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Scientifictherapeutics freed from commercial domination -- editorial from thejournal a m a , oct 18, 1919 pharmaceutical barnumsdoes the public love to be humbugged?. we doubt it that we, whethersage or fool, are humbugged is undeniable we are humbugged justto the extent that we are ignorant there lies one of the mostpowerful factors operating to the advantage of the “patent medicine”maker and the quack the layman ignorance of the possibilities andlimitations of drugs is wide and deep hence the ease with which heis fooled on this subject a seeming frankness in advertising beingthe order of the day, the nostrum maker makes a pretense of tellingwhat is in his stuff without disclosing any facts that will tend tolift the veil of mystery and thus destroy his greatest asset so theexploiter of nostrums to the medical profession, realizing that atleast a pretense must be made of giving the composition of medicamentsoffered to the physician, declares that his clay poultice has for itsbase “anhydrous and levigated argillaceous mineral ” this sounds muchmore imposing than dry and finely powdered clay, and satisfies by itsvery sonorousness now comes a product exploited chiefly to membersof the dental profession but also, it seems, to physicians tablets, “activated tablets, ” if you please!. they are “an anodyne, analgesicfebrifuge sedative, exorcising sic!. antineuralgic and antirheumaticaction ” and their composition?. simply “an activated, balancedcombination of the mono-acetyl-derivative of para-amidophenetoltogether with a feebly basic substance in the alkaloidal state from thethea-sinensis ” as clear as the missouri river!. essay day essay dentistor physician is going to investigate and find that this awe-inspiring, polysyllabic example of exuberant verbosity means nothing moremysterious than our old friends acetphenetidin phenacetin andcaffein in the meantime, the exploiters may smile softly and murmur, “barnum was right!. ”-- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 1, 1921 the pharmacopeia the ninth decennial revisionthe ninth revision of the united states pharmacopeia became officialthis week, sept 1, 1916 it is more fully reviewed elsewhere;303here we desire merely to call attention to two points. What the bookis and what it is not it is a book of standards for drugs. It isnot a book of standard remedies the committee of revision of thepharmacopeia included physicians and pharmacists retail, wholesaleand manufacturing, but the pharmacists were in the majority andin control the majority of the representatives of the medicalprofession on this committee would have preferred to see the bulkof the pharmacopeia reduced and its value as a work of referenceenhanced by the rejection of therapeutically worthless drugs therepresentatives of commercial interests, on the other hand, argued thatit was necessary for the pharmacopeia to provide standards for drugsin more or less general use, whether worthless or otherwise the forceof this argument is essaywhat impaired by the fact that the nationalformulary, which has also been made a book of legal standards, nowincludes individual drugs as well as combinations. The new edition ofthe formulary, in fact, contains a large number of drugs which had beendropped from the u s pharmacopeia viii the principle of making usethe sole criterion for admission to the pharmacopeia, however, on thewhole carried the day it has not been strictly observed.

“as the name implies, formosol is a formaldehyde preparation, which embodies all the innate antiseptic merits and eliminates all the ill features of the world greatest disinfectant ” “the elimination of all the destructive elements and the incorporation of all the established therapeutic virtues of formaldehyde, have been scientifically blended in formosol ” “formosol is unique in the sphere of antisepsis because of its peculiar healing properties as diametrically opposed to irritation to the tissue of mucous membrane ” “formosol may be used for the thousand niceties of modern antisepsis, but is specific in gynecology and obstetrics and is indicated in dermatology ” italics not in original “the constant use of formosol is to develop a habit sympathetic to ethics ” “to prescribe formosol is a great step toward personal hygiene, a duty of the medical fraternity to the laity ” italics not in original the trade package recommends the use of formosol “for cuts, wounds, ulcers, abscesses ” this is a conflict with rule 4 the council heldformosol in conflict with rules 4 and 6, and advised the manufacturersthat formosol is refused admission to new and nonofficial remediesuntil they submit evidence establishing the degree of antiseptic andgermicidal efficiency, and justify the quotations listed above. Oruntil these and any other existing conflicts with the rules have beenremoved after submission of this report to the formosol chemical company thecouncil authorized its publication -- from reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1917, p 145 iodolene, a solution of iodin in liquid petrolatum, inadmissible to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council was asked to consider a solution of iodin in liquidpetrolatum, said to be prepared from gulf coast petroleum by a specialprocess it was to be marketed as “iodolen” provided the councilfound the preparation admissible to new and nonofficial remedies thepreparation was claimed to contain over 1 5 per cent free iodin thefollowing claims were made. “it is less irritating in its use on the skin, or in wounds ” “will kill pathogenic micro-organisms present ” “is a suitable medium for cell proliferation ” “will penetrate a useful distance into the walls of a wound ” “facilitates an easier, less painful and better method of dressing wounds or ulcers ”examination in the american medical association chemical laboratoryshowed a submitted sample to contain 1 32 per cent free iodin andto emit a strong odor of hydrogen sulphid a specimen of liquidpetrolatum, said to be composed chiefly of hydrocarbons of thenaphthene series, after saturation with iodin at room temperature wasfound to contain 1 42 per cent free iodin another specimen of liquidpetrolatum, said to be composed chiefly of saturated hydrocarbons, after saturation at room temperature was found to contain 1 30 percent free iodin the preparation having been shown to be an unoriginal, simplesolution of iodin in liquid petrolatum, the council declared the name“iodolene” unacceptable rule 8 and the therapeutic claims made forthe preparation unwarranted rule 6 -- from reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1917, p 148 kalak water report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report, submitted by a member of the council committeeon chemistry, was endorsed by the committee and adopted by the council:kalak water, sold by the kalak water company, inc , new york, is anartificial mineral water said to be made by adding certain salts tocarbonated, distilled water and supersaturating with the gas underpressure such merit as it may possess by virtue of sodium bicarbonateand sodium phosphate is quite insufficient to warrant the extravagantclaims made in the advertising pamphlets according to the analysis furnished, the water contains, in 1, 000, 000writings milligrams per liter the following. Sodium carbonate 4049 0 sodium phosphate 238 5 sodium chloride 806 3 calcium carbonate 578 2 magnesium carbonate 48 9 potassium chloride 47 9among the thesis misleading statements found in the advertising pamphletbearing the title “a brief for physiological alkalescence” these may bequoted. “the calcium content of kalak is over 100% greater than ever before placed in solution in any vehicle, a fact of supreme importance when the unique alkalinizing power of the alkaline salts of this metal is considered. The ratio of calcium metabolism to its enormous waste in pregnancy, the diseases of infancy and childhood and the rapidly growing group of ‘acidoses’ make its availability in kalak of double value ”the first writing of this statement is untrue. The last writing is muddledand without much meaning evidently the “acidosis” fad is to beoverworked as was the old “uric acid diathesis, ” of unsavory memory again this. “one of the most important characteristics of kalak is the close approximation of its formula to the correlation of the contained salts as they occur in the human body, together with its freedom from salts foreign to the human economy another is its almost unbelievable palatability, considering its high degree of alkalinity, it being eleven times greater than any other known mineral water, artificial or natural ”these statements are false the salts dissolved here bear nodiscernible relation to the needs of the body, as disclosed by thecomposition of the blood or solid tissues or as shown by the characterof the urinary excretion the last statement concerning the highalkalinity is neither clear nor accurate then, this warning and remedy. “it seems to be an unappreciated fact that the degree of urinary acidity, checked with the acidity of the saliva, is in direct ratio to the existing acid toxemia, and a urine acid to methyl red should be the signal for immediate and adequate alkalinizing treatment “startling clinical results have been observed by physicians who have used kalak thoughtfully and sufficiently in the more serious types of acidosis associated with diabetes, nephritis, rheumatism, gout and the acute infections there is also evidence of its good effect in acute alcoholism and the respiratory edemas. In fact a certain few have hailed kalak as a possible solution of the annual hay fever problem of perhaps supreme importance, however, is the use of kalak throughout pregnancy as preventive medicine against the inevitable ‘toxemia of pregnancy ’”also this. “kalak has accomplished certain unexplainable things for the diabetic and nephritic, and if, in future years, diabetes and nephritis should prove to be constitutional diseases, based upon functionation or its lack, kalak therapy, the embodiment of physiological alkalescence may come into its own, for if acidity retards, alkalinity must normalize functionation ”it is not necessary to quote further in order to insure that everyonewill recognize the great need of kalak it is advised to test the urinefor acidity by means of a group of indicator solutions sent out to thephysicians methyl red is one of these and any urine showing an acidreaction with this is said to be open to suspicion paranitrophenol isanother of the indicators and the explanations given of the behavior ofthe two and the conclusions to be drawn are questionable the methylred solution furnished is too concentrated for proper use and perfectlynormal urines from normal individuals have given a rather marked colorwith it this indicator gives essay color at h 1 2 × 10^{-6} and astrong reaction at 3 × 10^{-3} to condemn a urine on such a finding isentirely unwarranted sodium bicarbonate is the main constituent of the water the valueof the phosphate in such a combination, with so much calcium, isproblematical in case an alkaline reaction in the intestine is reachedessay of it would be left as insoluble phosphate a few grams ofbicarbonate daily would have equal therapeutic value with this water the advice based on the indications of methyl red and the urine is bad the committee report was sent to the kalak water company for comment the company promised to withdraw the advertising circular referred toin the report and disclaimed responsibility for the accuracy and valueof the set of indicators which it sent out, but, on the whole, theprevious advertising claims were insisted on in view of the absurd and false claims made for the product the councildeclared kalak water inadmissible to n n r -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1917, p 148 minson soluble iodin “kelpidine” not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryminson soluble iodin “kelpidine” was submitted to the council byj j minson, washington, d c , trading as the kelpidine company, with the statement that in future “literature” it was to be known asminson soluble iodin, only the following statement of compositionwas furnished.

It hath ahot, aromatical spicy taste time it flowers in april and may, language essay and gives seed ripe quickly after government and virtues it is an herb of jupiter the english scurvygrass is more used for the salt taste it bears, which doth essaywhatopen and cleanse. But the dutch scurvygrass is of better effect, andchiefly used if it may be had by those that have the scurvy, andis of singular good effect to cleanse the blood, liver, and spleen, taking the juice in the spring every morning fasting in a cup of drink the decoction is good for the same purpose, and opens obstructions, evacuating cold, clammy and phlegmatic humours both from the liver andthe spleen, and bringing the body to a more lively colour the juicealso helps all foul ulcers and sores in the mouth, gargled therewith;and used outwardly, cleanses the skin from spots, marks, or scars thathappen therein self-heal descript the common self-heal which is called also prunel, carpenter herb, hook-heal, and sickle-wort, is a small, low, creepingherb, having thesis small, roundish pointed leaves, like leaves of wildmints, of a dark green colour, without dents on the edges. From amongwhich rise square hairy stalks, scarce a foot high, which spreadessaytimes into branches with small leaves set thereon, up to the top, where stand brown spiked heads of small brownish leaves like scales andflowers set together, almost like the heads of cassidony, which flowersare gaping, and of a blueish purple, or more pale blue, in essay placessweet, but not so in others the root consists of thesis fibres downward, and spreading strings also whereby it increases the small stalks, withthe leaves creeping on the ground, shoot forth fibres taking hold onthe ground, whereby it is made a great tuft in a short time place it is found in woods and fields every where time it flowers in may, and essaytimes in april government and virtues here is another herb of venus, self-heal, whereby when you are hurt you may heal yourself. It is a special herbfor inward and outward wounds take it inwardly in syrups for inwardwounds. Outwardly in unguents, and plaisters for outward as self-healis like bugle in form, so also in the qualities and virtues, servingfor all the purposes whereto bugle is applied to with good success, either inwardly or outwardly, for inward wounds or ulcers whatsoeverwithin the body, for bruises or falls, and such like hurts if it beaccompanied with bugle, sanicle, and other the like wound herbs, itwill be more effectual to wash or inject into ulcers in the writingsoutwardly where there is cause to repress the heat and sharpness ofhumours flowing to any sore, ulcers, inflammations, swellings, or thelike, or to stay the fluxes of blood in any wound or writing, this is usedwith essay good success. As also to cleanse the foulness of sores, andcause them more speedily to be healed it is an especial remedy for allgreen wounds, to solder the lips of them, and to keep the place frothesis further inconveniencies the juice hereof used with oil of roses toanoint the temples and forehead, is very effectual to remove head ache, and the same mixed with honey of roses, cleanses and heals all ulcers, in the mouth, and throat, and those also in the secret writings and theproverb of the germans, french, and others, is verified in this, thathe needs neither physician nor surgeon that hath self-heal andsanicle to help himself the service-tree it is so well known in the place where it grows, that it needs nodescription time it flowers before the end of may, and the fruit is ripe inoctober government and virtues services, when they are mellow, are fit tobe taken to stay fluxes, scouring, and casting, yet less than medlers if they be dried before they be mellow, and kept all the year, theymay be used in decoctions for the said purpose, either to drink, or tobathe the writings requiring it.

Capsules bismuth resorcinol compound bismuth subgallate 2 grs resorcinol 1 gr language essay beta naphthol 1/2 gr creosote beechwood 1 m this combination is of acknowledged value in reducing the value in reducing the intes- tinal putrefaction and fermentation, allaying the pain and discomfort of flatulent conditions in the intestinal tract dose -- one or two capsules before or after meals repeated in two hours if necessary the gross drug company, inc 20 laight street, new yorkthe council held this preparation inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies or the appendix, because 1 the claim “acknowledged value inreducing the intestinal putrefaction and fermentation, allaying thepain and discomfort of flatulent conditions in the intestinal tract” isan unwarranted, exaggerated and misleading claim of therapeutic value rule 6. Because 2 the name does not indicate the identity of thebismuth salt contained in the capsules, nor declare the presence ofbetanaphthol and creosote rule 8. And because 3 the combinationof bismuth subgallate, resorcinol, betanaphthol and creosote in fixedproportions is irrational rule 10 -- from reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1917, p 139 dixon tubercle bacilli extract and dixon suspension of dead tubercle bacilli report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrynew and nonofficial remedies, 1917, contains general descriptionsof dixon tubercle bacilli extract and dixon suspension of deadtubercle bacilli. The products of these manufactured by the h m alexander company being listed as dosage forms it having becomenecessary to omit the preparations of the alexander company see page138 the referee recommended that the general articles of “dixontubercle bacilli extract” and “dixon suspension of dead tuberclebacilli” also be omitted he reported that no other firm appears tobe marketing these products and that they had not been shown to be ofspecial value the council accepted the recommendation and directed the omission asproposed in accordance with the procedure of the council, these havebeen transferred to the annual council reports for reference and appearbelow w a puckner, secretary dixon tubercle bacilli extract -- an extract of tubercle bacillidissolved in normal saline solution see “fluid of dixon, ” medicalnews, jan 17, 1891 dixon suspension of dead tubercle bacilli -- a suspension inphysiologic salt solution of dead tubercle bacilli which havebeen defatted by prolonged treatment with alcohol and ether see“possibility of establishing tolerance for tubercle bacilli, ” medicalnews, oct 19, 1889 -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1917, p 140 formosol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrysunshine formosol the formosol chemical company, formerly thesunshine chemical company, cleveland, ohio is claimed to contain18 per cent formaldehyd in a solution of soap it is thereforevery similar to veroform germicide which was deleted from new andnonofficial remedies because of the low phenol coefficient reported bythe hygienic laboratory of the united states public health service thejournal, nov 22, 1913, p 1920 the council voted that in view of thehygienic laboratory finding that formaldehyd has a low germicidalvalue, the manufacturers of formosol be required to produce definiteevidence of the degree of germicidal value for this product in submitting the preparation to the council, it was claimed thatformosol had “all properties peculiar to formaldehyde ” thisconservative tone was, however, not maintained in the form-letterssubmitted these contain the following unwarranted statements. “as the name implies, formosol is a formaldehyde preparation, which embodies all the innate antiseptic merits and eliminates all the ill features of the world greatest disinfectant ” “the elimination of all the destructive elements and the incorporation of all the established therapeutic virtues of formaldehyde, have been scientifically blended in formosol ” “formosol is unique in the sphere of antisepsis because of its peculiar healing properties as diametrically opposed to irritation to the tissue of mucous membrane ” “formosol may be used for the thousand niceties of modern antisepsis, but is specific in gynecology and obstetrics and is indicated in dermatology ” italics not in original “the constant use of formosol is to develop a habit sympathetic to ethics ” “to prescribe formosol is a great step toward personal hygiene, a duty of the medical fraternity to the laity ” italics not in original the trade package recommends the use of formosol “for cuts, wounds, ulcers, abscesses ” this is a conflict with rule 4 the council heldformosol in conflict with rules 4 and 6, and advised the manufacturersthat formosol is refused admission to new and nonofficial remediesuntil they submit evidence establishing the degree of antiseptic andgermicidal efficiency, and justify the quotations listed above. Oruntil these and any other existing conflicts with the rules have beenremoved after submission of this report to the formosol chemical company thecouncil authorized its publication -- from reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1917, p 145 iodolene, a solution of iodin in liquid petrolatum, inadmissible to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council was asked to consider a solution of iodin in liquidpetrolatum, said to be prepared from gulf coast petroleum by a specialprocess it was to be marketed as “iodolen” provided the councilfound the preparation admissible to new and nonofficial remedies thepreparation was claimed to contain over 1 5 per cent free iodin thefollowing claims were made. “it is less irritating in its use on the skin, or in wounds ” “will kill pathogenic micro-organisms present ” “is a suitable medium for cell proliferation ” “will penetrate a useful distance into the walls of a wound ” “facilitates an easier, less painful and better method of dressing wounds or ulcers ”examination in the american medical association chemical laboratoryshowed a submitted sample to contain 1 32 per cent free iodin andto emit a strong odor of hydrogen sulphid a specimen of liquidpetrolatum, said to be composed chiefly of hydrocarbons of thenaphthene series, after saturation with iodin at room temperature wasfound to contain 1 42 per cent free iodin another specimen of liquidpetrolatum, said to be composed chiefly of saturated hydrocarbons, after saturation at room temperature was found to contain 1 30 percent free iodin the preparation having been shown to be an unoriginal, simplesolution of iodin in liquid petrolatum, the council declared the name“iodolene” unacceptable rule 8 and the therapeutic claims made forthe preparation unwarranted rule 6 -- from reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1917, p 148 kalak water report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report, submitted by a member of the council committeeon chemistry, was endorsed by the committee and adopted by the council:kalak water, sold by the kalak water company, inc , new york, is anartificial mineral water said to be made by adding certain salts tocarbonated, distilled water and supersaturating with the gas underpressure such merit as it may possess by virtue of sodium bicarbonateand sodium phosphate is quite insufficient to warrant the extravagantclaims made in the advertising pamphlets according to the analysis furnished, the water contains, in 1, 000, 000writings milligrams per liter the following. Sodium carbonate 4049 0 sodium phosphate 238 5 sodium chloride 806 3 calcium carbonate 578 2 magnesium carbonate 48 9 potassium chloride 47 9among the thesis misleading statements found in the advertising pamphletbearing the title “a brief for physiological alkalescence” these may bequoted. “the calcium content of kalak is over 100% greater than ever before placed in solution in any vehicle, a fact of supreme importance when the unique alkalinizing power of the alkaline salts of this metal is considered. The ratio of calcium metabolism to its enormous waste in pregnancy, the diseases of infancy and childhood and the rapidly growing group of ‘acidoses’ make its availability in kalak of double value ”the first writing of this statement is untrue. The last writing is muddledand without much meaning evidently the “acidosis” fad is to beoverworked as was the old “uric acid diathesis, ” of unsavory memory again this. “one of the most important characteristics of kalak is the close approximation of its formula to the correlation of the contained salts as they occur in the human body, together with its freedom from salts foreign to the human economy another is its almost unbelievable palatability, considering its high degree of alkalinity, it being eleven times greater than any other known mineral water, artificial or natural ”these statements are false the salts dissolved here bear nodiscernible relation to the needs of the body, as disclosed by thecomposition of the blood or solid tissues or as shown by the characterof the urinary excretion the last statement concerning the highalkalinity is neither clear nor accurate then, this warning and remedy. “it seems to be an unappreciated fact that the degree of urinary acidity, checked with the acidity of the saliva, is in direct ratio to the existing acid toxemia, and a urine acid to methyl red should be the signal for immediate and adequate alkalinizing treatment “startling clinical results have been observed by physicians who have used kalak thoughtfully and sufficiently in the more serious types of acidosis associated with diabetes, nephritis, rheumatism, gout and the acute infections there is also evidence of its good effect in acute alcoholism and the respiratory edemas. In fact a certain few have hailed kalak as a possible solution of the annual hay fever problem of perhaps supreme importance, however, is the use of kalak throughout pregnancy as preventive medicine against the inevitable ‘toxemia of pregnancy ’”also this. “kalak has accomplished certain unexplainable things for the diabetic and nephritic, and if, in future years, diabetes and nephritis should prove to be constitutional diseases, based upon functionation or its lack, kalak therapy, the embodiment of physiological alkalescence may come into its own, for if acidity retards, alkalinity must normalize functionation ”it is not necessary to quote further in order to insure that everyonewill recognize the great need of kalak it is advised to test the urinefor acidity by means of a group of indicator solutions sent out to thephysicians methyl red is one of these and any urine showing an acidreaction with this is said to be open to suspicion paranitrophenol isanother of the indicators and the explanations given of the behavior ofthe two and the conclusions to be drawn are questionable the methylred solution furnished is too concentrated for proper use and perfectlynormal urines from normal individuals have given a rather marked colorwith it this indicator gives essay color at h 1 2 × 10^{-6} and astrong reaction at 3 × 10^{-3} to condemn a urine on such a finding isentirely unwarranted sodium bicarbonate is the main constituent of the water the valueof the phosphate in such a combination, with so much calcium, isproblematical in case an alkaline reaction in the intestine is reachedessay of it would be left as insoluble phosphate a few grams ofbicarbonate daily would have equal therapeutic value with this water the advice based on the indications of methyl red and the urine is bad the committee report was sent to the kalak water company for comment the company promised to withdraw the advertising circular referred toin the report and disclaimed responsibility for the accuracy and valueof the set of indicators which it sent out, but, on the whole, theprevious advertising claims were insisted on in view of the absurd and false claims made for the product the councildeclared kalak water inadmissible to n n r -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1917, p 148 minson soluble iodin “kelpidine” not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryminson soluble iodin “kelpidine” was submitted to the council byj j minson, washington, d c , trading as the kelpidine company, with the statement that in future “literature” it was to be known asminson soluble iodin, only the following statement of compositionwas furnished.

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As also, dries up oldand inveterate running sores, and is of admirable virtue in all greenwounds fig-wort, or throat-wort descript common great fig-wort sends divers great, strong, hard, language essay square brown stalks, three or four feet high, whereon grow large, hard, and dark green leaves, two at a joint, harder and larger than nettleleaves, but not stinking. At the tops of the stalks stand thesis purpleflowers set in husks, which are essaytimes gaping and open, essaywhatlike those of water betony. After which come hard round heads, with asmall point in the middle, wherein lie small brownish seed the root isgreat, white, and thick, with thesis branches at it, growing aslope underthe upper crust of the ground, which abides thesis years, but keeps nothis green leaves in winter place it grows frequently in moist and shadowy woods, and in thelower writings of the fields and meadows time it flowers about july, and the seed will be ripe about a monthafter the flowers are fallen government and virtues essay latin authors call it cervicaria, because it is appropriated to the neck. And we throat-wort, because itis appropriated to the throat venus owns the herb, and the celestialbull will not deny it. Therefore a better remedy cannot be for theking evil, because the moon that rules the disease, is exalted there the decoction of the herb taken inwardly, and the bruised herb appliedoutwardly, dissolves clotted and congealed blood within the body, coming by any wounds, bruise, or fall. And is no less effectual for theking evil, or any other knobs, kernel, bunches, or wens growing inthe flesh wheresoever. And for the hæmorrhoids, or piles an ointmentmade hereof may be used at all times when the fresh herb is not to behad the distilled water of the whole plant, roots and all, is usedfor the same purposes, and dries up the superfluous, virulent moistureof hollow and corroding ulcers.