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“firwein is prepared from the inside fresh green bark of the fir tree ”the label on the product reads. “firwein is pleasantly and effectively blended with salts of iodin and bromin, held in solution with 20 per cent alcohol ”the therapeutic claims made for firwein and the mystery enshroudingits composition make it obvious that the product is intended to appealto those who are either thoughtless or ignorant this is emphasized bythe suggestion that firwein be combined with 1 cod liver oil underthe claim that it will “promote the efficiency of the oil”, with 2whisky for the treatment of bronchorrhea of the aged, and with 3syrup of hypophosphites for the treatment of persistent bronchitis as the composition of firwein is secret, the therapeutic claimsunwarranted, and its use irrational, the council declared itinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies -- from journal a m a , feb 17, 1917 firolyptol plain and firolyptol with kreosote report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfirolyptol, another product of the tilden company, is, we are told, composed of eucalyptol 10 drops, cottonseed oil 1/2 ounce and firweinenough to make 1 ounce as the composition of firwein is secret, itis evident that the composition of firolyptol is also unknown, exceptto the manufacturers “firolyptol with kreosote” is said to contain, in addition to whatever may be the component writings of firolyptol, 10 minims of creosote to each ounce according to an advertisement, firolyptol with kreosote is “antituberculous, antistrumous” and“contains all the desired features of cod liver oil and is readilyassimilated ”the advertisements of “firolyptol plain” and “firolyptol with kreosote”seem to have for their key-note the assertion that cottonseed oilis a writingicularly valuable nutriment and that when combined withconstituents of firolyptol and firolyptol with kreosote becomeswritingicularly valuable to the tuberculous to quote from an advertisingcircular. “now that the reconstructive properties of cottonseed oil are better appreciated by the profession, the advantages that follow the administration of a palatable emulsion of this strengthening and fattening food product are being demonstrated in hundreds of paper where formerly reliance would have been placed in cod liver oil a recent writer says that pure cottonseed oil is the greatest and purest vegetable oil known to chemistry, and will do much toward revolutionizing the treatment of the great white plague if the treatment of tuberculosis could resolve itself into the administration of a fatty substance in a readily assimilated form, there would be no need for any writing of firolyptol but the cottonseed oil the toxic material constantly produced in the system by the germs of tuberculosis tend to expose it more and more to the ravages of the disease, and the physiologic functions of the body suffer a constant depression to neutralize this germ activity with a consequent production of toxins it seems most logical to employ such agents as have demonstrated their suitability for such purposes, for which reason eucalyptol and kreosote with firwein are incorporated in firolyptol ”the assertion that cottonseed oil is an especially valuable formof fat is without warrant, but even if it were true the fat isavailable in cheap and palatable forms in numerous other cottonseedoil products it is unnecessary to discuss the problematic value ofcreosote in the treatment of tuberculosis or the value of eucalyptol now generally abandoned, or even of the secret mixture firwein food and fresh air, not drugs, constitute the fundamentals of thetreatment of tuberculosis, and it is both irrational and detrimental tothe interests of the tuberculous to administer various potent agentsin fixed and unknown amounts with such simple articles of food ascottonseed oil neither of these products is acceptable for new andnonofficial remedies editorial note -- firwein110 has been advertised to physiciansfor twenty-five or thirty years and it is a sad commentary on theintelligence of our profession that a preparation sold under suchobviously false and misleading, not to say silly, claims, should stillbe in existence firwein is claimed to “prevent waste of tissue” intuberculosis if it had this power, it would have found its placelong ago among the few great agents in drug therapy as a matter offact, firwein has gained virtually no recognition outside of the“literature” of the tilden concern the claims made for firwein are apeculiar mixture of studied candor-- when the truth is not likely tohurt its sale-- and inane vaporing-- when the facts would not redound toits credit the tilden company declares that “firwein stands withouta peer in its class ” but the company adds 10 drops of eucalyptol andessay cottonseed oil to this peerless product and an improvement isborn-- “firolyptol”!. then, to perfect the already perfectly perfected, 10 drops of creosote are added to “firolyptol” and the profession isoffered “firolyptol with kreosote”!. in just what verbal pyrotechnicsthe tilden company might indulge, should it decide to add ten dropsof essaything else to “firolyptol with kreosote, ” one shudders tocontemplate 110 three other tilden products have been the subject of deservedand unfavorable comment in the j a m a. “narkine” in the issue ofoct 24, 1908, “hydrocyanate of iron-tilden” in the issue of june 19, 1909, and “febrisol, ” in the issue of june 29, 1912 the first twoarticles are reprinted in the latest 9th edition of “the propagandafor reform ”if we are accused of exhibiting undue levity in discussing atherapeutic problem, we can only answer that it is impossible toconsider seriously the charlie chaplins of the nostrum world -- fromthe journal a m a , feb 17, 1917 biniodol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryin accordance with the usages of the council, the report whichappears below along with the reports of the clinical investigationby drs cole and keidel upon which the recommendations of thereferee were based were sent to the manufacturer for comment thereply of the manufacturer contained no evidence which justified thecouncil in modifying the action already taken publication of thereport was therefore authorized w a puckner, secretary biniodol was submitted to the council by the manufacturer, charles c yarbrough, memphis, tenn the manufacturer claims the product is asolution of 1 per cent of red mercuric iodid and 2 75 per cent ofguaiacol in bland vegetable oil it is marketed with the implicationthat it is new and superior to other oil solutions of mercuric iodid for instance. “ it is a straight solution of this mercurial compound, as no alkaline iodide or other chemical is used to bring about the solution ” “ it is probably the first and only one-percent oil solution of straight mercury biniodide made in america ” the manufacturer, in a letter addressed to the secretary of the council, explains.

“actions and uses -- ferric cacodylate has the properties of iron salts and of arsenic its use has been proposed in conditions in which the effects of iron and the mild arsenic action of cacodylates is desired “dosage -- from 0 015 to 0 1 gm 1/4 to 1-1/2 grains ”the period for which the iron cacodylate preparations now in new andnonofficial remedies were accepted coming to an end with the law school essay writing service close of1920, the council decided to determine if sufficient evidence for thevalue of ferric cacodylate has accumulated to warrant its continuedrecognition the following is the report of the referee of thecommittee on therapeutics to whom the matter was assigned. “as far as the referee knows, the only claim that iron cacodylate has as a therapeutic agent is that it forms a convenient method for the administration of iron and cacodylate while there is no reason why a drug should not be given by mouth, usually intramuscularly, and apparently it has recently been given intravenously the effects to be expected from its use are those of iron and arsenic “granted that iron and arsenic are valuable therapeutic agents, iron cacodylate is not a satisfactory preparation in which to administer these drugs for the following reasons. “1 it would appear that cacodylates are not the best form in which to administer arsenic cacodylates in therapeutic doses exert but a feeble action small quantities may be reduced to cacodyl ch₂₄as₂, and varying amounts to inorganic arsenic the amount transformed to arsenic is apparently unknown and probably varies in different individuals on these grounds alone the use of the cacodylates where an arsenic effect is desired seems dubious “2 the amounts of iron and cacodylates contained in the doses recommended are small when compared with the usual doses of either iron or cacodylate the amount of iron in the iron cacodylate preparations is small, about 0036 gram per dose, while the preparations admitted to ‘useful drugs’ contain much larger amounts per dose recommended the list follows. Massa ferri carbonates fe per dose 042 gm pilulae ferri carbonates " 058 gm tinctura ferri chloride " 022 gm ferri et ammonii citrae " 042 gm “the approximate amount of arsenic in iron cacodylate in the commonly recommended doses varies from 012 gm to 0 024 gm , while the amount of arsenic in sodium cacodylate in the recommended doses varies between 021 and 35 gms it would seem that a much more rational method of administration of these two drugs would be separately, in which case a better control over the dosage is possible “3 the referee has been unable to secure reliable clinical evidence that iron cacodylate is a serviceable preparation a search of the available literature for the past fifteen years has been made, also drs edsall, longcope, stengel, hoover, phillips and miller have been consulted these physicians know nothing of its use “4 in view of the above, it appears to the referee that iron cacodylate is an irrational and useless method of the administration of iron and arsenic ”the council adopted the report of the referee and directed that ironcacodylate be omitted from the 1921 edition of new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1920, p 62 libradol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized for publication the following report whichexplains why libradol was found ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies w a puckner, secretary libradol is manufactured by lloyd bros , cincinnati according to acircular a “readily removable” label which accompanies the tradepackage, its “uses” are. “in colds, croup and acute bronchitis inlocal congestions. In lung trouble, in acute inflammations of this orany other organ, especially if pain or soreness be present in lumbago, sciatica, or in rheumatic pains of the joints or muscles applied tothe forehead, it induces sleep ”libradol is offered in two forms, “libradol mild” for infants andsupersensitive persons which is said to be “destitute of drug energy”and libradol “regular” which is “highly medicated, ” the “constituents”being “dracontium, sanguinaria, cephaelis, melaleuca, lobelia, laurus, capsicum, tobacco ”according to a circular, “the sanitary plasma libradol” is a“homogeneous, highly medicated, and exceedingly potent compound, inplastic form, ” which “carries the energies of its drug constituentsand the high antiseptic qualities of laurus camphora and melaleuca ”it is stated. “the drug influence of libradol is necessarily differentfrom that of any known single member of the materia medica but yet, no mystery either in medicine or of pharmacy is claimed as a writing ofits composition or process of manufacture it is a thing peculiar toitself, the result of the study of the drugs from which it is derivedand compounded these drugs may be studied at leisure by whoever caresto do so ”the following information bearing on the composition of libradol wasfurnished by lloyd brothers in response to a request from the councilto aid in the consideration of the preparation. “‘compound lobelia powder’ has been, since 1852, official in the american dispensatory, in the first edition of which 1852 its formula is given, as follows. “‘take of lobelia, in powder, twelve ounces.

Fig 9 - angular stab-wounds of the anterior chest wallcaused by a strong pocket-knife dupuytren remarks that stab-wounds are smaller than the weapon owingto the elasticity of the skin, but a lateral motion of the weapon maycause considerable enlargement of the wound if a stab-wound hastraversed a writing of the body, the wound of exit is smaller than that ofentrance the depth of a punctured wound may be any writing of the length of theweapon, or it may even be deeper than the length of the weapon owing toa depression of the surface by the force of the blow, or the pressureof the handle of the weapon or the hand holding it we have alreadyseen that this may occur in a marked degree in penetrating wounds ofthe abdomen involving one of the movable viscera, also in wounds ofthe thorax, writingly from depression of the surface and writingly from anexpansion of the thorax when opened at the autopsy, thus increasing themeasured depth of the wound punctured wounds of the third class madeby instruments with ridges or edges, like foils, files, etc , presentmore or less the shape of the weapon if the edges are cutting, butnot always so if the direction of the wound be oblique or the writingsunevenly stretched if the edges are not cutting they cause wounds moreor less like the first class of punctured wounds, but we can oftendistinguish them from the latter by little tears in the edges theentrance and exit wounds may not be alike wounds made by bits of glass and earthenware have irregular anduneven edges taylor637 relates a case, reg v ankers warwicklent ass , 1845, where the wound was attributed to a fall on essaybroken crockery, but the wound was cleanly incised and the prisonerwas convicted as it may be alleged in defence that a given wound wascaused by a fall on broken crockery or other substances capable ofproducing a punctured wound, it is important to notice whether theedges are lacerated and irregular or smooth and clean the authorquoted above cites another case which occurred to watson, where theprisoner alleged that a deep, clean-cut wound of the genitals of awoman which had caused her death was due to a fall on essay brokenglass the character of the wound disproved this defence anotherfeature of such wounds, especially if they be deep in comparison totheir length, is that they are very apt to contain small writingicles ofthe glass or earthenware which caused them in fact, in all wounds itis well to search for any small fragments which will throw light uponthe weapon used wounds caused by scissors are often of characteristic shape if thescissors were open we find two symmetrical, punctured diverging wounds, presenting more or less clearly the form of the blades of the scissors if the blades have been approximated there is a triangular intervalbetween the punctures, the apex of which is truncated if any skinremains between the punctures lacerated wounds may not indicate the weapon used as clearly aspunctured wounds, but the agent which produced them is often indicatedby the appearance of the wound they are generally accidental butwhere they occur, as they not infrequently do, on the bodies ofnew-born children, they may give rise to the charge of infanticide in essay paper the weapon which caused the wound fits the woundproduced, and thus important evidence may be furnished the prosecution taylor638 cites the case of montgomery omagh sum ass , 1873, wherea bill-hook which fitted the injuries on the skull of the deceased wasfound buried in a spot to which the prisoner was seen to go thesefacts connected the prisoner with the weapon and the weapon with themurder in other paper the wounds may be so lacerated or contused thatthe indications of the weapon are obscured contusions and contused wounds - the shape of a contusing body isessaytimes reproduced by the contusion and the ecchymosis thus we areenabled to distinguish the marks of a whip, the fingers, the fist, etc this is best seen when the ecchymosis is fresh, for soon the edgesextend and the outline is less clearly marked plaques parcheminées, which we have already described as the marks of contused erosions, may show the form of finger-nails, etc contused wounds like simplecontusions may show the shape of the weapon if the contusing body has a large area, the whole of this area cannotoften strike the body at once, so that the outline of the contusiondoes not represent that of the weapon but in general, severecontusions present greater difficulties than the preceding classes ofwounds we must generally be content if we can determine whether thewound was caused by a weapon, including the fist, or by a fall, andwe are often unable to say even this a fall is often alleged by thedefence as the cause of the injury, but of course if the prisonerwas responsible for the fall he is responsible for the results of thefall if there are contusions or contused wounds on several writingsof the head, or if the wounds are on the vertex of the head, it ispresumptive of the use of weapons we cannot often swear that eachand every wound on the head was due to the use of a weapon on theother hand, the presence of grass, sand, gravel, etc , in a wound ispresumptive of a fall and of the origin of the wound in this manner in case of a fall from a height the wound or wounds might be in almostany writing of the body, on the vertex or elsewhere such a fall may bethe result of accident, suicide, or murder it is not unusual forfemale complainants to ascribe their wounds to a fall to exculpatethe prisoner, especially if this happens to be her husband we shouldremember that in the scalp or over the eyebrows a contused wound causedby a blunt instrument may resemble an incised wound as already stated, however, if the wound is fresh careful examination will lead to acorrect opinion, and the use of a sharp instrument may be disproved if the wound is not recent there is great difficulty in judging ofthe cause it is well to caution against accepting the interestedstatements of others in regard to the use of a weapon, unless thecharacter of the wound bears them out very strongly there may be a badmotive for imputing the use of a certain weapon to the assailant it isfar better to rely solely upon the evidence furnished by the wound insuch paper it would be useful if we could lay down essay general rules todiscriminate between wounds caused by the blow of a weapon and thosecaused by falls, but this we are unable to do so as to cover all paper each case must be judged by itself if the question is asked which of two weapons caused certaincontusions or contused wounds, we are still less likely to be able toanswer it in such a case we must make an accurate examination of theform of the wound and compare it closely with that of the weapon insuch paper also the second source of information on which we base ouropinion as to the relation of a weapon to the wound may be of use, namely, the examination of the weapon the presence of blood, hair, cotton or woollen fibres on one of two weapons indicates that this wasthe weapon used the presence of blood is writingicularly to be lookedfor, and in those writings of the weapon from which it could be washed offleast easily we should further note the condition of the point andedge of the weapon, and if the edge is broken or nicked at all, whetherthis condition is old or recent the sharpness of the edge shouldfurther be noted, and if the edge is sharp note whether it has recentlybeen sharpened all these points have a certain bearing on the case also the location, shape, depth, etc , of the wound should be carefullynoted to see if an accidental fall would be likely to account for it for these features of the wound may be such that no fall could cause it we see, therefore, that in incised and punctured wounds the use of aweapon may not be hard to make out, but that in general the questionwhether a writingicular instrument caused the wound is often difficult orimpossible to answer often the best we can do is to say that the woundcould have been produced by the weapon v was a wound self-inflicted or was it inflicted by another?. In other words, was it suicidal or homicidal?. speaking of suicidein general, its most common cause is alcoholism it is not infrequentin youth lutaud639 states that in fifteen years, presumably infrance, there were 1, 065 paper of suicide between the ages of tenand fifteen years this seems to be only explicable on the ground ofheredity or of cerebral affections among 27, 737 paper of suicide, observed in france, the same author gives the following commonestcauses in the order of greatest frequence. Drowning, strangulation, pistol-wounds, incised and punctured wounds, poison the age, sex, and social conditions influence the choice of means thus among malesdrowning is preferred by the young, pistol-wounds by the adult, andhanging by the aged, while among females asphyxia is the favoritemethod, as there is no pain and no disfigurement while thesis pathologists consider suicide an act of mental alienation, and though such may be the case in a large number or even in amajority of paper, yet in a considerable number it is a voluntaryand rationally planned act the question, is it suicide or homicide?. May be put in all paper of death by cutting instruments, and in thesisfrom other kinds of wounds it is often, if not generally, impossibleto answer it with absolute certainty it is hardly suitable for themedical witness to try to reconstruct the scene of the crime from themedical facts, for he should abstain from everything not medical andshould distinguish that which is positively proven from that which ismerely probable suicides often leave a letter or essay such indication to show that thewound was self-inflicted if such is not the case, the question as tothe cause of the wound may or may not be medical if the question isa medical one, there are certain points to notice as to the wound, such as its nature, situation, direction, and the number andextent of the wounds, from which we are to form an opinion thereare also other circumstances which furnish evidence and thus assist usin answering the question this evidence is furnished by the weapon, the signs of struggle, the examination of the clothes and body of thedeceased and the accused, the position and attitude of the body, andany organic lesions, etc , predisposing to suicide the nature of the wound bears upon the question of the homicidal orsuicidal origin in the following way. Most suicidal wounds are incisedor punctured wounds incised wounds of the throat are generallypresumptive of suicide, but a homicidal wound may be inflicted hereto conceal the source of infliction of the wound such a wound ifhomicidal would imply malice, on account of the attempt at deceptionand concealment, and would convict the assailant of murder unlessthe deceased was asleep or drunk or was otherwise incapable ofresistance, such a homicidal wound can often be distinguished froma similar suicidal wound by the form and direction of the wound, byits irregularity, and by other wounds on the hands or person of thedeceased taylor640 mentions a case in which the peculiar form ofthe wound, like that made by butchers in killing sheep, led to thesuspicion that homicide had been committed by a butcher, who wassubsequently arrested, tried, and convicted of murder the regularityof the wound has been taken to indicate suicide rather than homicide that it does so is not questioned, but it is more or less fallaciousif resistance is impossible, in which case a murderer may easily makea regular, clean, incised wound here contused wounds are seldomsuicidal, for they are not sufficiently speedily or certainly fatal they are also more painful and disfiguring contused wounds usuallyindicate murder or accident, though there are not wanting paper ofsuicide by such weapons as a hatchet or a hammer there is moredifficulty in the case of a contused wound from a fall instead of froma weapon. For here we have to decide whether the fall was accidental, suicidal, or homicidal the nature of the wound is of little assistancein the case of insane or delirious patients, who may commit suicide inthe most unusual and curious manner taylor641 relates the case of a delirious patient in guy hospital, in 1850, who tore away the whole of the abdominal muscles from thelower writing of the anterior abdominal wall if the case had not occurredin the hospital or where there were witnesses of the deed, the natureof the wound would have indicated homicide except for the delirium the following case, quoted by the same author, illustrates a wound ofvery unusual nature and situation, which might have been taken fora homicidal wound with intent to conceal as far as the situation ofthe wound was concerned the wound was accidental and occurred in thefollowing way a girl fifteen years old jumped on to her uncle kneewhile he was holding a stick between his legs which she did not notice the stick passed up her anus, but she withdrew it and went on playing, though she complained of pain on the following night acute symptomsof peritonitis set in, and she died of it in forty-eight hours onpost-mortem examination a rent was found in the anterior writing of therectum penetrating the peritoneal cavity the situation or position of the wound - a suicidal wound must be insuch a position that the deceased could have inflicted it himself suchwounds are, therefore, generally anteriorly or laterally situated the“site of election” for suicidal wounds is the neck for incised woundsand the chest, especially in the region of the heart, for puncturedwounds the situation of suicidal wounds, of lunatics, etc , shows allkinds of fantasies the mere situation does not suffice to distinguishsuicidal wounds, as a murderer may simulate a suicidal wound forpurposes of concealment essay regard a wound in the back as proofagainst suicidal origin, but it is not so much the situation of a woundas the situation taken in connection with the direction which furnishesthe proof against suicide in such wounds as a rule, a suicidal wound, besides being in an accessible writing of thebody, is also in a writing commonly known to be rapidly mortal, as theneck and heart but suicidal wounds are not always in the situationwhich is anatomically best for being rapidly fatal concealed wounds orwounds in inaccessible writings presumptive of murder may be suicidal andso placed to impute them to another and give rise to the suspicion ofmurder the blood-vessels of the arms and legs may be selected as thesite of a suicidal wound this situation is often regarded as uncommon, though the writer has met with it in one or more paper of attemptedsuicide it is illustrated in the famous case of abdul aziz, the sultanof turkey he was found dead under suspicious circumstances with twooblique, ragged wounds at the bend of each elbow, directed from abovedownward and from within outward the joint on the left side waspenetrated, while only the skin and veins were involved on the rightside death was due to bleeding from the ulnar artery and the veins the clothing was soaked with blood and scissors stained with bloodwere found on the sofa these wounds were consistent with suicide, though not what would be expected nineteen physicians who examined thebody agreed in reporting it as suicidal, though one reason given forthis opinion, namely, “that the direction and nature of the wounds, as well as the instrument which might have effected them, lead to theconclusion of suicide, ” was hardly a valid one, for the wounds were nottypical of suicide in nature, direction, or position such wounds arerarely homicidal, though at least one such case is mentioned suicidal incised wounds, as has been said, are usually in the neck, where they may essaytimes be arrested by the larynx, especially if it beossified, though the incision often divides the larynx the situationof the wounds is often between the larynx and the hyoid bone, and thenmeeting no bony resistance, they may divide the great vessels andeven nick the vertebræ but it is rare to be so deep, at least on bothsides at once as a rule, it is deepest on the side on which it isbegun and ends more superficially as far as the situation of a woundis concerned, there is no wound which a suicide can inflict but whatmay also be inflicted by a murderer the reverse, however, is not true we cannot always certainly distinguish between suicidal and homicidalwounds from their situation the direction of the wound is one of the most important points tonotice it is considered by essay to furnish presumptive evidencefor the medical jurist, and taken in connection with the nature andsituation of the wound may often lead us to a positive opinion asto the question of the suicidal or homicidal nature of a wound theevidence from the direction of wounds is only furnished by incised andpunctured wounds, rarely by contused wounds suicidal incised wounds ofthe throat are almost always directed from above downward and from leftto right if the suicide be right-handed, and in the same direction fromright to left if the person be left-handed transverse wounds in thissituation without obliquity are also compatible with suicide, thoughperhaps more common in homicide, while obliquely transverse wounds fromabove downward and from right to left in a right-handed individual areindicative of their infliction by another homicidal incised woundsof the neck inflicted from behind or the right side, if the victimand assailant are right-handed, or from the left side if they areleft-handed, may have the same direction as similar suicidal wounds such a wound may be inflicted by a murderer to deceive as to the causeof the wound by raising the suspicion of suicide if an incised woundof the throat be inflicted by another from in front, then its directionis usually the reverse of a similar self-inflicted wound homicidal incisions, especially in the throat, may extend at one or theother end beyond the skin wound in similar suicidal wounds at bothangles of the wound the skin is the first and the last writing injured, and in such wounds the spine is seldom reached it should be bornein mind in this connection that a given suicide may be ambidextrousand this fact may be unknown to the friends of the deceased this isespecially the case in the use of the razor from practice in shaving, and the razor is the usual weapon used in such incised wounds of thethroat neglect of this point may lead to an unwarranted suspicion ofmurder the two following paper cited by taylor642 well illustratethis fact:in the case of sellis, 643 the man was generally supposed to beright-handed, though he was found dead in bed with his throat cutand the razor on the left side of the bed in point of fact, he wasambidextrous in the use of the razor the second case, which occurredin london in 1865, was still more remarkable a publican was found dead in bed with his throat cut in a left-handedmanner he was supposed to be right-handed and there was bloody waterin a basin in the room his wife, who gave the alarm, had marks ofbruises on her, and though she said she had found her husband dead inbed after having left it for a short time, suspicion fell upon her, especially as they were in the habit of quarrelling the suspicionswere removed, however, by the explanation that he had been brought upas a wood-carver, which required him to use both hands equally, andthat he had frequently threatened to kill himself, and further that thebloody water in the basin was due to a daughter washing her hands afterhaving touched her father it is even conceivable that an ambidextrousperson, to avoid suspicion of suicide or to impute murder to another, might inflict a suicidal wound from right to left notwithstanding allthis, the above paper are very rare exceptions, and the rules statedabove as to incised wounds in the throat hold in almost every case in the case of stab-wounds of the chest, especially in the cardiacregion, the same rule as to the direction holds good, and in thesewounds we can often define the direction more accurately than in thecase of incised wounds if the suicide is right-handed the wound isregularly on the front or side of the body and directed obliquely fromabove downward and from right to left, while it is from left to rightin case of a left-handed suicide a murderer from behind, or from thatside the hand of which the victim would use, may inflict a wound in thesame situation and direction as a suicidal one here again this maybe done with the motive of concealment of the nature of the crime homicidal stab-wounds inflicted from in front, as they generally are, are usually directed from left to right, and they may be directed fromabove downward or in the opposite direction oblique wounds from abovedownward may be either suicidal or homicidal. Those directed from belowupward are almost always homicidal when a wound is caused by an instrument both cutting and puncturing, suicide cannot be admitted unless the direction of the wound iscompatible with that which the weapon which inflicted the wound, heldin the hand of the deceased, might cause taylor recommends to placethe weapon in the hand of the deceased to see if the direction of thewound could possibly correspond with that which could be taken by theweapon in the hand of the deceased with any position possible forthe arm and hand therefore certain wounds by position and directionexclude suicide, but if a wound is possibly suicidal it is alsopossibly homicidal though suicidal wounds vary, the above points are essaytimes of realassistance in distinguishing between suicide and homicide, especiallyif the body has not been moved evidence furnished by the number and extent of wounds - multiplicityof wounds, as a rule, indicates homicide, and indeed the reverse istrue in a majority of paper that a single wound points to suicide there are thesis exceptions, however, to both statements multiple woundsare possible in suicide, and that, too, with different weapons. Evendrowning or hanging may be resorted to after self-inflicted wounds havefailed if several wounds are found, each one of which or more thanone of which may be considered grave, it is usual to conclude thatthe wounds were not self-inflicted, but the medical expert should notjudge too hastily from this fact alone, for most wounds do not killinstantly with the presence of several wounds in a case of suicideonly one of these, as a rule, is “mortal” in character this being so, essay have asserted that if two mortal wounds are present, especially ifone of them is stupefying, such as a wound about the head, such woundsare incompatible with suicide a definite statement of this kind cannotgo unchallenged unless the two wounds are in different writings of thebody, and both of such a nature as to be immediately or very rapidlyfatal for all paper of suicide or homicide do not die immediatelyfrom wounds commonly called mortal. In fact, this may be said to bethe exception rather than the rule we may safely say, however, thatif there are several distinct wounds on the throat, each involving thelarge vessels, the inference is plainly murder illustration. Fig 10 - suicidal cut throat from left to right, showing the tentative cuts at the commencement and the serrations atthe termination of the wound several wounds by the same or different weapons cannot, therefore, be proof of homicide the case of a lunatic suicide is reported whoinflicted thirty wounds upon his head in a case of homicide withmultiple wounds the situation or direction of essay one or more of themmay give evidence as to the origin of the wounds ogston, sr , 644states that especially in the case of incised wounds of the throata suicide may make a number of small or superficial tentative cutsbesides the principal one, but these incisions are all usually parallel see fig 10 in the case or multiple homicidal incised wounds ofthe throat, on the other hand, the wounds are not parallel, owingprobably to the resistance of the victim in this case and his remainingpassive in the former the extent of the wound refers to the numberand importance of the writings injured in regard to incised wounds ofthe neck, this point has been thought by essay to furnish presumptiveevidence of suicide or homicide of homicide if the wounds are deep, of suicide if they are not while it is true that suicidal wounds ofthe neck are, as a rule, not very deep, and that they seldom reach thevertebræ and generally do not divide the vessels on more than one side, yet essaytimes such wounds are as deep and extensive as homicidal ones this may imply a determined purpose not to be foiled in the attemptat suicide thus marc reports a case of suicide by an incised woundof the neck, where the wound was so deep as to reach the vertebræ ortheir anterior ligaments and to divide the trachea and œsophagus, bothcarotids and jugular veins the extent of this wound was greater thanin most suicides, but still we can hardly lay down a hard-and-fastrule of much practical value according to which extensive wounds areevidence of murder such wounds are, however, presumptive of murdertaken in connection with other signs pointing that way illustration. Fig 11 - homicidal cut throat from right to left, showing a tentative cut at the commencement and the serrations at thetermination of the wound the question may arise in regard to a wound, whether the victimwounded himself by precipitating himself on the weapon this may bealleged by the defence, but it is difficult to believe if the wound isdeep, for the body would naturally repulse the weapon if the wound isdeep the weapon must at least have been strongly held, which may or maynot be consistent with the theory of self-defence if the direction ofthe wound is oblique from above downward, or if there is one externalwound and two separate tracts internally, from a second use of theweapon on the writing of the person holding it, then the above allegationis doubtful, if not impossible by comparing the relative positions of the deceased and accused, asindicated by the witnesses and accused, with the position and directionof the wound, we may often judge whether the allegation is possible orprobable besides the above points derived from the wound itself, there areseveral other factors which belong to the category of circumstantialevidence, but which come within the province of the medical expert these latter points of evidence are essaytimes almost as important asthe former, while taken in connection with them they help to make theevidence far more conclusive evidence furnished by the weapon as to the origin of wounds we have already seen in a former section that we can often tell, byvarious signs of the wound, with what kind of a weapon it was made wemay thus be able to say that a wound was made by a weapon similar toone exhibited also by examination of the weapon itself and from thecircumstantial evidence of where and how it was found, we may essaytime essay that the wound was inflicted almost certainly with a writingicularweapon all this evidence may essaytimes be made use of in judgingbetween the suicidal and homicidal origin of a wound the position of the weapon or the place where it is found is amatter of considerable importance if it has not been touched, itsposition should be carefully examined, or inquired about if it has beenmoved the presence of a weapon which might have caused the woundsin the hand of the victim is in general proof of suicide the weaponmust not merely lie in the hand, it must be gripped by the hand onemight suppose that the weapon placed and held in the hand until rigormortis sets in would still be firmly held casper says that this isnot so, but that the weapon falls from the grasp as soon as the handis unbound also hofmann645 experiments proved the same point bythe use of ligatures and several artificial means he tried to confinea weapon in the hand of a recently dead body so that it would be asfirmly held as by a contraction of the muscles during life theseexperiments were entirely unsuccessful, for though the fingers remainedclosed, the object was simply held and not grasped, and fell from thehand on the release of pressure in suicide the weapon is essaytimes held so firmly that force isrequired to dislodge it it seems as if the muscular spasm or grippersists after death, as cadaveric spasm, until rigor mortis occursand sets it, as it were the murderer, therefore, cannot imitate thisgrip, and an unsuccessful attempt to do so would indicate murder itshould be borne in mind that the weapon in the hand of the deceasedmay have been for the purposes of defence. Therefore it is necessaryto note whether the wounds on the body correspond to those which couldbe made by the weapon indeed, this fact is most important to note inall paper of suspected suicide where the weapon is found if the weaponis not in the hand of the deceased, note carefully where it lies ifdeath is due to a suicidal or accidental wound which is immediatelyor very rapidly fatal, the weapon is generally found near the body if so, it is well to note on which side it lies, and if it lies near, whether it has apparently fallen or been thrown or placed there ifthe relation of the body and the weapon has been disturbed by movingeither, the position of the weapon as found by the medical witness isof little value in paper of suicide the weapon may possibly be foundat essay distance or even concealed, though this is exceptional thustaylor646 states that the razor in one instance was found shut at theside of the deceased, who had committed suicide by cutting his throat in another instance the razor was found in the pocket of the deceased, bloody and closed as a rule, the weapon is found lying at the side ofa suicide if it is not grasped in the hand if the weapon is far fromthe body and the wound was quickly fatal, especially if the weaponis hid or cannot be found, it is strongly presumptive of murder ifthe weapon is found near the body it is well to note whether the edgeis sharp or blunt, straight or bent, or notched, as these points mayassist us in forming a judgment as to suicide or murder a weapon belonging to the victim may be substituted by the murderer forthe one really used, and the former may be placed by the side of thebody therefore the weapon found should correspond to the wounds as tolength, depth, sharpness, etc , to be compatible with suicide generally a suicide foiled in the attempt to take his life uses thesame weapon over again if he persists in the attempt but he may not doso. On the contrary, if the first attempt was made with a knife, thesecond may be made with a pistol, etc several wounds by the same ordifferent weapons cannot therefore be an absolute proof of homicide the presence of blood, hair, and other substances on the weaponused, or probably used, is a matter of essay importance blood isnot necessarily found on the weapon used to inflict a mortal wound, especially in the case of blunt instruments in stab-wounds, too, the vessels may be compressed by the blow or the weapon may be wipedas it were on withdrawal by the elasticity of the skin and by theclothing, except for a thin yellowish film thus it is that the firststab-wound shows no blood on the outside of the clothes but only onthe inside, but the outside of the second is usually bloody but maybe but little so to make sure whether or not there is blood on aknife or other weapon it is necessary to examine all the depressionson the instrument, as the blade itself may have been washed, and onlythose traces of blood remain which are less accessible to cleaning bywashing blood coagulated on a blade indicates, as a rule, blood froma living animal, but it may not do so furthermore, it may be hard todistinguish between a thin layer or spots of dried blood not coagulatedor coagulated and dried blood in a similar form if blood is not found on a weapon, hair and other substances whichcan be identified may be this is especially the case with bluntweapons, on which, as we have seen, blood usually fails a fragment ofthe weapon may break off in the wound, as in stab-wounds, and may beidentified as belonging to one in the murderer possession the signs of a struggle furnish important evidence, as they arenot likely to be found in the case of suicide if the wounds wereinflicted by a cutting instrument, the existence of a struggle may beindicated by incisions on the palm of the hand or fingers or on thedorsum see fig 12 such wounds would not be self-inflicted and wouldindicate a struggle with the murderer or if contusions or ecchymosesindicating the form of the foot, fist, fingers, or finger-nails arefound on the face, neck, chest, forearm, or hand of the deceased, thisagain indicates a struggle with the assailant, and goes far to provemurder the same is true of the imprint of a bloody or dirty hand onthe clothes of the victim when the victim hands were not bloody alsosuch an imprint in a position where the deceased could not have reachedwith the writingicular hand indicated, as is the case if the impressionof a right hand be found on the victim right arm. This indicates astruggle with a murderer, etc in one case of murder, on the back ofthe left hand of the deceased there was found the bloody mark of a lefthand evidently not that of the victim himself the presence of marks ofviolence about the mouth of the deceased, done to close it to preventthe victim from giving an alarm, especially if surprised during sleep, is presumptive of murder essaytimes hair or fragments of clothingbelonging to the accused are found in the grasp of the deceased, indicating a desperate struggle, and they are very suspicious ofmurder thus taylor647 cites the case of a murder trial in ireland, in 1877, where hairs found firmly grasped in the hands of the deceasedwere found to correspond to the hair of the accused the clothes of thedeceased, as well as those of the accused, often indicate a struggleunless the accused can satisfactorily account for the condition of hisown clothes in essay other way illustration. Fig 12 - incised wounds of right hand in the struggleof defence homicide the examination of the clothes and body of the deceased and theaccused may furnish important evidence if suicide is accomplished by a weapon like a knife, it is rare for thehand not to be bloody if it is not bloody we may well suspect a caseof supposed suicide the presence of blood on the hand does not provesuicide, though its absence may disprove it, as the hand is generallybloody in case of murder by being carried to the wound the examination of the clothing of the deceased is of greatimportance as we have noticed before, a suicide generally opens them, a murderer rarely a suicide is often writingly or even wholly undressedwhen he inflicts the wound, while murder is usually committed on thoseentirely dressed the wound of the clothes should correspond to that ofthe body in case of murder in suicide the wounds of the body and ofthe clothes may not correspond, especially if there exists a motive tofalsely impute the crime the clothes of the deceased as well as thoseof the accused may indicate a struggle, as we have already noticed ofcourse, in regard to the clothes examined, it is necessary to clearlyprove that they were worn at the time by the deceased or accused, otherwise serious mistakes may be and essaytimes are made in examiningthe blood-spots on the clothing, note whether the blood occurs in largepatches or sprinkled as by a spurting vessel or by continued violence the body of the accused may present scratches, marks of nails, contusions, bites, or other wounds indicative of a struggle it wouldbe well to ask the accused how he received the wounds or scars, to seeif his explanations tally with the injuries it is hard to tell whenwounds which have cicatrized were inflicted.

By unction it warmsand comforts a cold and moist brain, it eases all griefs coming ofa cold cause, it mightily comforts and strengthens a weak stomach, being anointed with it, and helps digestion exceedingly, it dissolvesswellings it is hot in the third degree, and moist in the first i think it would do the commonwealth no harm if i should speak a wordor two on manna here, although it be no gum. I confess authors makeessay flutter about it, what it is, essay holding it to be the juiceof a tree. I am confident it is the very same condensated that ourhoney-dews here are, only the contries whence it comes being farhotter, it falls in great abundance let him that desires reason forit, be pleased to read butler book of bees, a most excellentexperimental work, there he shall find reason enough to satisfy anyreasonable man choose the driest and whitest. It is a very gentlepurger of choler, quenches thirst, provokes appetite, eases theroughness of the throat, helps bitterness in the throat, and oftenproneness to vomit, it is very good for such as are subject to becostive to put it into their drink instead of sugar, it hath noobnoxious quality at all in it, but may be taken by a pregnant womanwithout any danger. A child of a year old may take an ounce of it ata time dissolved in milk, it will melt like sugar, neither will it beknown from it by the taste myrrh is hot and dry in the second degree, dangerous for pregnantwomen, it is bitter, and yet held to be good for the roughness ofthe throat and wind-pipe. Half a dram of it taken at a time helpsrheumatic distillations upon the lungs, pains in the sides. It stopsfluxes, provokes the menses, brings away both birth and after-birth, softens the hardness of the womb. Being taken two hours before thefit comes, it helps agues mathiolus saith he seldom used any othermedicine for the quartan ague than a dram of myrrh given in muskadelan hour before the fit usually came. If you make it up into pills withtreacle, and take one of them every morning fasting, it is a sovereignpreservative against the pestilence, against the poison of serpents, and other venomous beasts. A singular remedy for a stinking breath ifit arise from putrefaction of the stomach, it fastens loose teeth, andstays the shedding off of the hair, outwardly used it breeds flesh indeep wounds, and covers the naked bones with flesh olibanum is hot in the second degree, and dry in the first, you maytake a dram of it at a time, it stops looseness and the running ofthe reins. It strengthens the memory exceedingly, comforts the heart, expels sadness and melancholy, strengthens the heart, helps coughs, rheums and pleurises. Your best way in my opinion, to take it is tomix it with conserve of roses, and take it in the morning fasting tachamacha is seldom taken inwardly, outwardly spread upon leather, and applied to the navel. It stays the fits of the mother, applied tothe side, it mitigates speedily, and in little time quite takes awaythe pain and windiness of the spleen. The truth is, whatsoever acheor swelling proceeds of wind or cold raw humours, i know no betterplaister coming from beyond sea than this gum it strengthens thebrain and memory exceedingly, and stops all such defluctions thence astrouble the eyes, ears, or teeth, it helps the gout and sciatica gum coopal, and gum anime, are very like one another both in body andoperation, the former is hard to come by, the last not very easy itstops defluctions from the head, if you perfume your cap with the smokeof it, it helps the headache and megrim, strengthens the brain, andtherefore the sinews gum tragaganth, which the vulgar call gum dragon, being mixed withpectoral syrups, which you shall find noted in their proper placesit helps coughs and hoarseness, salt and sharp distillations upon thelungs, being taken with a liquorice stick, being dissolved in sweetwine, it helps being drank gnawing in the bowels, sharpness andfreetings of the urine, which causes excoriations either in the reinsor bladder, being dissolved in milk and the eyes washed with it, ittakes away weals and scabs that grow on the eyelids, it is excellentlygood to be put in poultice to fodder wounds, especially if the nervesor sinews be hurt sagapen, dissolved in juice of rue and taken, wonderfully breaks thestone in the bladder, expels the dead child and afterbirth, clearsthe sight. Dissolved in wine and drank, it helps the cough, anddistillation upon the lungs, and the fits of the mother.

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A low index ofthe foramen magnum law school essay writing service. Convexity of the squamo-parietal suture, and largerand more salient canines and incisors the volume of the endocraniumin the female gorilla, like that of the human species, is smallerthan that of the male. This difference being almost 80 c c for theanthropoid female in studying the osseous system it should be remembered that certainmodifying elements, as artificial compression, pathologicaldeformities, posthumous distortions, and hygrometric conditions, mayaffect writingicularly the skull, and if due allowance be not made forthese the study may lead to glaring absurdities not longer ago than1725 there was found in a quarry at œningen the skull of a fossilbatrachian compressed into rude resemblance to the human cranium, whichwas announced to the world as scheuchzer “homo diluvii testis ettheoscopos, ” and as the remains of one of the sinful antediluvians whoperished in the noachic deluge are the bones old or recent?. An important point may arise in questions of identification of bones asto the oldness. Whether they are old or recent the first indicationis furnished by the presence or by the absence of the soft writings the existence of the periosteum and of the spinal marrow is the mostpersistent proof of a recent state. But these alone with the soft writingsare usually destroyed in two or three years in ordinary circumstancesa body becomes skeletonized in about ten years, although in exceptionalpaper the cadaver may resist decomposition after thesis years 571this summer in transferring an old cemetery in georgetown, d c , theremains of the grandmother of one of the writer patients were foundin such a state of preservation as to be easily recognized after fiftyyears of burial more recently, in unearthing the remains of an oldgraveyard in east washington, a striking peculiarity was noticed in thefact that thesis bodies of young people buried in recent years when takenup consisted of a few blackened bones and shreds of grave-clothes while the remains of thesis older people buried long before the civil warwere found in an excellent state of preservation one of these was amr fullin, who died from the effects of a sunstroke forty years agoand was buried in a metallic case an old lady who attended his funeralwas present when his remains were unearthed and said they looked asnatural as when he was laid away in 1852 the features were wellpreserved and even the white linen of the shroud was unsoiled alterations in the texture of the bone, such as that caused bydryness and by diminution in the proportion of organic matter, may beascertained by histological examination, and one of the characters ofage may be furnished by taking into consideration the specific weight placing the skull at an average density of 1, 649, that of an infantwould be 1, 515, an adult 1, 726, and that of old age 1, 636 ascertaining the proportion of organic and inorganic matter, thephosphates and carbonates, by chemical means may furnish an additionalhelp in the interpretation of the remains with all these diagnostic methods it may still be impossible toestablish identity either absolute or relative, even where a wholeskeleton is in question the evidence may, however, be of greatjuridical use to the accused, as in the case of van solen, tried forthe murder of dr henry harcourt, where the collective facts pointed tothe identification of a body dead two years the jury, however, after asecond trial, were instructed to acquit unless they were certain thatthe remains were harcourt they acquitted, as no one decided andapparent feature was known to have existed by which the remains couldbe identified beyond a doubt 572identity in case of entire skeleton or in case of isolated bones where an entire human skeleton has been discovered, the objects ofinquiry here, as in the case of fragments or remains, are to establishthe identity of the victim and that of the author of the act, and tocollect all available information relative to the nature of the deathand to the diverse circumstances attending the commission of the deed in gathering evidence from the examination of the skeleton or ofisolated bones, with a view to find out the probable cause of deathof the person of whom they form a writing, a great variety of questionswill arise for consideration, such as those relating to race, stature, age, sex, and trade or occupation.