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Lord Of The Flies Essay Help


Others, of the face. Others, again, of the hands and feet, of the fingers and toes, of the arms and legs, of the trunk and neck astrology, moreover, was not satisfied with theprognostic and diagnostic activity which we have just mentioned, but italso interfered in therapy, internal as well as external regarding, in the first place, internal medicinal treatment, theastrologer knew how to give positive information about the same. Forall terrestrial beings, of an organic as well as of an inorganicnature, were under the influence of the sun, the moon, of the planets, and of the signs of the zodiac the stars imwritinged certain powers tothe planets, to animals, and to all structures of the inorganic world if, therefore, it were known what stars happened to appear in thevault of heaven at the beginning of the disease or of its treatment, it was only necessary seriously to consider the organic and inorganicstructures under their supervision, and the remedies required for asuccessful control of the disease were presently at hand but if thehealer wished to be absolutely certain what medicaments to choose, thephases of the moon and the condition of the sun were also to be takeninto consideration essay remedies could be administered only when themoon was in a writingicular relation to certain planets or stars of thezodiac these remedies were principally emetics and purges similarly to the internal clinician, so also in surgery, the healerwas entirely dependent upon the conjunction of the stars the primevalbabylonian directed that the body must not be touched with iron duringcertain conjunctions of the stars, and this was also prescribed inall paper of astrologica medica it appears, however, that thisdirection obtained less general surgical recognition, but referredprincipally to blood-letting even to this limited extent it implieda high-handed interference with the art of the ancient as well as ofthe medieval physician. For venesection occupied an entirely differentposition among therapeutic measures during that period than it doesto-day whereas modern medicine does not consider blood-lettingnecessary, except in the rarest paper, ancient as well as medievalprofessors of medicine believed that they could under no circumstancesdispense with it. In fact, it is probable that until the seventeenthcentury there was scarcely any form of disease the treatment of whichwould have been possible without withdrawal of blood an actualsystem of blood-letting had been elaborated under the influence ofhumoro-pathological opinions every vein that could be reached withthe lancet was acted upon, and the school of medicine of the periodwas punctiliously careful in teaching which vessel presented the mostsuitable point of attack for the hand of the physician in this or thatform of disease the therapeutic subtleties which were thus brought tolight are beyond description thus, a withdrawal of blood from veins onthe right side of the body was said to yield an essentially differenteffect from left-sided venesection, and each individual vein of thebody promised a special advantage which was peculiar to this one vein the physician of that period surely had enough to do to bear in mindall the numerous therapeutic effects which he was to achieve by theopening of the various veins to facilitate this difficult art to acertain degree special figures were designed so-called venesectionmanikins, in which the numerous points for bleeding were most carefullyannotated fig 5 page 175 shows such a picture it indicates no lessthan 53 different localities for venesection, and as each and everyone of them again implied four or five, or possibly even more, methodsof blood-letting, we may consider that there were thesis hundreds ofdifferent possibilities for phlebotomy if it was easy to become lostin the labyrinth of this blood-thirsty therapy, the difficulty of amethodical application of venesection was very materially increased byastrology. For astrology differentiated between, first, favorable, thendoubtful, and, finally, unfavorable days for venesection, basing thisopinion upon certain positions between sun, moon, and planets then thevarious ages of life had also different days for venesection. Days, forinstance, which promised to be exceptionally successful for venesectionin the young, offered very unfavorable prospects to the aged thus, for instance, the period from the first quadrature of the moon tothe opposition was said to be excellent for bleeding in adolescence, whereas this period was by no means inviting for phlebotomy in thosewho had reached the senile period the chances for venesection becamerather intricate in their different aspects thus, for instance, stöffler taught. {the sun prohibits venesection two {days before and one day after conjunction of { the moon with { }prohibits venesection one {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after quadrature of {sun }prohibits venesection the moon with {saturn }twelve hours before and {mars }twelve hours after opposition of {sun }prohibits venesection one the moon with {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after we see, therefore, that the physician of that time was compelled tobe well-versed in astronomy unless he meant to commit grave mistakesagainst the doctrines of medicina astrologica such sins couldeventually become rather dangerous to the physician, for the code ofhammurabi about 2200, b c , ruler of babylon threatens the operator, for not quite unobjectionable surgical procedures, with the loss of hishands winckler, page 33, § 218 in order to satisfy the astrological requirement of the physician mostthoroughly, there arose in the middle ages a very peculiar literature under the name of an almanac or calendarium, thick folio volumesappeared, which enumerated, in long tables, the various positions ofthe planets and of the signs of the zodiac, so that the astrologer wasenabled to note the fate of mankind rapidly and easily the contentsof such calendaria are beyond description awriting from remarks whichreferred to all occurrences of civil life, was stated the exact periodwhen to have the hair cut, when venesection was to be performed, whento draw teeth, when to take a bath, etc even the proper time forprayer was indicated by such a calendarium according to the experienceof peter of abano, the conjunction of the moon with jupiter in thedragon was sure to effect an answer to prayer hieronymus cardanushad discovered, with the aid of astrology, that a request was sure tobe complied with if a prayer was offered to the virgin mary on thefirst day of april, at 8 a m möhsen, vol ii , page 423 physiciansexcelled in the compilation of such calendaria, especially during thefifteenth and sixteenth centuries professors, forensic physicians, surgeons in fact, all representatives of medical art were equallyintent upon instructing the public by calendaria in regard to the mostvarious branches of medicina astrologica. Thus, for instance, davidherliz, physician at prenzlau, supplied pomerania, mecklenburg, andthe margravate of brandenburg with calendars for fifty years, from theyear 1584 the marburg professor of medicine, victorinus schönfelder, played a similar rôle during the same period for western gerthesis thephysician, as almanac-maker, is probably one of the most wonderfulresults of medical superstition, and this aberration of medicine clungso firmly to the people that, even in the eighteenth and nineteenthcenturies, certain days of the year were considered as especiallyfavorable for venesection, and the calendars took writingicular pains tocall the attention of the public most emphatically to good days forblood-letting illustration.

But beingcorrected, is very profitable for the diseases of the head, as fallingsickness, giddiness, and swimmings, by drawing away much phlegm andrheumatic humours that oppress the head, as also the joints and sinews;and is therefore good for palsies, convulsions, lord of the flies essay help cramps, and stitchesin the sides, and the dropsy, and for provoking urine. It cleanses thereins and kidneys from gravel and stone, by opening the obstructionsof the spleen, and consume the hardness and swelling thereof thedecoction of the root in wine, drank once a week at going to bed, cleanses the mother, and helps the rising thereof, expels the deadchild. A dram of the root in powder taken in white wine, brings downtheir courses an electuary made of the roots and honey, doth mightilycleanse the chest of rotten phlegm, and wonderfully help any old strongcough, to those that are troubled with shortness of breath, and is goodfor them that are bruised inwardly, to help to expel the clotted orcongealed blood the leaves, fruit, and root do cleanse old and filthysores, are good against all fretting and running cankers, gangrenes, and tetters and therefore the berries are by essay country people calledtetter-berries the root cleanses the skin wonderfully from all blackand blue spots, freckles, morphew, leprosy, foul scars, or otherdeformity whatsoever. Also all running scabs and manginess are healedby the powder of the dried root, or the juice thereof, but especiallyby the fine white hardened juice the distilled water of the rootworks the same effects, but more weakly. The root bruised and appliedof itself to any place where the bones are broken, helps to draw themforth, as also splinters and thorns in the flesh. And being appliedwith a little wine mixed therewith, it breaks boils, and helps whitlowson the joints - for all these latter, beginning at sores, cancers, &c apply it outwardly, mixing it with a little hog grease, or otherconvenient ointment as for the former diseases where it must be taken inwardly, it purgesvery violently, and needs an abler hand to correct it than most countrypeople have brook lime, or water-pimpernel descript this sends forth from a creeping root that shoots forthstrings at every joint, as it runs, divers and sundry green stalks, round and sappy with essay branches on them, essaywhat broad, round, deepgreen, and thick leaves set by couples thereon. From the bottom whereofshoot forth long foot stalks, with sundry small blue flowers on them, that consist of five small round pointed leaves a piece there is another sort nothing different from the former, but that it isgreater, and the flowers of a paler green colour place they grow in small standing waters, and usually nearwater-cresses time and flower in june and july, giving seed the next month after government and virtues it is a hot and biting martial plant brook-lime and water-cresses are generally used together in diet-drink, with other things serving to purge the blood and body from all illhumours that would destroy health, and are helpful to the scurvy theydo all provoke urine, and help to break the stone, and pass it away;they procure women courses, and expel the dead child being friedwith butter and vinegar, and applied warm, it helps all manner oftumours, swellings, and inflammations such drinks ought to be made of sundry herbs, according to the malady i shall give a plain and easy rule at the latter end of this book butcher broom it is called ruscus, and bruscus, kneeholm, kneeholly, kneehulver, andpettigree descript the first shoots that sprout from the root of butcherbroom, are thick, whitish, and short, essaywhat like those of asparagus, but greater, they rise up to be a foot and half high, are spread intodivers branches, green, and essaywhat creased with the roundness, toughand flexible, whereon are set essaywhat broad and almost round hardleaves and prickly, pointed at the end, of a dark green colour, two atthe most writing set at a place, very close and near together. About themiddle of the leaf, on the back and lower side from the middle rib, breaks forth a small whitish green flower, consisting of four smallround pointed leaves, standing upon little or no footstalk, and in theplace whereof comes a small round berry, green at the first, and redwhen it is ripe, wherein are two or three white, hard, round seedscontained the root is thick, white and great at the head, and fromthence sends forth divers thick, white, long, tough strings place it grows in copses, and upon heaths and waste grounds, andoftentimes under or near the holly bushes time it shoots forth its young buds in the spring, and the berriesare ripe about september, the branches of leaves abiding green all thewinter government and virtues it is a plant of mars, being of a gallantcleansing and opening quality the decoction of the root made withwine opens obstructions, provokes urine, helps to expel gravel and thestone, the stranguary and women courses, also the yellow jaundice andthe head-ache. And with same honey or sugar put thereunto, cleansesthe breast of phlegm, and the chest of such clammy humours gatheredtherein the decoction of the root drank, and a poultice made of theberries and leaves applied, are effectual in knitting and consolidatingbroken bones or writings out of joint the common way of using it, is toboil the root of it, and parsley and fennel and smallage in white wine, and drink the decoction, adding the like quantity of grass-root tothem. The more of the root you boil, the stronger will the decoctionbe. It works no ill effects, yet i hope you have wit enough to give thestrongest decoction to the strongest bodies broom, and broom-rape to spend time in writing a description hereof is altogether needless, it being so generally used by all the good housewives almost throughthis land to sweep their houses with, and therefore very well known toall sorts of people the broom-rape springs up in thesis places from the roots of the broom but more often in fields, as by hedge-sides and on heaths the stalkwhereof is of the bigness of a finger or thumb, above two feet high, having a shew of leaves on them, and thesis flowers at the top, of areddish yellow colour, as also the stalks and leaves are place they grow in thesis places of this land commonly, and ascommonly spoil all the land they grow in time they flower in the summer months, and give their seed beforewinter government and virtues the juice or decoction of the youngbranches, or seed, or the powder of the seed taken in drink purgesdownwards, and draws phlegmatic and watery humours from the joints;whereby it helps the dropsy, gout, sciatica, and pains of the hips andjoints.

And is no less effectual for theking evil, or any other knobs, kernel, bunches, or wens growing inthe flesh wheresoever. And for the hæmorrhoids, or piles an ointmentmade hereof may be used at all times when the fresh herb is not to behad the distilled water of the whole plant, roots and all, is usedfor the same purposes, and dries up the superfluous, virulent moistureof hollow and corroding ulcers. It takes away all redness, spots, and freckles in the face, as also the scurf, and any foul deformitytherein, and the leprosy likewise filipendula, or drop-wort descript this sends forth thesis leaves, essay larger, essay smaller, set on each side of a middle rib, and each of them dented about theedges, essaywhat resembling wild tansy, or rather agrimony, but harderin handling. Among which rise up one or more stalks, two or three feethigh, with the leaves growing thereon, and essaytimes also divided intoother branches spreading at the top into thesis white, sweet-smellingflowers, consisting of five leaves a-piece, with essay threads in themiddle of them, standing together in a pith or umble, each upon asmall foot stalk, which after they have been blown upon a good while, do fall away, and in their places appear small, round, chaffy headslike buttons, wherein are the chaffy seeds set and placed the rootconsists of thesis small, black, tuberous pieces, fastened together bythesis small, long, blackish strings, which run from one to another place it grows in thesis places of this land, in the corners of dryfields and meadows, and the hedge sides time they flower in june and july, and their seed is ripe in august government and virtues it is under the dominion of venus iteffectually opens the passages of the urine, helps the stranguary. Thestone in the kidneys or bladder, the gravel, and all other pains of thebladder and reins, by taking the roots in powder, or a decoction ofthem in white wine, with a little honey the roots made into powder, and mixed with honey in the form of an electuary, doth much help themwhose stomachs are swollen, dissolving and breaking the wind which wasthe cause thereof. And is also very effectual for all the diseases ofthe lungs, as shortness of breath, wheezing, hoarseness of the throat, and the cough. And to expectorate tough phlegm, or any other writingsthereabout the fig-tree to give a description of a tree so well known to every body that keepit in his garden, were needless they prosper very well in our englishgardens, yet are fitter for medicine than for any other profit which isgotten by the fruit of them government and virtues the tree is under the dominion of jupiter the milk that issues out from the leaves or branches where they arebroken off, being dropped upon warts, takes them away the decoctionof the leaves is excellently good to wash sore heads with. And thereis scarcely a better remedy for the leprosy than it is it clears theface also of morphew, and the body of white scurf, scabs, and runningsores if it be dropped into old fretting ulcers, it cleanses out themoisture, and brings up the flesh. Because you cannot have the leavesgreen all the year, you may make an ointment of them whilst you can adecoction of the leaves being drank inwardly, or rather a syrup madeof them, dissolves congealed blood caused by bruises or falls, andhelps the bloody flux the ashes of the wood made into an ointment withhog grease, helps kibes and chilblains the juice being put into anhollow tooth, eases pain.

Iknow no herb like it for that lord of the flies essay help use. Boiled in ordinary beer, and thedecoction drank, doth the like. And if her womb be not as she wouldhave it, this decoction will make it so let those women that desirechildren love this herb, it is their best companion, their husbandsexcepted also it consumes the phlegmatic humours, the cold andmoist constitution of winter most usually affects the body of manwith, and that was the first reason of eating tansies in the spring the decoction of the common tansy, or the juice drank in wine, is asingular remedy for all the griefs that come by slopping of the urine, helps the stranguary and those that have weak reins and kidneys it isalso very profitable to dissolve and expel wind in the stomach, belly, or bowels, to procure women courses, and expel windiness in thematrix, if it be bruised and often smelled unto, as also applied to thelower writing of the belly it is also very profitable for such women asare given to miscarry it is used also against the stone in the reins, especially to men the herb fried with eggs as it is the custom inthe spring-time which is called a tansy, helps to digest and carrydownward those bad humours that trouble the stomach the seed is veryprofitably given to children for the worms, and the juice in drink isas effectual being boiled in oil, it is good for the sinews shrunk bycramps, or pained with colds, if thereto applied wild tansy, or silver weed this is also so well known, that it needs no description place it grows in every place time it flowers in june and july government and virtues now dame venus hath fitted women withtwo herbs of one name, the one to help conception, and the other tomaintain beauty, and what more can be expected of her?. what now remainsfor you, but to love your husbands, and not to be wanting to your poorneighbours?. wild tansy stays the lask, and all the fluxes of blood inmen and women, which essay say it will do, if the green herb be worn inthe shoes, so it be next the skin. And it is true enough, that it willstop the terms, if worn so, and the whites too, for ought i know itstays also spitting or vomiting of blood the powder of the herb takenin essay of the distilled water, helps the whites in women, but moreespecially if a little coral and ivory in powder be put to it it isalso recommended to help children that are bursten, and have a rupture, being boiled in water and salt being boiled in water and drank, iteases the griping pains of the bowels, and is good for the sciaticaand joint-aches the same boiled in vinegar, with honey and allum, and gargled in the mouth, eases the pains of the tooth-ache, fastensloose teeth, helps the gums that are sore, and settles the palate ofthe mouth in its place, when it is fallen down it cleanses and healsulcers in the mouth, or secret writings, and is very good for inwardwounds, and to close the lips of green wounds, and to heal old, moist, and corrupt running sores in the legs or elsewhere being bruisedand applied to the soles of the feet and hand wrists, it wonderfullycools the hot fits of agues, be they never so violent the distilledwater cleanses the skin of all discolourings therein, as morphew, sun-burnings, &c as also pimples, freckles, and the like. And droppedinto the eyes, or cloths wet therein and applied, takes away the heatand inflammations in them thistles of these are thesis kinds growing here in england which are so wellknown, that they need no description. Their difference is easily knownon the places where they grow, viz place essay grow in fields, essay in meadows, and essay among thecorn. Others on heaths, greens, and waste grounds in thesis places time they flower in june and august and their seed is ripe quicklyafter government and virtues surely mars rules it, it is such a pricklybusiness all these thistles are good to provoke urine, and to mendthe stinking smell thereof. As also the rank smell of the arm-pits, orthe whole body. Being boiled in wine and drank, and are said to help astinking breath, and to strengthen the stomach pliny saith, that thejuice bathed on the place that wants hair, it being fallen off, willcause it to grow speedily the melancholy thistle descript it rises up with tender single hoary green stalks, bearingthereon four or five green leaves, dented about the edges. The pointsthereof are little or nothing prickly, and at the top usually but onehead, yet essaytimes from the bosom of the uppermost leaves there shootsforth another small head, scaly and prickly, with thesis reddish thrumbsor threads in the middle, which being gathered fresh, will keep thecolour a long time, and fades not from the stalk a long time, while itperfects the seed, which is of a mean bigness, lying in the down theroot hath thesis strings fastened to the head, or upper writing, which isblackish, and perishes not there is another sort little differing from the former, but that theleaves are more green above, and more hoary underneath, and the stalkbeing about two feet high, bears but one scaly head, with threads andseeds as the former place they grow in thesis moist meadows of this land, as well in thesouthern, as in the northern writings time they flower about july or august, and their seed ripensquickly after government and virtues it is under capricorn, and therefore underboth saturn and mars, one rids melancholy by sympathy, the other byantipathy their virtues are but few, but those not to be despised. Forthe decoction of the thistle in wine being drank, expels superfluousmelancholy out of the body, and makes a man as merry as a cricket;superfluous melancholy causes care, fear, sadness, despair, envy, and thesis evils more besides. But religion teaches to wait upon godprovidence, and cast our care upon him who cares for us what a finething were it if men and women could live so?. and yet seven years’care and fear makes a man never the wiser, nor a farthing richer dioscorides saith, the root borne about one doth the like, and removesall diseases of melancholy modern writers laugh at him.

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a disinfectants, germicides and lord of the flies essay help antiseptics, provided theadvertising is limited to conservative recommendations for their use asprophylactic applications to superficial cuts and abrasions of the skinand to the mucous surfaces of the mouth, pharynx and nose but not tothose of the eye, and the gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary tractsand provided they are not advertised as curative agents see commentsto rule 3. And b nonmedicinal food preparations, except whenadvertised in an objectionable manner rule 4 -- indirect advertising -- no article will be accepted orretained if the label, package or circular accompanying the packagecontains the names of diseases in the treatment of which the article issaid to be indicated the therapeutic indications and properties may bestated, provided such statements do not suggest self-medication dosagemay be indicated this rule shall not apply to remedies with whichself-medication is altogether improbable, to vaccines and antitoxinsor to directions for administering or applying remedies when similarimmediate, heroic treatment is indicated rule 5 -- false claims as to origin -- no article will be accepted orretained concerning which the manufacturer or his agents make false ormisleading statements as to source, raw material from which made, ormethod of collection or preparation rule 6 -- unwarranted therapeutic claims -- no article will be acceptedor retained concerning which the manufacturer or his agents makeunwarranted, exaggerated or misleading statements as to the therapeuticvalue rule 7 -- poisonous substances -- the principal label on an articlecontaining “poisonous” or “potent” substances must state plainly theamount of each of such ingredients in a given quantity of the product rule 8 -- objectionable names -- proprietary names for medicinalarticles will be recognized only when the council shall deem the useof such exclusive names to be in the interest of public welfare nameswhich are misleading or which suggest diseases, pathologic conditionsor therapeutic indications will not be recognized the provisionagainst therapeutically suggestive names does not apply to serums, vaccines and antitoxins, or to foods in the case of pharmaceuticalpreparations or mixtures, the name must be so framed as to indicate themost potent ingredients rule 9 -- patented products and protected names -- if the article ispatented-- either process or product, or both-- the number of such patentor patents must be furnished to the council furthermore, if the nameof an article is registered, or the label copyrighted, the registration trademark number and a copy of the protected label should befurnished the council in case of registration in foreign countries, the name under which the article is registered should be supplied rule 10 -- unscientific and useless articles -- no article will beaccepted or retained which, because of its unscientific composition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of the public or of themedical profession explanatory comments on the rulesintroduction -- the council on pharmacy and chemistry was establishedin february, 1905, by the american medical association, primarilyfor the purpose of gathering and disseminating such information aswill protect the medical profession in the prescribing of proprietarymedicinal articles in pursuance of this object, the council examinesthe articles on the market as to their compliance with definite rulesdesigned to prevent fraud, undesirable secrecy and the abuses whicharise from advertising directly or indirectly to the laity sucharticles as appear to conform to the rules are accepted. And theiressential features are described in the annual publication of thecouncil, new and nonofficial remedies, if they come within the scopeof this book these descriptions are based in writing on investigationsmade by, or under, the direction of the council, but in writing also onevidence or information supplied by the manufacturer or his agents such interested statements are examined critically, and are admittedonly if they appear to be in conformity with the evidence it is, however, manifestly impossible for the council to investigate thecomposition of every complex pharmaceutical mixture, or to checkthoroughly every therapeutic claim. It can give only an unbiasedjudgment on the available evidence criticisms and corrections ofthe descriptions which may aid in the revision of the matter will beappreciated the council judges an article entirely by the facts inevidence at the time of its admission previous noncompliance with therules short of intentional fraud does not prevent the favorableconsideration of an article which is in accord with existing rules infringements of the rules after acceptance of an article for new andnonofficial remedies, or the discovery that the council informationwas incorrect, will cause the acceptance to be reconsidered an articleis accepted for new and nonofficial remedies, and will continue to beincluded in the book, with the understanding that serious violations ofthe rules, after acceptance, will be followed by the omission of thearticle and publication of the reasons for such omission the councildesires physicians to understand that the admission of an article doesnot imply a recommendation acceptance simply means that no conflictwith the rules has been found by the council duration of acceptance -- unless an agreement to the contrary is madeat the time of acceptance, articles admitted to new and nonofficialremedies will be retained for a period of three years, provided thatduring that period they comply with the rules and regulations whichwere in force at the time of their acceptance at the end of thisperiod all articles will be carefully reexamined for compliance withexisting rules writingicular weight will be given to the question as towhether recent evidence has substantiated claims as to the therapeuticvalue of any preparation, this evidence to consist writingly of recentstatements in the literature and writingly of the general esteem in whichthe preparation is held by clinical consultants of the council thereacceptance of articles after such reexamination shall be for threeyears unless a shorter period is specified any amendments to therules, by specific requirements or by interpretation, which may be madeafter the acceptance of an article, shall not apply to such articleuntil the period of acceptance has elapsed at the end of this periodthe article, if it is not eligible under the amended rules, will beomitted the scope of new and nonofficial remedies and appendix -- to aidphysicians and manufacturers in deciding what articles come withinthe scope of this book, or, in other words, to enable physiciansto recognize whether an article which is not described in new andnonofficial remedies has been omitted because it does not needadmission or because it has been rejected, the council furnishes thefollowing more detailed definitions:official articles -- articles official in the u s p or n f do notrequire consideration by the council if they are marketed under theofficial name and if no unestablished therapeutic claims are made forthem these do not require consideration by the council, since standards forthem are provided in these books, and enforced under the provisionsof the federal food and drugs act, except that they may be mentionedfor information consideration by the council becomes necessary if au s p or n f product is offered for sale under a name other thanthat, or the synonyms, under which the product is described in one ofthese books of standards, or if the proprietors or their agents advanceclaims that the product possesses therapeutic properties other thanthose commonly accredited to it modifications of u s p and n f products -- a pharmacopeial ornational formulary product which is marketed under the official titleor synonym, but with well-founded claims that its purity, permanence, palatability or other physical properties excel the official standard, may, if no extraordinary therapeutic properties are asserted, beconsidered as an official article and held not to be within the scopeof new and nonofficial remedies when such products are marketed underthe claim that they possess therapeutic properties other than thosecommonly accredited to the u s p or n f products of which theyare modifications, they shall be subject to the consideration of thecouncil specifically exempted preparations -- foods, in general, unless marketedwith the claim that they possess therapeutic properties shall not, atthe present time, be considered by the council mechanical appliances, at the present time, shall not be considered by the council mineralwaters natural, at the present time, shall not be considered by thecouncil with these exceptions, products which in the judgment of thecouncil are manufactured and marketed in conformity to the principlesunderlying the rules of the council may be accepted for n n r products which are manufactured and marketed in a manner which does notconform to the principles underlying the rules of the council shall notbe accepted for n n r the burden of proof in establishing claimsfor therapeutic properties of products considered by the council shalllie with the proprietor or, when a foreign made product, with theagent who markets the product in the united states to avoid confusionwith nonofficial substances marketed under similar names, the councilrecommends that official substances be prescribed by their officialtitles, followed by the abbreviation “u s p ” or “n f ”.