, and determining disputed questions of fact, in paper involving lifeand death, or the devolution of property, where scientific experience, knowledge and skill, not possessed by judges or by counsel, wasnecessary for the determination of the questions involved the rootof the evil in america is, as already pointed out, to be found inthe system which allows writingies to retain and pay their own expertswithout any substantial restrictions sooner or later, among the otherreforms in our judicial system, it will be found necessary to reformthis evil by the enactment of laws requiring that the witnesses inmedico-legal paper, writingicularly those in which a crime is allegedto have been committed, shall be designated by the court, or by essaypublic authority, and paid from the public treasury instead of bythe writingies such experts would then occupy their proper position ofspecial counsel, advising and assisting the legal counsel and thecourt, but they would not be taken out of this sphere and put in theutterly inconsistent one of witnesses their status and their dutieswould be as clearly distinguished from that of expert witnesses as nowknown, as the status and duty of the lawyer are from the status andduty of the judge the present system has been said to be very muchlike putting a lawyer, who has just argued his client case, on thebench to decide it whether experts should be appointed as permanentgovernment officials, like our judges, or should be selected speciallyfor each case like juries, referees, or arbitrators, and in the latterevent whether they should be nominated by the writingies and selected bythe court from such nominees, or otherwise, are all questions of detail our judges and lawyers seem slow to recognize the fact that the dutiesof experts are judicial, or at least quasi-judicial. To pass uponcertain facts which neither the court nor the jury can understandwithout their aid but, as we have seen from the citations just given, judges and lawyers have fully recognized the unreliability of experttestimony, produced as it now is in england and in this country atthe whim and selection of the writingies and paid for, much or little, according to the means of the writingies 181method of preliminary examination of experts on medical questions alicensed physician presumed competent - as the system exists here, theonly power that the court has over the selection of an expert, is todetermine, in advance of his testimony and of the elucidation of hisopinions, whether or not he is competent as an expert but this poweraffords little or no check or restriction, because in the effort to getall the light that is possible upon the questions under consideration, and to avoid unduly interfering with counsel in the conduct of thecase at bar, the practice has become universal, and is recognized inthe decisions and text writers, of permitting any medical man who hasa license to practise his profession, to testify as an expert, and togive his opinion as such on any question cognate to his profession this is so without regard to the amount of study and experience hemay have had in the writingicular matter under consideration the nakedfact that he is licensed to practise is enough he then that is, after testifying that he is a practising physician is clothed withthe garment of authority the only way in which his knowledge can betested is by cross-examination as to his experience and skill, andpossibly by contrasting him as he appears upon the witness-stand andhis history as he gives it, with other and more or less experienced andskilful men who follow him the rule is, that when a witness is produced to give an opinion on amedical question, he is interrogated by the counsel who produces himas to his qualifications at this point, before he is allowed to givehis opinion, it is proper and customary that the counsel upon the otherside of the case should be allowed an opportunity to cross-examineas to his competency, and then the court determines whether or nothe is a competent witness if the court pronounces him competent, ahypothetical question is put to him stating the facts of the case, asthe counsel interrogating him claims them to be established by theevidence, and the expert is then asked to give his opinion on thequestion at issue, based upon an assumption that the facts stated aretruly stated then the opposing counsel has the right to cross-examine, and to ask his views and opinions upon the same question at issue, butassuming as true other and different facts or premises, as he claimsthem to be established by the evidence this often involves a test ofwit and intelligence, and of forensic acumen, between the counsel andthe witness, which serves very little useful purpose, except perhaps toelucidate more strongly than has been here stated the defects of thesystem which now obtains it is also not unusual, and in fact is theresult of the workings of human nature, that under the manipulations ofcounsel skilled in cross-examination, skilled in methods of indirectionin stating facts, and armed with the powerful weapon of the rulewhich permits them to insist upon a categorical yes-or-no answer to aquestion, the jury and the court become confused, the witness loseshis temper, or becomes affected more strongly than ever before by biasagainst his persecutors, as he feels them to be, and the examinationends in a farce this is not always the case, and the illustrationgiven is an extreme one like the citations from judicial criticism ofexpert testimony which have been given, these matters are only advertedto here as danger signals, a warning to both professions, and with anearnest suggestion of the necessity of reform experts, how summoned into court they must obey the summons and appear and be sworn in general theyneed not give their opinions unless duly compensated - an expertwitness is brought into court like an ordinary witness by the usualprocess of the court this process is, under the american system, anordinary subpœna, and, being process of the court, whether or not hehas been paid or promised compensation for giving his opinion he mustobey the process to the extent at least of appearing in court whencalled, to be sworn interesting questions have been raised as to hisobedience to the subpœna to the extent of testifying when he has notbeen compensated it has been argued, and the argument is sustainedby the decisions of courts of high authority in essay states, thathis knowledge and skill, acquired by study and by experience, is hisproperty, of which he cannot be deprived without just compensation, under his constitutional rights guaranteed to him by the organic lawof this country on the other hand, in essay other states it has beenheld that he is so far a necessary writing of the judicial system that hemay be called upon to give the results of his experience, knowledge, and skill forming his opinion, without payment other than the ordinarycompensation to witnesses it is believed, however, that the betteropinion is the former. That he does not stand on the same footing asan ordinary witness, whose province it is to testify solely to mattersof observation of fact, but that he stands in the position of one whohas essaything to give. Essaything to imwriting in the way of knowledge orexperience, which is his property as much as any other thing movable orimmovable of which he is possessed a essaywhat different question has arisen in the case of a witness who, like a family physician or attending physician, has learned factsand has been paid for his attendance, or who exacts payment for hisattendance, as a physician from his patient, and this question is;when such a professional man has been called upon to testify to theinformation he thus attained, whether he can be asked for, and requiredto give, opinions based on those facts?. necessarily, having learned thefacts by observation, such as the appearance, symptoms, and actions ofthe patient, he is, when testifying as to these matters, nothing moreor less than an ordinary witness, because he is testifying to mattersof observation as to these matters public policy requires, except sofar as it has been modified, or rather extended, by our statutes whichforbid testimony as to privileged communications, that he must testify, the same as any other witness but suppose that, having so testified tothe facts, he is asked to give his opinion. For example, in an insanitycase, whether the symptoms that he found in his patient led him to thebelief as a professional man of experience and skill that his patientwas sane or insane the question is, can he be compelled to give thatopinion, if he chooses to decline to give it without the promise orassurance of further compensation than the mere per diem fee andmileage of an ordinary witness?. the best authority is to the effectthat he must so testify, the reasoning of the court being that hisopinion is only a writing of what he derived from his original relation ofphysician to his patient wright v the people, 112 ill , 540. Samecase, 33 alb l j , 79 same rule in civil and criminal paper - the rule is the same whetherthe professional man is called to testify as an expert in civil orcriminal paper in either one he is not obliged to give an opinion assuch, independent of a personal knowledge of the facts in the case, without being paid or assured reasonable compensation therefor hisproper course of conduct is, when he has obeyed the subpœna and is inthe presence of the court and has been sworn, and the questions putby counsel disclose that the object of his examination is to elicitfrom him an opinion, to state to the court that he has not been paidany other compensation than that of an ordinary witness, and that herespectfully declines to give an opinion in the case as an expert, without compensation proportionate to the value of his opinion 182whether witness competent a question for court in limine - afterthe expert is placed upon the stand, as we have seen, the counselupon the side of the case by which he is summoned interrogates himas to his capacity, the purpose of the interrogation being that hisanswers shall qualify him and show him to be an expert whether ornot he is an expert so as to permit the giving of his opinion aswriting of the case to go to the jury, is for the court to decide inlimine, that is, at the threshold, and as a matter of discretion, andthe exercise of that discretion, if fair and reasonable, will not bedisturbed upon appeal by the higher court it is permissible, but alsodiscretionary, after the counsel calls the witness and has apparentlyqualified him, for the counsel upon the other side to cross-examinethe witness as to his qualifications before he is examined in chief, with a view of determining whether or not there are limitations uponthose qualifications which should prevent the court from permitting himto testify as an expert the general rule is as stated by greenleafin his work on evidence, sec 440, that it is not necessary that themedical expert should have actually practised his profession nor is itessential that the witness should belong to any writingicular school ofmedicine the law does not undertake to pass upon conflicting theoriesof medical practice, in determining the question of the qualificationof a medical expert it is proper, however, for counsel to inquire asto what school of medicine the witness is an adherent, because of itsimportance in weighing the value of his testimony after it has beengiven persons not duly licensed essaytimes held not competent - it hasalso been a mooted question in those states where it is necessary, inorder to enable a person to practise physic or surgery, that he shouldbe licensed, whether a person practising without a license, howeverextensive his reading and practice, would be considered qualified asan expert witness in a court of justice this point, so far as diligentexamination discloses, has not been determined in any reported case, although it has been suggested at nisi prius and has been, in oneinstance within the knowledge of the writer, decided that he is notto be considered an expert in matters involving medical knowledge andskill the reasoning of the court was that the policy of the stateis to prohibit persons not possessing the qualifications requiredto obtain a license, from acting in any capacity as professors andpractitioners of medicine or surgery if the witness is a member ofthe profession, legally qualified as such, it has been held that he issufficiently qualified as an expert if he shows that he possesses theaverage ability of members of his profession hall v costello, 48n h , 176. Tellis v kidd, 12 ala , 648. Wharton on evidence, sec 446. Rogers on expert testimony, secs 17 and 18. Slocovich v orientmutual ins co , 108 n y , 56 as to the question whether it is necessary that the witness shouldactually have practised his profession, see the last-cited text-writer, secs 43 and 44, who seems to have entertained views opposite to thosestated by professor greenleaf wharton on evidence, sec 439, states the rule as follows. “he musthave special, practical acquaintance with the immediate line of inquirymore than a mere vague, superficial knowledge but he need not beacquainted with the differentia of the specific specialty underconsideration a general knowledge of the dewritingment to which thespecialty belongs would seem to be sufficient ”interested persons may still testify as experts - since the lawforbidding interested persons from being witnesses has been changed, it has been suggested that an interested person although otherwisequalified might not be a competent witness to give an opinion as anexpert but the established doctrine is that he may give such anopinion. The weight of it, however, would be for the jury to determine greenleaf on evidence, redfield edition, sec 440, citing lockwoodv lockwood, 2 curtis, 309. Dillon v dillon, 3 curtis, 96, 102 see also dickinson v fitchburg, 13 gray, 546 testimony of expert, how impeached - essaytimes, on cross-examinationor otherwise, the fact becomes known that the witness who is proposedas an expert has expressed an opinion on the subject in hand contraryto that which he has given upon the witness-stand, and the question hasbeen raised as to establishing that fact at the outset and before histestimony goes before the jury, in order to enable the trial judge todetermine whether he is competent the rule in that case is that thetestimony as to his prior expression of opinion is not to be receivedat that time, but will come properly up as rebuttal, he having beenasked upon his cross-examination, giving time and place, whether hehas made the statements attributed to him an expert witness may inother respects be impeached like any other witness, that is, by theoaths of persons who know him and have known his reputation, and whotestify that his reputation for truth and veracity is bad and that theywould not believe him under oath he may also be impeached by producingwitnesses to prove that his special knowledge or technical skill isnot reliable or adequate to the undertaking which he has assumed butthis testimony must be from personal knowledge of the man and notfrom general reputation wharton on evidence, sec 437.

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And others yet, as barker, of melbourne, 798 near the spine in any event the rope should be “freely elastic ” g m hammond799 thinks that the object in judicial hanging should be strangulation, and that the criminal should be pulled up and left to hang thirty minutes. The rope should be soft and flexible so as to closely fit the neck. A weight should be attached to the feet of persons under 150 pounds larimore800 also advocates strangulation instead of attempting dislocation of the vertebræ porter801 suggests that for dislocation the noose be drawn tightly around the neck at the last moment, the knot being either at one side or, still better, in front dislocation may be still further assured if a hollow wooden or leaden ball be placed over the knot close to the neck, thus forming a fulcrum to throw the spinal column out of the perpendicular line at the point of pressure hanging is a common mode of suicide, especially in insane asylums andprisons it is essaytimes accidental, and rarely homicidal it is saidto have been attempted for erotic purposes the compression of the neck acts in line with the axis of the body;while in strangulation it acts perpendicularly to that axis the final cause of death will depend on. 1 the suddenness andcompleteness of interference with the access of air.