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“free chlorine, 0 35 per cent. Calcium chloride, 0 30 per cent. Mercurous chloride, 0 03 per cent. Lithium chloride, 0 04 per cent. Calcium hydrate, 0 01 per cent.

And that may be the reason why an all wise god hathfurnished us with far more hot herbs and plants, &c than cold use 1 their use is first, in nourishment, that so the heat of foodmay be qualified, and made literature review services for a weak stomach to digest use 2 secondly, to restrain and assuage the heat of the bowels, andto cool the blood in fevers therefore if the distemper of heat be but gentle, medicines cold inthe first degree will suffice. Also children, and such people whosestomachs are weak, are easily hurt by cold medicines of medicines cold in the second and third degree use 1 such whose stomachs are strong, and livers hot, may easilybear such medicines as are cold in the second degree, and in paper ofextremity find much help by them. As also by such as are cold in thethird degree, the extremity of the disease considered, for by boththese the unbridled heat of choler is assuaged use 2 also they are outwardly applied to hot swellings, dueconsideration being had, that if the inflammation be not great, usethose that are less. If the inflammation be vehement, make use ofmedicines cold in the second or third degree, always let the remedycorrespond to the just proportion of the affliction use 3 thirdly, essaytimes the spirits are moved inordinately throughheat, thence follows immoderate watchings, if not deprivation of thesenses, this also must be remedied with cold medicines, for cold stopsthe pores of the skin, makes the humours thick, represses sweat, andkeeps up the spirits from fainting of medicines cold in the fourth degree lastly, the use of medicines cold in the fourth degree, is, to mitigatedesperate and vehement pains, stupifying the senses, when no othercourse can be taken to save life. Of the use of which more hereafter of moistening medicines there can be no such difference found amongst moistening medicines, that they should surpass the second degree for seeing all medicinesare either hot or cold, neither heat nor cold, seeing they areextremes, can consist with moisture, for the one dries it up, the othercondensates it use phylosophers therefore call moisture and dryness, passivequalities, yet have they their operation likewise. For moist medicineslenify and make slippery, ease the cough, and help the roughness of thethroat these operations are proper to medicines moist in the firstdegree those which are moister, take away naturally strength, help thesharpness of humours, make both blood and spirits thicker, looses thebelly, and fits it for purgation the immoderate or indiscreet use of them dulls the body, and makes itunfit for action of drying medicines drying medicines have contrary faculties to these, viz to consumemoisture, stop fluxes, and make such writings dry as are slippery, theymake the body and members firm, when they are weakened by too muchmoisture, that so they may perform their proper functions yet although the members be strengthened by drying medicines, they havenotwithstanding their own proper moisture in them, which ought to beconserved, and not destroyed, for without it they cannot consist. Ifthen this moisture be consumed by using, or rather over use of dryingmedicines, the members can neither be nourished, nor yet perform theirproper actions such medicines as are dry in the third degree, being unadvisedlygiven, hinder the writings of the body they are appropriated to, of theirnourishment, and by that means brings them into consumption besides, there is a certain moisture in the body of man, which iscalled radical moisture, which being taken away, the writings must needsdie, seeing natural heat and life also consists in it, and this may bedone by too frequent use of medicines dry in the fourth degree.

Inwardly taken, it helps old coughs and hoarseness, pains in the sides, kills worms, and helps a stinking breath, helps thewasting of the gums, fastens the teeth. Outwardly it helps wounds, andfills up ulcers with flesh you may take half a dram at a time mastich, strengthens the stomach exceedingly, helps such as vomit orspit blood, it fastens the teeth and strengthens the gums, being chewedin the mouth frankinsense, and olibanum, heat and bind, fill up old ulcers withflesh, stop bleeding, but is extremely bad for mad people turpentine, purges, cleanses the reins, helps the running of them styrax calamitis, helps coughs, and distillations upon the lungs, hoarseness, want of voice, hardness of the womb, but it is bad forhead-aches ammonicaum, applied to the side, helps the hardness and pains of thespleen camphire, eases pains of the head coming of heat, takes awayinflammations, and cools any place to which it is applied juices that all juices have the same virtues with the herbs or fruits whereofthey are made, i suppose few or none will deny, therefore i shall onlyname a few of them, and that briefly sugar is held to be hot in the first degree, strengthens the lungs, takes away the roughness of the throat, succours the reins and bladder the juice of citrons cools the blood, strengthens the heart, mitigates the violent heat of fevers the juice of lemons works the same effect, but not so powerfully juice of liquorice, strengthens the lungs, helps coughs and colds things bred from plants these have been treated of before, only two excepted the first ofwhich is, agaricus agarick. It purges flegm, choler, and melancholy, from thebrain, nerves, muscles, marrow, or more properly brain of the back, it cleanses the breast, lungs, liver, stomach, spleen, reins, womb, joints. It provokes urine, and the menses, kills worms, helps pains inthe joints, and causes a good colour. It is very seldom or never takenalone see syrup of roses with agarick lastly, vicus quircinus, or misleto of the oak, helps thefalling-sickness being either taken inwardly, or hung about oneneck living creatures millepedes so called from the multitude of their feet, though itcannot be supposed they have a thousand sows, hog-lice, wood-lice, being bruised and mixed with wine, they provoke urine, help the yellowjaundice, outwardly being boiled in oil, help pains in the ears, a dropbeing put into them the flesh of vipers being eaten, clear the sight, help the vices ofthe nerves, resist poison exceedingly, neither is there any betterremedy under the sun for their bitings than the head of the viper thatbit you, bruised and applied to the place, and the flesh eaten, youneed not eat above a dram at a time, and make it up as you shall betaught in troches of vipers neither any comparable to the stinging ofbees and wasps, &c than the same that sting you, bruised and appliedto the place land scorpions cure their own stingings by the same means.

Capsicus, in powder, two ounces mix them ’ “this preparation came increasingly into demand with the eclectic profession, the principal use for which it was first employed as an emetic, being finally displaced by its local application in bronchial pneumonia troubles, when sprinkled on a greased cloth and applied to the chest ” “in 1898, dr finley ellingwood petitioned lloyd brothers to make for him, in plasma form, ready for application, a compound carrying the ingredients of the old ‘compound lobelia powder, ’ strengthened by the addition of melaleuca leucadendron, laurus camphora and nicotiana tabacum experiments not very encouraging in a pharmaceutical sense were made, and it was not until repeated requests had been made that a product was at last satisfactorily prepared and forwarded to dr ellingwood 1900, with no thought other than that of serving him personally in his practice this product he used and commended to his professional friends, and under his commendation it came into professional demand ”an examination of the information submitted by lloyd brothers showedlibradol to be in conflict with the principles and rules that govern inthe acceptance of articles for new and nonofficial remedies as follows:composition rule 1 -- the information which has been receivedgives little idea of the actual composition of the preparation. Forexample, the statement that libradol “carries the energies of its drugconstituents and the high antiseptic qualities of laurus camphoraand melaleuca” gives no indication as to the writing or writings of thelaurus camphora or melaleuca employed if the statement is correct, that libradol “is a homogeneous, highly medicated, and exceedinglypotent compound, ” it is essential that the several potent ingredientsbe stated clearly and not merely hinted at by their qualities otherconflicts with rule 1 might be enumerated, but the foregoing citationsstate the direct conflict. And this has not been removed, although aninquiry was sent to lloyd brothers for a statement of the amount ofeach potent ingredient in a given quantity of libradol indirect advertising rule 4 -- the recommendation for the use oflibradol in the treatment of colds, bronchitis, lumbago, sciatica andrheumatic pains, which accompanies the trade package, is prone tolead the public to depend on it in paper where definite treatment isimperative unwarranted therapeutic claims rule 6 -- libradol is recommended ina great variety of conditions and is especially claimed not only torelieve pain, but to remove the cause of pain this is explained asfollows. “in the study of the physiological action of thesis drugs, itwas found that the constituent remedies in this combination exerciseda most salutary influence, not only upon the sensibility of the nervesinvolved, but upon the capillary circulation within the diseased area, the muscular structures therein included, and, subsequently, upon thecourse of the advancement of the congestive and inflammatory processes, and upon secretion, exudation, adhesion, induration, hypertrophy, suppuration and excretion ”granting, for the sake of argument, that carefully controlledexperimental clinical evidence were available to substantiate thisstatement with reference to a single case of pain, the statementwould be misleading when considered as a general explanation of thepreparation relieving pain by removing the cause of pain when takenin connection with the conditions for which it is recommended and inwhich pain is even a minor symptom still, if pain were relieved inthese paper by removing the cause, the patient would be cured of theconditions which give rise to the pain, and these include. “acutepain in the chest. Acute inflammation in the chest. Persistentlocal pain. ” this might be interpreted as including tuberculosis;pneumonia. Cancer, and appendicitis “lumbago. Sciatica. Articularrheumatism” gonorrheal infections?. name rule 8 -- the name, derived from dolar and liber, suggeststhe claimed action of the preparation the relief of pain rather thanthe drugs said to be presented by it irrational composition rule 10 -- it is quite possible that libradolwill relieve pain in certain instances and that the drug constituentspresent in libradol “regular” make this more effective than “libradolmild” which is “destitute of drug energy”. This, however, is nojustification for the use by physicians of a cataplasm containingor made from skunk cabbage, bloodroot, ipecac, melaleuca oil ofcajeput?. , lobelia, laurus comphora camphor?. , capsicum and tobacco the combination is thoroughly irrational and a reminder of a pastcentury further, the council knows of no evidence to support thefollowing claims. “as a stimulant capsicum has the power of neutralizing depressant remedies like lobelia and tobacco ” “our association of its desirable constituents with those of lobelia, in connection with the modifying influence of capsicum, melaleuca, and laurus camphora, permits a more free use in libradol than would be possible were it to be employed alone ” “capsicum, melaleuca, and laurus camphora in libradol tend to counteract the excessive relaxative and depressant effects of lobelia ” “the great value of melaleuca in libradol is its quality of modifying and controlling the action of the associated energetic constituents of the drugs tobacco and lobelia, which reduce congestion and inflammation, but which would, unsupported, be too depressant ”libradol is inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because itscomposition is complex, irrational and semi-secret, and because itsname and the unwarranted therapeutic recommendations made for it willlead to its ill-advised use -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1920, p 65 helmitol omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryhelmitol is hexamethylenamin methylencitrate it was introduced withthe claim that it was superior to hexamethylenamin-- which acts in acidfluids only-- in that it is equally efficient whether the urine isalkaline or acid in 1918 the bayer company, which then marketed the product in theunited states, was notified that the council questioned the claims madefor helmitol and desired evidence to substantiate them in 1919 thesame notification was sent the winthrop chemical company, which in themeantime had secured control of the product pending the submissionof the evidence, the council continued the acceptance of helmitolfor new and nonofficial remedies with the statement that the actionsand uses of hexamethylenamin anhydromethylencitrate were those ofhexamethylenamin w a puckner, secretary the following report on helmitol was made by the referee in charge ofhexamethylenamin compounds and preparations, adopted by the council andsent the winthrop chemical company:“helmitol is a compound of anhydromethylencitric acid andhexamethylenamin it was introduced with the claim that it would beantiseptic even in alkaline urine the council did not entirely trustthe evidence, but continued to list helmitol in n n r , merely asa salt of hexamethylenamin, until satisfactory data should becomeavailable these have now been furnished by hanzlik journal ofurology 4:145 who has shown that:“1 the alkalinity required to split off formaldehyd fromanhydromethylencitric acid is greater than exists in the urine, even inadvanced ammoniacal fermentation “2 even if any formaldehyd were liberated in ammoniacal fermentation, it would at once become inactive by combining with ammonia “3 urine after the administration of anhydromethylencitric acidactually putrefies readily “4 less than 5 per cent of the anhydromethylencitric radical reachesthe urine, the remainder being destroyed in the body “the only reason for the existence of helmitol was this claim ofantiseptic action in alkaline and putrefying urines since this hasbeen disproved, there remains no reason for retaining helmitol inn n r. On the contrary, its retention would only tend to continuethe fallacy on which it is based “it is, therefore, recommended that helmitol be no longer listed withnew and nonofficial remedies, and that this report be published, afterthe usual submission to the manufacturers ”in accordance with the recommendation of the report, the council hasdirected the omission of helmitol from new and nonofficial remediesand has authorized the publication of this report -- from the journala m a , jan 22, 1921 spirocide not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary “spirocide” the spirocide corporation of new york is advertised as anew and successful treatment of syphilis by fumigation and inhalation according to the information presented to the council, spirocide is amechanical mixture of metallic mercury 25 per cent , copper sulphate 25per cent , cypress cones 20 per cent , henna 20 per cent , nut gall 5per cent , and dried pomegranate 5 per cent it is supplied in the formof greenish-gray tablets weighing about 10 gm each, and containing, therefore, about 2 5 gm about 38 grains of mercury it is sold inpackages of six tablets the following directions for its use are contained in a pamphletrecently distributed. “spirocide is administered by means of fumigation and inhalation the patient is disrobed to the waist and placed in a light chair, preferably with arms a pastil or tablet of spirocide is placed on a small plate, or open receptacle, after being ignited by holding in a gas or alcohol flame for a minute or so until it begins to smoulder the plate with the burning spirocide is then placed on the floor between the patient feet or just under the chair a small shelf or platform between the lower rounds of the chair is an excellent location for the plate containing the burning mass when all is in position a sheet should be thrown over the patient and arranged to enclose the whole the patient should breathe naturally and inhale the vapor, which will rise and fill the canopy surrounding him the treatment will require 15 to 30 minutes, or until the spirocide is burned up the patient may complain at first of a slight choking sensation, and there may be essay tendency to cough this can be removed by raising the sheet long enough to let in a little clear air the eyes should be closed or lightly bandaged to avoid smarting ”experiments conducted in the a m a chemical laboratory show thatspirocide, when ignited, burns slowly with consequent volatilizationof mercury the several organic constituents serve as fuel and thecopper sulphate possibly acts as a regulator of the combustion duringthe burning process the cypress cones, henna, etc , are consumed butmost, if not all, the copper remains behind, the mercury only beingvaporized it is asserted in the advertising pamphlet that spirocide isindicated in all stages of syphilis, primary, secondary and tertiary, and in all its complications or sequelae in these varying conditionsone tablet daily or every other day is recommended until six treatmentshave been taken, though it is stated that “occasionally, depending onthe severity or the duration of the disease, it may be wise to givenine treatments, the last three at intervals of two, three or moredays ”essay of the results which it is claimed are obtained with spirocide are. “at the completion of this course of treatment with spirocide, all signs or evidences of syphilis are removed, and in ten days to three months all wassermann tests prove negative any further treatments than the original course of fumigations are rarely needed wassermann will be found uniformly negative after a period which, according to the patient, may vary from ten days to three months these results have been obtained in paper in which salvarsan and kindred preparations have been employed without the slightest benefit ”in a letter to the council the “scientific observer” of the spirocidecorporation declared.

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Phenolphthalein 1/2 gr in literature review services a balanced combination withhexamene a name essaytimes applied to hexamethylenamin and oil ofcinnamon indications. Influenza, colds, grippe, headache, neuralgia, rheumatism ” the same formula is given in advertisements and in thisadvertisement it is claimed that they are “for influenza and grip” andif “given in the acute stage may avert a serious attack” boston m & s j , oct 3, 1918 the dose is given as one to two tablets at6 p m and repeat at bedtimes the a m a chemical laboratory reported that the tablets weigh anaverage of 0 4882 gm , or 7-1/2 grains. That they have the odor andtaste of cinnamon. And that they contain hexamethylenamin, are neutraland therefore give up no formaldehyde in the presence of water alone the laboratory further reported that they contain phenolphthalein andacetanilid these tablets were directed to be taken internally andtherefore their effect was not intended to be local the amount of hexamethylenamin was not determined, but in any casecould not exceed 5 grains per tablet it is evident that 4 grainsof acetanilid and 10 grains of hexamethylenamin and 1 grain ofphenolphthalein in two tablets “if given in the acute stage” ofinfluenza would not “avert a serious attack, ” as claimed in theadvertisements the council declared tablets formothalates inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1919, p 92 triple arsenates with nuclein report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has declared triple arsenates with nuclein no 1 andtriple arsenates with nuclein no 2, tablets marketed by the abbottlaboratories, inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies becauseunwarranted therapeutic claims rule 6 are made for them and becausethey present an illogical combination of drugs rule 10 thepublication of the following report has been authorized by the council w a puckner, secretary the following claims are made for triple arsenates with nuclein. “puts ‘pep’ and strength back into that patient recovering from spanish influenza, pneumonia, typhoid, or surgical operation an extremely powerful reconstructive tonic try it for that ‘run down’ feeling ”triple arsenates with nuclein is said to contain “strychnin arsenategr 1/128, quinin arsenate gr 1/64, iron arsenate gr 1/64, nucleinsolution mins 4 ” a second preparation, of double strength-- triplearsenates with nuclein no 2-- is also advertised the council voted notto accept these preparations for new and nonofficial remedies on thefollowing grounds:the quantities of quinin, iron and nuclein in the doses represented inthese mixtures are negligible. Thus, one tablet of triple arsenateswith nuclein containing 1/64 grain of quinin arsenate contains onlyabout 1/90 grain of anhydrous quinin.