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Yea, it hath been found by experience, and the decoctionof the root in wine, or the bruised root put into wine or otherdrink, and after a night infusion, strained forth hard and drank, hath helped both man and beast, whose bones hath been broken by anyoccasion, which is the most assured refuge of help to people of diverscounties of the land that they can have it is no less effectual tohelp ruptures and burstings, the decoction in wine, or the powder inbroth or drink, being inwardly taken, and outwardly applied to theplace the same is also available for inward or outward bruises, fallsor blows, both to dispel the congealed blood, and to take away both thepains and the black and blue marks that abide after the hurt the samealso, or the distilled water of the whole plant, used to the face, orother writings of the skin, cleanses it from morphew, freckles, spots, ormarks whatsoever, leaving the place fresh, fair, and lovely. For whichpurpose it is much used by the italian dames samphire descript rock samphire grows up with a tender green stalk abouthalf a yard, or two feet high at the most, branching forth almostfrom the very bottom, and stored with sundry thick and almost round essaywhat long leaves of a deep green colour, essaytimes two together, and essaytimes more on a stalk, and sappy, and of a pleasant, hot, andspicy taste at the top of the stalks and branches stand umbels ofwhite flowers, and after them come large seed, bigger than fennel seed, yet essaywhat like it the root is great, white, and long, continuingthesis years, and is of an hot and spicy taste likewise place it grows on the rocks that are often moistened at the least, if not overflowed with the sea water time and it flowers and seeds in the end of july and august government and virtues it is an herb of jupiter, and was in formertimes wont to be used more than now it is. The more is the pity it iswell known almost to every body, that ill digestions and obstructionsare the cause of most of the diseases which the frail nature of manis subject to. Both which might be remedied by a more frequent use ofthis herb if people would have sauce to their meat, they may take essayfor profit as well as for pleasure it is a safe herb, very pleasantboth to taste and stomach, helps digestion, and in essay sort openingobstructions of the liver and spleen.

You may take it inwhite wine, and keep yourself warm if you would have my opinion of it, i do not like it confectio hamech college take of the bark of citron, myrobalans two ounces, myrobalans, chebs and blacks, violets, colocynthis, polypodium of theoak, of each one ounce and an half, wormwood, thyme, of each half anounce, the seeds of annis, and fennel, the flowers of red roses ofeach three drams, let all of them being bruised, be infused one dayin six pounds of whey, then boiled till half be consumed, rubbed withyour hands and pressed out. To the decoction add juice of fumitory, pulp of prunes, and raisins of the sun, of each half a pound, whitesugar, clarified honey, of each one pound, boil it to the thicknessof honey, strewing in towards the end agarick trochiscated, sena ofeach two ounces, rhubarb one ounce and an half, epithimum one ounce, diacrydium six drams, cinnamon half an ounce, ginger two drams, theseeds of fumitory and annis, spikenard, of each one dram, make it intoan electuary according to art culpeper the receipt is chiefly appropriated as a purge formelancholy and salt flegm, and diseases thence arising, as scabs, itch, leprosies, cancers, infirmities of the skin, it purges adust humours, and is good against madness, melancholy, forgetfulness, vertigo itpurges very violently, and is not safe given alone i would advise theunskilful not to meddle with it inwardly. You may give half an ounce ofit in clysters, in melancholy diseases, which commonly have astringencya constant companion with them electuarium lenitivum or lenitive electuary college take of raisins of the sun stoned, polypodium of theoak, sena, of each two ounces, mercury one handful and an half, jujubes, sebestens, of each twenty, maidenhair, violets, frenchbarley, of each one handful, damask prunes stoned, tamarinds of eachsix drams, liquorice half an ounce, boil them in ten pounds of watertill two writings of the three be consumed. Strain it, and dissolve inthe decoction, pulp of cassia, tamarinds, and fresh prunes, sugar ofviolets, of each six ounces, sugar two pounds, at last add powder ofsena leaves, one ounce and an half, annis seeds in powder, two drams toeach pound of electuary, and so bring it into the form of an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it gently opens and molifies the bowels, brings forthcholer, flegm, and melancholy, and that without trouble, it is cooling, and therefore is profitable in pleurisies, and for wounded people. Aman of reasonable strength may take an ounce of it going to bed, whichwill work next morning electuarium passulatum college take of fresh polypodium roots three ounces, freshmarsh-mallow roots, sena, of each two ounces, annis seeds two drams, steep them in a glazed vessel, in a sufficient quantity of springwater, boil them according to art. Strain it and with pulp of raisinsof the sun half a pound, white sugar, manna, of each four ounces, boilit to the thickness of a cydoniate, and renew it four times a year culpeper it gently purges both choler and melancholy, cleanses thereins and bladder, and therefore is good for the stone and gravel inthe kidneys electuarium e succo rosarum or electuary of the juice of roses college take of sugar, the juice of red roses clarified, of each apound and four ounces, the three sorts of sanders of each six drams, spodium three drams, diacydonium twelve drams, camphire a scruple, letthe juice be boiled with the sugar to its just thickness, then add therest in powder, and so make it into an electuary according to art culpeper it purges choler, and is good in tertian agues, anddiseases of the joints, it purges violently, therefore let it be warilygiven hiera picra simple college take of cinnamon, xylobalsamum, or wood of aloes, the rootsof asarabacca, spikenard, mastich, saffron, of each six drams, aloesnot washed twelve ounces and an half, clarified honey four pounds andthree ounces, mix them into an electuary according to art also you maykeep the species by itself in your shops culpeper it is an excellent remedy for vicious juices which liefurring the tunicle of the stomach, and such idle fancies and symptomswhich the brain suffers thereby, whereby essay think they see, othersthat they hear strange things, especially when they are in bed, andbetween sleeping and waking. Besides this, it very gently purges thebelly, and helps such women as are not sufficiently purged after theirtravail hiera with agarick college take of species hiera, simple without aloes, agaricktrochiscated, of each half an ounce, aloes not washed one ounce, clarified honey six ounces, mix it, and make it into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper look but to the virtues of agarick and add them to thevirtues of the former receipt, so is the business done without anyfurther trouble hiera logadii college take of coloquintida, polypodium, of each two drams, euphorbium, poley mountain, the seeds of spurge, of each one dramand an half, and six grains, wormwood, myrrh, of each one dram andtwelve grains, centaury the less, agarick, gum ammoniacum, indian leafor mace, spikenard, squills prepared, diacrydium of each one dram, aloes, thyme hermander, cassia lignea, bdellum, horehound, of eachone scruple and fourteen grains, cinnamon, oppopanax, castorium, longbirthwort, the three sorts of pepper, sagapen, saffron, parsley of eachtwo drams, hellebore black and white, of each six grains, clarifiedhoney a pound and a half, mix them, and make of them an electuaryaccording to art let the species be kept dry in your shops culpeper it takes away by the roots daily evils coming ofmelancholy, falling-sickness, vertigo, convulsions, megrim, leprosies, and thesis other infirmities. For my writing i should be loth to take itinwardly unless upon desperate occasions, or in clysters it may welltake away diseases by the roots, if it takes away life and all hiera diacolocynthidos college take of colocynthis, agarick, germander, white horehound, stœchas, of each ten drams, opopanax, sagapen, parsley seeds, roundbirthwort roots, white pepper of each five drams, spikenard, cinnamon, myrrh, indian leaf or mace, saffron, of each four drams, bruise thegums in a mortar, sift the rest, and with three pounds of clarifiedhoney, three ounces and five drams, make it into an electuary accordingto art culpeper it helps the falling-sickness, madness, and the pain inthe head called kephalalgia, pains in the breast and stomach whetherthey come by sickness or bruises, pains in the loins or back-bone, hardness of womens breasts, putrefaction of meat in the stomach, andsour belchings it is but used seldom and therefore hard to be gotten triphera the greater college take of myrobalans, chebs, bellericks, inds and emblicks, nutmegs, of each five drams, water-cress seeds, asarabacca roots, persian origanum, or else dittany of crete, black pepper, olibanum, ammi, ginger, tamarisk, indian nard, squinanth, cypress roots of eachhalf an ounce, filings of steel prepared with vinegar twenty drams, let the myrobalans be roasted with fresh butter, let the rest, beingpowdered, be sprinkled with oil of sweet almonds, then add musk onedram, and with their treble weight in honey, make it into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it helps the immoderate flowing of the menses in women, and the hæmorrhoids in men, it helps weakness of the stomach, andrestores colour lost, it frees the body from crude humours, andstrengthens the bladder, helps melancholy, and rectifies the distempersof the spleen you may take a dram in the morning, or two if your bodybe any thing strong triphera solutive college take of diacrydium, ten drams, turbith, an ounce and anhalf, cardamoms the less, cloves, cinnamon, honey, of each three drams, yellow sanders, liquorice, sweet fennel seeds, of each half an ounce, acorns, schœnanth, of each a dram, red roses, citron pills preserved, of each three drams, violets two drams, penids four ounces, white sugarhalf a pound, honey clarified in juice of apples one pound, make anelectuary according to art culpeper the diacrydium and turbith, are a couple of untowardpurges, the rest are all cordials athanasia mithridatis galen college take of cinnamon, cassia, schœnanth, of each an ounce andan half, saffron, myrrh, of each one ounce, costus, spignel, meum, acorus, water-flag perhaps they mean see the root in the catalogue ofsimples, agarick, scordium, carrots, parsley, of each half an ounce, white pepper eleven grains, honey so much as is sufficient to make itinto an electuary according to art culpeper it prevails against poison, and the bitings of venomousbeasts, and helps such whose meat putrifies in their stomach, staysvomiting of blood, helps old coughs, and cold diseases in the liver, spleen, bladder, and matrix the dose is half a dram electuarium scoriaferri rhasis college take of the flakes of iron infused in vinegar seven daysand dried, three drams, indian spikenard, schœnanth, cypress, ginger, pepper, bishop weed, frankincense, of each half an ounce, myrobalans, indian bellericks, and emblicks, honey boiled with the decoction ofemblicks, sixteen ounces, mix them together, and make of them anelectuary culpeper the medicine heats the spleen gently, purges melancholy, eases pains in the stomach and spleen, and strengthens digestion people that are strong may take half an ounce in the morning fasting, and weak people three drams it is a good remedy for pains and hardnessof the spleen confectio humain mesua college take of eyebright two ounces, fennel seeds five drams, cloves, cinnamon, cubebs, long pepper, mace, of each one dram, beatthem all into powder, and with clarified honey one pound, in which boiljuice of fennel one ounce, juice of celandine and rue, of each half anounce, and with the powders make it up into an electuary culpeper it is chiefly appropriated to the brain and heart, quickens the senses, especially the sight, and resists the pestilence you may take half a dram if your body be hot, a dram if cold, in themorning fasting diaireos solomonis nich college take of orris roots one ounce, pennyroyal, hyssop, liquorice, of each six drams, tragacanth, white starch, bitter almonds, pine-nuts, cinnamon, ginger, pepper, of each three drams, fat figs, thepulp of raisins of the sun, and dates, of each three drams and an half, styrax, calamitis two drams and an half, sugar dissolved in hyssopwater, and clarified honey, of each twice the weight of all the rest, make them into an electuary according to art culpeper the electuary is chiefly appropriated to the lungs, andhelps cold infirmities of them, as asthmaes, coughs, difficulty ofbreathing, &c you may take it with a liquorice stick, or on the pointof a knife, a little of it at a time, and often diasaiyrion nich college take of the roots of satyrion fresh and sound, gardenparsnips, eringo, pine-nuts, indian nuts, or if indian nuts be wanting, take the double quantity of pine-nuts, fistic-nuts, of each one ounceand an half, cloves, ginger, the seeds of annis, rocket, ash keys, ofeach five drams, cinnamon, the tails and loins of scincus, the seeds ofbulbus nettles, of each two drams and an half, musk seven grains, ofthe best sugar dissolved in malaga wine, three pounds, make it into anelectuary according to art culpeper it helps weakness of the reins and bladder, and such asmake water with difficulty, it provokes lust exceedingly, and speedilyhelps such as are impotent in the acts of venus you may take twodrams or more at a time matthiolus great antidote against poison and pestilence college take of rhubarb, rhapontic, valerian roots, the rootsof acorus, or calamus aromaticus, cypress, cinquefoyl, tormentil, round birthwort, male peony, elecampane, costus, illirick, orris, white chamelion, or avens, of each three drams, the roots of galanga, masterwort, white dictamni, angelica, yarrow, fillipendula or dropwort, zedoary, ginger, of each two drams, rosemary, gentian, devil-bit, ofeach two drams and an half, the seeds of citrons, and agnus castus, the berries of kermes, the seeds of ash-tree, sorrel, wild parsnips, navew, nigella, peony the male, bazil, hedge mustard, irio treaclemustard, fennel, bishop-weed, of each two drams, the berries ofbay, juniper, and ivy, sarsaparilla, or for want of it the doubleweight of cubebs, cubebs, of each one dram and an half, the leaves ofscordium, germander, chamepitys, centaury the less, stœchas, celticspikenard, calaminth, rue, mints, betony, vervain, scabious, carduusbenedictus, bawm, of each one dram and an half, dittany of cretethree drams, marjoram, st john wort, schœnanth, horehound, goatsrue, savin, burnet, of each two drams, figs, walnuts, fistic-nuts, ofeach three ounces, emblicks, myrobalans half an ounce, the flowersof violets, borrage, bugloss, roses, lavender, sage, rosemary, ofeach four scruples, saffron three drams, cassia lignea ten drams, cloves, nutmegs, mace, of each two drams and an half, black pepper, long pepper, all the three sorts of sanders, wood of aloes, of eachone dram and an half, hart-horn half an ounce, unicorn-horn, orin its stead, bezoar stone, one dram, bone in a stag heart, ivory, stag pizzle, castoreum, of each four scruples, earth of lemnos threedrams, opium one dram and an half, orient pearls, emeralds, jacinth, red coral, of each one dram and an half, camphire two drams, gumarabic, mastich, frankincense, styrax, turpentine, sagapenum, opopanax, laserpitium, or myrrh, of each two drams and an half, musk, ambergris, of each one dram, oil of vitriol half an ounce, species cordialestemperatæ, diamargariton, diamoscu, diambra, electuarij de gemmis, troches of camphire, of squills, of each two drams and an half, trochesof vipers two ounces, the juice of sorrel, sow thistles, scordium, vipers bugloss, borrage, bawm, of each half a pound, hypocistis twodrams, of the best treacle and mithridate, of each six ounces, old winethree pounds, of the best sugar, or choice honey eight pounds sixounces these being all chosen and prepared with diligence and art, letthem be made into an electuary just as treacle or mithridate is culpeper the title shews you the scope of the author in compilingit, i believe it is excellent for those uses the dose of this is froma scruple to four scruples, or a dram and an half. It provokes sweatingabundantly, and in this or any other sweating medicine, order your bodythus.

Who at one time deprecated the art of temporal physiciansin favor of medically skilled saints, at other times fled to humanmedicine for refuge finally the position of the medically learned monk and priest withreference to the general public, during the middle ages, was by nomeans an easy or an agreeable one the people clung with invincibletenacity to the belief in demons and miracles ancient as well aschristian philosophy was firmly pledged to a belief in demons, whoseexistence was supported by the sacred testimony of the gospel it isnot astonishing, therefore, that the people should cling to theirbelief in various forms of supernatural interference with the functionsof organic beings, and thus it may frequently have happened that amedically enlightened priest, fearing the opposition of a people eagerafter celestial medicine, sacrificed his scientific convictions to thecaprices of a mistaken faith unfortunately, only a few had in them themaking of a scientific martyr, and the history of christianity teachesus that it is much easier to be a martyr of faith than a martyr ofscience but what has been stated thus far will by no means acquit the christianpriest of blame which he incurred by favoring medical superstition;such acquittal would be radically futile but we mean to show that theconduct of the servants of our faith, altho not pardonable, is quiteexplicable the historian, in order to present to his readers therelation which had gradually formed between christianity and medicalsuperstition, must show himself prosecutor and defendant at the sametime equally with dogma and priesthood, theistic belief also has been apowerful instrument in the furthering of medical superstition, and thispoint we shall next consider §9 theistic thought as the fosterer of medical superstition - althothe theist, by accepting a physico-mechanical interpretation of naturalphenomena, abandoned his main position, yet the theistic belief by nomeans became obsolete i e , the belief that god, unrestricted bynatural laws, personally directed terrestrial manifestations stillheld its ground this belief remained dominant in thesis minds, in spiteof all that philosophers and naturalists said in regard to the formsand life of organic structures the vitality which this belief hasshown during the development of our race is actually astonishing inspite of the wide acceptance of the physico-mechanical theory of life, the belief that god, without regard to natural laws, unceasinglyinterfered with the course of natural events, and, consequently, also with the conditions of the human body, has not only remainedactive, but has even succeeded in recovering an extensive writing of itslost ground we shall soon see that this is a repetition of what hasoccurred during all periods of human development even to-day, when themechanical theory of life has won its greatest triumphs, and more thantwenty centuries have passed since the great hippocrates preached atheory of medicine, purified from all theistic and theurgic accretions, individuals are still met with who presuppose the therapeutic activityof god in all paper of disease as a self-evident fact such a conditionof opinion, history teaches us, always prevails at periods, duringwhich a craving for religious excitement becomes excessively acute it is either a new form of religion which so preoccupies the publicmind and the intelligence that all phenomena are conceived of as inclosest relationship with god, or else essay individual appears who, carried away by religious enthusiasm, teaches that the existence ofnature independent of god is not admissible, and succeeds in enlistingnumerous followers under his banner under similar conditions theisticbelief had occasionally succeeded in regaining its supremacy inthe domain of medicine in taking up the consideration of essay suchinstances we can only treat them briefly, as an exhaustive handling ofthis most interesting material would carry us too far away from ourpresent subject the belief that god was the best physician, not only of the soul butof the body also, was deepened by the dissemination of christianity the sincerity of faith among the christians of the first century was sointense that a great number of them believed that their bodily welfarecould not be watched over more carefully than when it was commendedexclusively to the care of god in all paper of sickness accordingly, they entirely neglected medical aid and treated all diseases onlyby prayers, by anointing, and by laying on of hands this mode oftreatment corresponds to what is contained in the epistle of jamesv. 14-16 “is any sick among you?. let him call for the elders of the church. Andlet them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the lord:“and the prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the lord shall raisehim up. And if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him “confess your faults one to another, and pray one for another, thatye may be healed the effectual fervent prayer of a righteous manavaileth much ”the extent of this treatment by prayer is shown by the fact that evenprominent fathers of the church for instance, st benedict died543 were addicted to it moreover, an attempt was made to increase the therapeutic value ofprayer by various accessories and aids thus the gospel was placed uponthe affected writing of the body, or clothing of a writingicularly pious manwas spread over the patient it appears that the sudarium and the coatof the apostle paul were held to possess such healing power, and were, therefore, frequently employed as instruments of healing thus we readin the act of the apostles xix.

They are meanly hot and dry, cleansing, help the bitings of venomous beasts, keep men bodies fromgrowing too fat, help the yellow jaundice, stay bleeding, fluxes, andhelp green wounds dioscorides, pliny, galen, tragus aspergula odorata wood-roof. Cheers the heart, makes men merry, helps melancholy, and opens the stoppings of the liver aquilegia columbines. Help sore throats, are of a drying, bindingquality argentina silver-weed, or wild tansy. Cold and dry almost in thethird degree. Stops lasks, fluxes, and the menses, good against ulcers, the stone, and inward wounds. Easeth gripings in the belly, fastensloose teeth. Outwardly it takes away freckles, morphew, and sunburning, it takes away inflammations, and bound to the wrists stops the violenceof the fits of the ague artanita sow-bread. Hot and dry in the third degree, it is adangerous purge. Outwardly in ointments it takes away freckles, sunburning, and the marks which the small pox leaves behind them:dangerous for pregnant women aristolochia, longa, rotunda birth-wort long and round see theroots artemisia mugwort. Is hot and dry in the second degree. Binding. Anherb appropriated to the female sex. It brings down the menses, bringsaway both birth and placenta, eases pains in the matrix you may take adram at a time asparagus see the roots asarum, &c asarabacca. Hot and dry.

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But the prophet suggests in a differentmanner than does the professional exorcist ”besides these official christian exorcists, a great multitude of otherpersons carried on the trade of conjurer of demons the sorcerers andmagicians who plied their nefarious trade for the cure of the possessedand for those suffering from other diseases, worked with various kindsof mystic signs and ceremonies, and they certainly did an excellentbusiness, for he who humors the superstition and the stupidity of manalways prospers modern quackery illustrates this most strikingly but, besides these healers, there existed numerous other conjurers ofdemons and medical wonder-workers who plied their trade not for thesake of contemptible mammon, but solely for ethical reasons these werethe members of the various theosophico-philosophical sects, who wereactive during the first christian centuries and have been exhaustivelydescribed on the previous pages altho christians were eager to exalt their exorcists, who worked onlywith prayer and the invocation of christ, above all practises ofsorcery, they were not able, in the long run, to prevent christiandogmas from being confounded with and corrupted by those of philosophy under the influence of saturninus, basilides, and carpocrates, thevarious philosophical vagaries concerning accessory, intermediary, andinferior gods, and their influences upon the fate of man, corruptedthe pure and simple teachings of christ that error against which paulhad so impressively cautioned the early christian communities in hisepistle to the colossians, chapter ii , verse 8 “beware lest any manspoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition ofmen, after the rudiments law school personal statement service of the world, and not after christ”, had, nevertheless, made its appearance at last, and the adulteration ofpure gospel by philosophical speculations and fantastic views began togrow more complete from the third century on this was the foundationof the religio-mystic system which, during the middle ages, and evenbeyond the period of the renaissance, oppressed humanity like asuffocating nightmare, and not only checked progress, but also filledeach branch of human knowledge with the most frightful superstition andthe crassest mysticism this was the case also in medicine. In fact, this branch of science has probably suffered most from the alliance ofchristianity with the fantastic doctrines of philosophical schools the ancient doctrine of demons passed under the influence of christianmysticism through certain changes and transitions, especially in itsrelation to the bodily condition of individuals the variations in thisdoctrine were naturally most plainly evidenced in the medical views ofthe day it was believed that every human being from birth was allotteda good and an evil demon the good spirit held his hand protectinglyover his human charge, whereas the evil demon only waited his chance toinflict injury upon man, forming especially the determining principlein the etiology of disease it is true, the evil spirits apparentlywere no longer allowed to have such full sway over the health ofhumanity as they formerly had god now utilized them principally asexecutors of punishments which he intended for mankind as a retributionfor various forms of delinquency thus the church father, anastasius sprengel, vol ii , page 210, tells us that the reason why so thesislepers and cripples were found among christians was that god, enragedat the luxury of the members of the community, had sent the evil demonof disease among them the wrath of god from that time until late inmodern times has been considered a fully efficacious principle ofpathology. In fact, there are numbers of people even to-day who believethat not natural, but supernatural and unearthly, factors are active inthe bodily ailments of mankind the idea of good and evil demons, however, now assumed a specificallychristian character which, it is true, greatly resembled the ancientbabylonian notion, excepting that the good demons were replaced byangels and saints, whereas the evil spirits were embodied in the devil both, saints as well as devils, were thenceforth destined to play awriting in the domain of medicine it is true, the general recognitionwhich they enjoyed during the middle ages and a considerable periodof modern times has probably now passed away, but there still existnumerous classes of our people in whom the medical rôle of saints aswell as devils is most willingly acknowledged we have referred elsewhere to the therapeutic accomplishments ofthe saints during the middle ages we will here only dwell upon theinfluence which the devil, the christian successor of the ancientevil spirit, has exerted upon the medical views of all classes of thepeople this influence was very great the devil and his subordinateinfernal spirits were considered the “disturbers of peace” in thehealth of humanity disease in its various forms was their work;they resolved to inflict it either from inherent villainy or asincited by various magical arts of evil men it was especially thelatter form of diabolical activity that, during the entire middleages and during a considerable writing of modern times, was acceptedas uncontestedly authentic, and the imagination of mankind at thatperiod was inexhaustible in inventing the greatest variety of infamousactions which the devil was able to perform either of his own accordor as summoned by incantations any one desiring to acquaint himselfthoroughly with these delusive ideas should read the work of the friarcæsarius, who lived about 1225, in the rhenish-cistercian monasteryof heisterbach naturally, we are only interested in the medical actswhich the devil was always ready to perform according to the historyof medical superstition, the devil, who was invoked by various spellsor appeared of his own volition, was able to influence each individualbodily organ in a manner most disagreeable to the possessor of thesame neither were the prince of hell and his hosts always satisfiedto tease and to plague an individual being, but very frequently theycarried on this business wholesale they threw themselves upon theentire population of a country, and caused sickness in all who crossedtheir path the great epidemic of st vitus dance of the fourteenthcentury, for instance, was considered to be the work of the devil, andthe clergy busied themselves in driving out this devil pest by meansof sprinkling holy water and by the utterance of conjuring formulas the sexual life of men as well as of women offered an especiallyfruitful field for the activity of the devil and of his infernalcompanions thus, it was a favorite trick of the ruler of hell and ofhis subordinate demons to assume the shape of the husband or loverof this or that female, and, under this mask, to assume rights whichshould be permitted only to the husband the infernal spirit thatplayed this rôle was called incubus thus, for instance, hinkmer tellsus of a nun who was mischievously claimed by such an infernal paramour, and who could be relieved of him only by priestly aid but hell alsocontained female constituents who played the same rôle for the maleas did incubus for women such a wanton woman of hell was calledstriga or lamia compare hansen, pages 14 and 72 these amorous femalefriends of hell did not even stop when they met eminent saints in theconvent of st benedetto, near the italian town of subiaco, a rose-bushis shown even to-day into which the naked st benedict threw himself inorder to resist the unholy temptation and every one is sufficientlyacquainted with the troubles which st anthony of padua had with theseinfernal women however, we physicians know well enough the causeof these temptations they may surely and actually have approachedthe nun of whom hinkmer reports, also st benedict and st anthony;however, they were not the devil prostitutes, but the expressions ofsuppressed and disregarded impulses of nature which, in the form ofvoluptuous imaginations, appeared before the eyes of persons removedfrom terrestrial gratifications. For nature does not even exempt asaint, and the ancient saying, “naturam expellas furc, tamen usquerecurret, ” applies to them as well as to any other mortal finally these liberties which the devil and his infernal host were saidto take as regards matters pertaining to love, assumed general andquite serious forms. In fact, they gave rise to delicately contrivedlegal questions namely, the idea had suggested itself that thedevil was able not only to call forth promiscuous love between menand women, but that essaytimes he derived a writingicular enjoyment if hecould manage to prevent a marriage that had already been consummatedby rendering the husband impotent maleficium was the technical termfor such an event, equally saddening to husband as to wife, and thetheologians, philosophers, and jurists of the middle ages have writtenthe most learned commentaries regarding the legal consequences of thisimpotentia ex maleficio it was disputed whether or not this form ofimpotence would constitute a legal cause for dissolution of marriagewhich, after all, was a divine institution. The reasons also why godpermitted the devil to play such a reprehensible game were investigatedin a most serious and profound manner any one interested in thisquestion of impotentia ex maleficio may read the most excellentdescription of this subject by hansen chapter iii this impotentia ex maleficio i e , one of the most extravagantoutgrowths of medical superstition occasionally also gave rise toscandalous lawsuits this was the case in the disgraceful divorce suitwhich took place about the year 860 between king lothaire ii and hisspouse teutberga lothaire was said to have lost his procreative powercompletely, owing to infernal artifices of his concubine, waldrada thereason why a concubine should undertake such a step, which, after all, was bound to discredit her title and office in the eyes of her lover, is not quite evident however, at that period it was not difficult tofind an explanation for this remarkable fact it was stated, e g , that waldrada was instigated to this act solely by jealousy andselfishness, in order to divorce the king from his consort this firststep once taken, the courtesan, by removing the spells cast by her, would take good care that the king should soon be delivered from theodious condition of impotence however, waldrada had reckoned withouther host i e , in this case, without hinkmar, archbishop of rheims;for this latter gentleman, exceedingly well versed in all mattersecclesiastic, politic, and diabolic, a genuine clerical fighting-cock, very soon closely investigated the impotence of his royal master inan extensive memorial he considered the royal impotence according toits legal, theologic, philosophic, moral, and various other aspects medical superstition, accordingly, had acquired such power that thesovereign of the holy roman and german empires had to submit hispotestas in venere to the test of public discussion but conditions were to become much worse when, about the thirteenthcentury, scholasticism had usurped full control of human reason, and all sciences were permitted to be pursued only in a scholasticsense, medicine was entirely divorced from the actual conditions oflife it was completely detached from nature, its great teacher, andirretrievably entangled in the subtleties of an uncertain philosophy its activity now depended exclusively upon the study of the ancients byno means, however, upon that study in which an attempt was made tomaster the intellectual spirit of ancient medicine, but which consistedin a slavish adherence to the letter every decision of the ancients, without any regard to nature, was made a dogma, and he was the bestphysician who was most familiar with these dogmas, who understoodbest how to interpret them most keenly mankind had entirely lost theconception that the ancients had attained worth and importance onlyin that they measured things by the standard of unbiased experience, and tested their conclusions according to the phenomena of nature asdescribed from accurate observation of the sick it is quite obvious that superstition met with a well-prepared soil ina system of medicine that was overburdened with dogmas and degradedinto utter subserviency to a vainglorious philosophy the naturalresult was that the medical art of a period of the middle ages, steepedin scholasticism, was nothing but a chaos of the most despicablesuperstition and folly the most shocking result of these conditionswas the belief in witches, and, with this, medical superstition enteredupon a new stage whereas until then it had possessed a restricted, mere local vitality, and entailed danger only upon those who, fromthoughtlessness, lent a willing ear to it, now it degenerated into amental epidemic which threatened equally all classes of the people the unspeakable misery which this variety of medical superstition hasbrought to the western world is well known, so that we may refrain fromentering into details, referring our readers to the excellent work ofhansen on this subject physico-medical thought was so thoroughly destroyed by theabove-described conditions that, even when humanity commenced toshake off the scholastic yoke, during the period of renaissance, medicine was only able, in writing, to follow this lead altho, under theinspiration of the ancients, it returned to nature, it was not able torid itself of the superstitious idea of the continuous interference ofsupernatural powers with the performance of the most common functionsof the body the church still persisted in the implicit belief in suchviews, and still dominated men minds so thoroughly that even thesisphysicians, who in other respects were entirely unbiased, remained onthis point dutiful children of the church. In fact, even those who werefully aware of the shortcomings of the christian church unhesitatinglyadhered to the belief in demons as developed from antique conceptionsby the church fathers thus, for instance, dr martin luther was astrict believer in the doctrine which taught men to hold the devilresponsible for the origin of all diseases he thus expressed himself, for instance. “no disease comes from god, who is good and does good toeverybody. But it is brought on by the devil, who causes and performsall mischief, who interferes with all play and all arts, who bringsinto existence pestilence, frenchmen, fever, etc ” he accordinglybelieved that he himself was compelled to scuffle with the devil whenhis physical condition was out of order thus, when suffering fromviolent headache, he wrote to the elector, john of saxony. “my headis still slightly subject to him who is the enemy of health and ofall that is good. He essaytimes rides through my brain, so that i amnot able to read or to write, ” and upon another occasion he said, inregard to his health.