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Kite Runner Essay


Normal vii 1 19, kite runner essay since vi 26 19 experiment 4 -- 6 25 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Quiet and breathing labored in four hours. Active after twenty-four hours eats well essaywhat depressed on vi 26 19. Pain reflex present on vi 26 19, eats well and fairly active active and eats, vi 27 19 appears normal, vii 1 19 experiment 5 -- 8 75 c c. Injected vi 30 19. Rather quiet during next two hours morning of vii 1 19, lies on stomach. Quiet. Does not eat very much pain reflexes good vii 2 19, still depressed. Does not eat appears normal, vii 3 19 experiment 6 -- 12 5 c c.

As compared with sodium orpotassium iodid, what would you say are the differences between, and real advantages of, d and the alkaline iodids?. did you make anycomparative experiments and keep a record of them?. if so, the refereewould like to receive an account of your trials in what directioncould d be expected to occupy a superior place in iodin therapy?. i hope that you can give the information asked by the referee and thus aid the council in arriving at a correct estimate regarding the value of d the following reply was received from the physician in response to theforegoing. Dear professor puckner:-- in reply to yours of january 19, i did not proceed far enough in the investigation of d to draw conclusions of any writingicular value for the purpose of the council on pharmacy and chemistry. And i so stated in my letter to the proprietors of that remedy answers to the questions you put in your letter require an amount of investigation of the remedy far beyond anything i undertook as a matter of fact, i returned about five sixths of the capsules sent me, because of lack of time and opportunity to carry out the extensive clinical experiments that i plainly saw would be required to give an opinion at all worth while i believe you had better not consider me in the matter at all the report was furnished by a physician for whom i have a high personalregard i introduce it here, not so much in a spirit of criticism, but as a justification of the opinion that i have formed of clinicalevidence obtained by manufacturers through their clinical adjutors when commercial firms claim to base their conclusions on clinicalreports, the profession has a right to expect that these reportsshould be submitted to competent and independent review when suchreports are kept secret, it is impossible for any one to decide whatproportion of them are trustworthy, and what proportion thoughtless, incompetent or accommodating however, if this were done it is quitepossible that such firms would find much more difficulty in obtainingthe reports those who collaborate should realize frankly that underpresent conditions they are collaborating, not so much in determiningthe scientific value, but rather in establishing the commercial valueof the article often the best type of clinical reports-- those in which theobservations are directed to the significant events and not to mereside lines, and in which the significant events are correctly andadequately reported-- generally lack one important essential, namely, anadequate control of the natural course of the disease since this cannot be controlled directly, it must be compensatedindirectly for this purpose, there are available two methods:the first is the statistical method, in which alternate patientsreceive or do not receive the treatment this method can usuallyonly be of value when a very large series of patients is available even then, its value is limited or doubtful, because it cannot takesufficient account of the individuality of paper the second method consists in the attempt to distinguish unknownpreparations by their effects-- the method that might be called the“comparative method” or the “blind test ”in this, the patient, or a series of patients, is given the preparationwhich is to be tested, and another preparation which is inactive, and the observer aims to distinguish the two preparations by theireffects on the patient surely if the drug has any actions at all itwill be possible to select correctly in a decided majority of theadministrations the same principle can be applied in distinguishing the superiorityof one preparation over another in this case, the two preparationswould be given alternately to different patients, and the observerwould try to distinguish them by their effects here again, if onedrug is really superior or otherwise different from another, to apractically important extent, the observer will surely be able to makethe distinction this method is really the only one that avoids the pitfalls of clinicalobservation. It is the only method that makes the results purelyobjective, really independent of the bias of the observer and thepatient it is the only method, therefore, which determines whether itwas really the pudding that was eaten and not essay other dessert in principle this method does not usually offer any very greatdifficulties it is, of course, necessary that the two preparationsto be compared shall resemble each other so closely or shall beflavored, etc , so that they cannot be distinguished by their physicalproperties this is usually not a very difficult matter the methoddoes not jeopardize the interests of the patient, for it is understoodthat no drug would be tested in this way unless there is essay reasonto believe that it has a value when the patient condition is suchas to demand treatment, then he would be receiving either the standarddrug or the drug which the experimenter believes may be superior to thestandard conclusionsthe final and crucial test of a remedy is on the patient. But thetest must be framed so as to make it really crucial most clinicaltherapeutic evidence falls far short of this the “blind test” is urgedto meet the deficiencies -- from the journal a m a , july 21, 1917 “vaccines in toxic conditions” commercialized propaganda in the guise of scienceunder the title “vaccines in toxic conditions, ” what purports to bea scientific contribution appears in the original dewritingment of theofficial organ of a state medical society 311 the apparent purpose ofthe article is to overcome any hesitancy on the writing of practitionersto use vaccines in toxic infectious conditions for fear that theymight thereby cause harm such a thesis is interesting and might beimportant-- if true two outstanding facts, however, give pause first, the theory promulgated is contrary to the experience of those whohave studied the subject. Second, the man who writes the article isin the business of making and selling vaccines!. the former fact is amatter of fairly general knowledge among the better informed membersof the medical profession. The latter fact is nowhere made evident inthe article, which the reader might infer came from a disinterestedinvestigator in the realms of immunology 311 sherman, g h. Vaccines in toxic conditions, illinois m j 38:314 oct 1920 the article purports to prove that the special investigations carriedon by its author show that there is no basis for the well-groundedfear that vaccines might be harmful to a patient suffering from toxicinfectious conditions thus. From a closer study of these infective processes we find that this toxic condition is due to the rapid multiplication of the infecting organisms with the incidental production of ferments which the germs secrete to digest the food on which they live these toxic ferments have a distinct destructive tendency on tissue cells, without any marked influence in stimulating tissue cells for antibody production the crying need, however, in these extensive acute infections is rapid antibody formation to neutralize these germ-produced poisons and to eliminate the germs now vaccines, we are informed, are not toxic and so stimulate theproduction of antibodies in other words, the same organism that inthe body is toxic and without marked antigenic properties becomesnontoxic and actively antigenic when converted into a vaccine thedetails of the experiments of the “closer study” made by the author ofthis paper and the manufacturer of vaccines which give such definiteand convincing results are not published possibly the article is apreliminary contribution, and future issues of the same publicationwill carry further articles on the same subject the follow-up systemis well recognized in the advertising world at all events, this“closer study” has convinced the author of the article that. even in extreme toxic conditions, in acute infections, bacterial vaccines may be employed without the least fear of doing any harm in fact, we find that in extreme acute infections, bacterial vaccines not only give the best clinical results, but they may also be given in larger doses at shorter intervals with less reactions than in minor or chronic infections and the earlier they are given the better the results here again no details are given. There are no comparative results ofthe careful study of a series of paper the sum and substance of thisremarkable contribution to a scientific publication is to the effect 1 that the organism that in the body is toxic becomes nontoxic whenintroduced in vaccine form.

The herb described usually grows uponheaths mosses i shall not trouble the reader with a description of these, since myintent is to speak only of two kinds, as the most principal, viz ground moss and tree moss, both which are very well known place the ground moss grows in our moist woods, and at the bottomof hills, in boggy grounds, and in shadowy ditches and thesis other suchlike places the tree moss grows only on trees government and virtues all sorts of mosses are under the dominionof saturn the ground moss is held to be singularly good to break thestone, and to expel and drive it forth by urine, being boiled in wineand drank the herb being bruised and boiled in water, and applied, eases all inflammations and pains coming from an hot cause. And istherefore used to ease the pains of the gout the tree mosses are cooling and binding, and writingake of a digesting andmolifying quality withal, as galen saith but each moss writingakes of thenature of the tree from whence it is taken. Therefore that of the oakis more binding, and is of good effect to stay fluxes in man or woman;as also vomiting or bleeding, the powder thereof being taken in wine the decoction thereof in wine is very good for women to be bathed in, that are troubled with the overflowing of their courses the same beingdrank, stays the stomach that is troubled with casting, or hiccough;and, as avicena saith, it comforts the heart the powder thereoftaken in drink for essay time together, is thought available for thedropsy the oil that has had fresh moss steeped therein for a time, andafterwards boiled and applied to the temples and forehead, marvellouslyeases the head-ache coming of a hot cause.

Does not eat very much pain reflexes good vii 2 19, still depressed. Does not eat appears normal, vii 3 19 experiment 6 -- 12 5 c c. Injected vi 25 19. Quiet, but reflexes good.

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Either theoil made thereof, or the ointment, do help burnings with fire, orscalding with water the same also, or the decoction of the herb andflower, is good to bathe the feet of travellers and lacquies, whoselong running causes weariness and stiffness in the sinews and joints if the decoction be used warm, and the joints afterwards anointed withointment, it helps the dry scab, and the itch in children. And the herbwith the white flower is also very good for the sinews, arteries, andjoints, to comfort and strengthen them after travel, cold, and pains beets of beets there are two sorts, which are best known generally, andwhereof i shall principally treat at this time, viz the white andred beets and their virtues descript the common white beet has thesis great leaves next theground, essaywhat large and of a whitish green colour the stalk isgreat, strong, and ribbed, bearing great store of leaves upon it, almost to the very top of it. The flowers grow in very long tufts, small at the end, and turning down their heads, which are small, palegreenish, yellow, buds, giving cornered prickly seed the root isgreat, long, and hard, and when it has given seed is of no use at all the common red beet differs not from the white, but only it isless, and the leaves and the roots are essaywhat red. The leaves aredifferently red, essay only with red stalks or veins.