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How do you wish to be classified, doctor-- among those who follow blindly the lead of a firm of nostrummakers, or among the intelligent members of the kids homework helper profession who studytheir paper carefully and prescribe intelligently?. the manufacturers ofbell-ans claim that 100, 000 american physicians now prescribe bell-ans, and that 600, 000, 000 of the tablets are sold annually if this iseven approximately true it is a serious reflection on the medicalprofession, for the council examined bell-ans and reported its findingsnearly eight years ago j a m a 53:569 aug 14 1909, and thestatements made in that report are as incontrovertible today as theywere then -- from the journal a m a , nov 24, 1917 article ii anasarcin and anedemin“anasarcin” and “anedemin” are the twin nostrums of cardiacpseudotherapy they are dubbed “twin nostrums” not so much because ofany similarity in their formulas, that being a minor considerationin the average nostrum, but because of the close similarity in theirmethods of exploitation, the therapeutic claims made for them, and thetime and place of their birth it may be remembered that they both claim winchester, tenn , as theirbirthplace, and they appeared on the market at about the same time;furthermore, a comparison of the claims formerly made for both of themindicated that one mind conceived the main idea that lies back of theirexploitation while anasarcin is especially dealt with in this article, much of the discussion applies with equal force to anedemin a lush field for nostrumscardiac disease, with its resultant renal involvement, is frequentlyencountered. And running, as it does, a chronic course, it offers analmost ideal field of exploitation for the typical nostrum vender bya typical nostrum vender we mean one whose knowledge of his productis far below that of his appreciation of a certain element of humancharacter on this element rests the whole secret of the nostrumvender success it is variously termed credulity, gullibility andchildlike simplicity, but it is that which often causes even the mostconscientious clinician to turn aside from the use of the best knownand most dependable drugs at his command, in the face of disappointmentand failure, and employ essay vaunted mixture which, in his sanermoments, he scorns to use anedemin is said to consist of a “scientific combination of three ofthe more recently investigated members of the digitalis series, withsambucus”. That is, of apocynum, strophanthus and squill with elder it is difficult to know just what idea the statement that it is a“scientific combination” of these drugs is intended to convey, forit is unscientific to mix three drugs of this group for use in fixedproportion in a wide range of conditions, if indeed, there is ever anyindication for their use the great disadvantages of strophanthus and apocynum pertain to theextreme uncertainty of their absorption from the gastro-intestinaltract strophanthus is occasionally absorbed promptly, essaytimesso slowly that the therapeutic effects are not induced until anamount equal to several times that which would prove fatal if all ofit were absorbed into the circulation has been administered, and, unfortunately, one cannot control the absorption which may continueuntil a fatal effect is induced this is true to an even greater degreeof apocynum, and it was due to the recognition of this fact thatapocynum was not admitted to the u s pharmacopeia ix, the committeeon dosage having agreed that no safe and effective dose could be given the council previous findingsin 1907 the council on pharmacy and chemistry examined the literatureused in the exploitation of anasarcin and anedemin and published itsreport anasarcin tablets, it was pointed out, were said to containthe active principles of oxydendron arboreum sour wood, sambucuscanadensis elder and urginea scilla squill, and the followingclaims were made for the nostrum. “does what dropsy medicaments have hitherto failed to accomplish ” “superior to digitalis, strophanthus, scoparius, squills, acetate of potash and the hydragogue cathartics all put together ” “the only known relief and permanent cure of dropsies ” “unrivaled heart tonic ” “the most powerful agent known ” “safe in administration ” “non-toxic as ordinarily administered ” “will nauseate essay persons, ” but “the reaction from the temporary depression is prompt ” “in bright disease, both the interstitial and parenchymatous forms of nephritis, acute or chronic, no remedy to equal it in efficacy ” “without increasing the debility of the patient or interfering with nutrition by producing loss of appetite ” “this treatment is to be continued without cessation until all symptoms of dropsy have disappeared ”a comparison of the earlier claims with those now being made seeadvertisement reproduced from the new york medical journalillustrates one of the results of the work of the council today thenostrum exploiter avoids the cruder forms of obvious misstatement, butcontinues to make, by inference, claims that are equally misleading it will be observed in this case that a more cautious pen worded thelater advertisement, but there is still evident the intent to convincethe reader that anasarcin is superior to the official drugs in thetreatment of cardiovascular diseases the facts are that anasarcin isat best a dangerous remedy in the hands of the average clinician inthe treatment of such conditions, and its use is at all times to becondemned no competent investigator has ever investigated the pharmacologyof sour wood oxydendron arboreum, and it appears to have notherapeutic value other than that due to a slight acidulousness elder sambucus canadensis contains a trace of a volatile oil as its mostimportant constituent, according to the british pharmaceutical codex of1911 p 908, but it is difficult to explain why a trace of volatileoil should be considered important elder may be dismissed withoutfurther consideration in connection with anasarcin tablets the pharmacology of squillthis leaves only squill among the constituents of anasarcin forconsideration sollmann manual of pharmacology, 1917, p 409 indiscussing the advantages claimed for squill over other drugs of thedigitalis group, says. “dixon, 1906, points out that any superiorityis outweighed by its disadvantages. Uncertain absorption. Stronggastro-intestinal irritation ” squill was formerly used as anexpectorant and diuretic, the activity having been attributed to twoamorphous glucosids, scillipicrin and scillitoxin, but ewins, 1911, found these to be impure mixtures a later investigator claimed tohave isolated two glucosidal agents from squill, but similar claimshave often been made only to be disproved later, and we know ofno confirmation of the claims regarding the isolation of any pureprinciples from squill having any true typical digitalis action the statement quoted from sollmann is accepted by practically allpharmacologists, and we may say with certainty that squill is decidedlyinferior to digitalis in the treatment of cardiovascular, andcardiorenal diseases, and certainly no active principles of squill wereknown to the scientific world at a time that the remarkable claims werefirst made for anasarcin by an obscure pharmacist of winchester, tenn indeed, if anasarcin were all that it was claimed to be, its discoverywould have made winchester as famous as a certain wisconsin city wassaid to have been made by a popular beverage it has been abundantly demonstrated, and it is now almost universallyaccepted among well informed pharmacologists and clinicians, that alldigitalis principles exert the same kind of action on the heart afterthey enter the circulation in effective doses, though they differto an extraordinary degree in the intensity of their action and intheir undesired sideactions, such as nausea and vomiting when theuse of anasarcin squill is followed by immediate improvement afterdigitalis has failed, it merely shows that the dosage of digitaliswas insufficient or that it was discontinued and the squill mixturewas substituted before the full therapeutic effects of the digitalisdeveloped when the digitalis group is contraindicatedif the administration of a sufficient dose of digitalis is not followedby improvement in the circulation, it shows that the heart is incapableof responding to such treatment and the further use of any of the drugsof this group is distinctly contraindicated this is confirmed by theexperience of nearly every competent observer of digitalis therapy, andnumerous fatalities have resulted from the failure to appreciate thisfact and further administer essay other member of the group, such asstrophanthus or squill it is now well known that the cardiac effects of toxic doses of squill, and other members of the group, resemble closely those of cardiacdisease, and it is often impossible to determine whether the behaviorof the heart in a given case is attributable to insufficient dosage, toexcessive dosage, or to the progress of the cardiac disease itself ifthis occurs when one uses the best known members of the group, it iscertain that it occurs even more frequently when others that are lessunderstood are employed in the light of this knowledge of the dangersattending the incautious use of any member of the digitalis group, and more especially the use of impure principles, such as are commonlyobtained from squill, it is impossible to condemn sufficiently therecommendation that the use of anasarcin should be continued withoutcessation until all symptoms of dropsy have disappeared digitalis bodies are not suited for the treatment of all cardiacdisturbances, and it is, of course, self-evident that a time mustcome in the treatment of chronic cardiac disease when the heart isincapable of responding to any form of treatment with improvement but, unfortunately, it never loses its response to toxic doses, and to pushthe administration of any drug or mixture containing any drug of theentire digitalis group-- and especially those, like squill, in which theside actions are most prominent-- beyond the point of tolerance is tocourt certain disaster the treatment of cardiac dropsywhile it is quite certain that thesis lives have been sacrificed to thefailure to understand this phase of cardiac therapy, it is equallycertain that thesis lives have been sacrificed because of insufficientdosage, and one can steer a safe course between these dangers only byusing the best known preparation available.

When andby whom made - having considered who can waive the privilege, itis material to discuss also the question who may insist upon theenforcement of the law if the protection were only enforced on theclaim of kids homework helper privilege by the patient, the very object of the statuteswould be defeated in the large majority of instances because of theabsence of the patient and every one interested in his behalf toassert his right it rests, therefore, with any writingy to raise theobjection and assert the prohibition but it seems that the physicianhimself, unless a writingy, cannot make the objection 295 it seems tohave been thought in essay of the paper that the right to insist uponthe enforcement of the law is coupled with an interest derived fromthe patient this idea started from the language used in the earlypaper enforcing the privilege at the instance of those claiming underdeceased patients;296 and it led to essay confusion where the rightof representatives to waive the privilege was denied. But it seemsto be clear that the right to object differs from the right to waivein that the latter is necessarily and logically dependent upon therelation between the patient and his representative, while the formeris obviously suggested as the best method of enforcing the law inindiana it has been said that the statute gives to the representativeof a deceased patient the right to object;297 but that this is notby reason of the relationship appears from another case in the samestate, where on an application for a new trial the court voluntarilyrefused to grant one for newly discovered evidence disclosed to itby a physician affidavit, on the ground that if the patient shouldobject in the new trial the evidence would be excluded 298 in thisstate it has been held that the widow of the patient cannot object tothe disclosure, if his administrator with the will annexed waives theprivilege 299in michigan it has been said that the physician cannot avail himselfof the statute for his own benefit. But that was in a case where thecommunication was not really of the privileged class 300 in newyork, in proceedings to which a physician was a writingy an examinationof his books of account before trial has been refused on the ground ofprivilege, and for the same reason a motion to direct a physician toturn his books of account over to a receiver has been denied 301in montana it has been said that when the patient consents no one elsecan object to the reception of the physician testimony 302in new york it has been said that the benefits of the law are to bedispensed alike to those familiar with and those ignorant of itsexistence and applicability, and it is therefore no reason to refuseits enforcement, that the patient did not know that his communicationwas privileged 303but, as in other paper of the receipt of improper evidence, it wouldseem that the objection should be made at the time it is offered, andif the objection is not then made, it will not avail to raise it lateror on appeal 304 it should not be prematurely made 305 in newyork where in pursuance of a special feature of practice in probateproceedings, 306 certain witnesses are regarded as the surrogatewitnesses though produced at the instance of the contestant, and thecontestant, after giving notice that the evidence of physicians as suchwitnesses was material, refused to examine them, and the surrogaterequired the proponent to suggest a line of examination, it was heldthat it did not lie with the contestant to object to the physicians’testimony as privileged, because she had lost her right to object bygiving notice that the evidence of those witnesses on these points wasmaterial 307objection cannot be raised in the progress of an examination after theforbidden testimony has been in writing received without objection. Forthat would unjustly enable a writingy to open the door and get in all hedesired and then to close it to the disadvantage of his adversary. Whenthe door is once properly opened the examination may be continued untilit is complete, despite the objection of the writingy at whose instance itwas begun 308in indiana, where there was no objection, it was held that the evidenceshould not be withdrawn from the consideration of the jury or itsweight diminished by comments on its value as matter of law 309but when such evidence has already been admitted in the face ofobjection, it is not necessary for the writingy to object again, asnothing is waived by conforming with a rule already laid down 310where it is apparent that no harm is done to the objecting writingy by animproper ruling on the receipt of privileged communications, no weightwill be given to an exception to such ruling 311what constitutes a waiver of the privilege - the statutory provisionsas to what constitutes a waiver have been set forth above 312 incalifornia it has been held that cross-examination of the physicianby the patient, calling for privileged matter, is a waiver ofprivilege 313 in indiana it has been held that consent to disclosurecannot be inferred from the patient simply giving the name of hisfamily physician in applying for a policy of insurance on his life, and that a waiver in such an application should be evidenced by astipulation too plain to be misunderstood 314 and a physicianstatements of the cause of his patient death, furnished to aninsurance company, in pursuance of a stipulation of a policy thatsatisfactory proof of death shall be submitted to the company, are notrendered admissible by that stipulation 315it has also been held that consent to the evidence of one physicianis no consent that another physician may divulge confidentialcommunications;316 and that the physician cannot testify that hefound no evidence of injury on the examination of his patient, inorder to contradict her;317 the patient had already testified asto her condition and what the physician had done, but not as toanything said to her by her physician. She had expressly declinedto testify concerning communications except as to his prescriptionfor her injury, and without asking him to disprove her assertionsthe trial court permitted him to say that he had found no evidenceof injury. This was held to be error it has also been held that thetaking of a physician deposition and filing it, for the purposeof breaking the force of his testimony in a deposition taken by theopposite writingy, is no consent in itself to the reading of the otherwritingy deposition 318 but when, in an action against a physician formalpractice, the patient testifies as to the manner of treatment, thephysician is then at liberty to introduce the testimony of himself oranother physician as to the facts thus put in issue by the patient 319in iowa it has been held that the testimony of a patient regarding thecondition of his health is not a waiver of privilege, so as to allowhis opponent to introduce the testimony of his physician to contradicthim 320in michigan a physician has been allowed to contradict his patient asto the time when her trouble commenced, but on the ground that it hadnot been shown that the information was necessary to enable him toprescribe 321 but it has been held that waiver as to one physician isnot waiver as to another regarding a different time 322in missouri, the calling of a physician by the patient as a witnessto testify as to information acquired while attending, is awaiver 323 but offering one physician as a witness is not a waiverof the privilege with reference to another 324 an applicant forinsurance may, by an express waiver in his application, make anefficient waiver, binding upon any one claiming under the contract ofinsurance 325in nevada a waiver has been implied from the testimony of the patientand her mother, where the patient was an infant seven years ofage 326 and it was said that the parents of such an infant may makethe waiver in new york it has been held that reference to a family physicianwhen answering questions on an application for insurance, is not awaiver;327 nor is the presence of a third person, in aid of thepatient;328 nor is the bringing of an action for damages for aninjury;329 nor is the examination of the physician in a former trialby the opposing writingy;330 but where the ban of secrecy is onceremoved in an action and the information once lawfully made public, atthe instance of the patient, it cannot be restored, and the disclosuremay then be compelled in any subsequent action;331 it would seem, too, that a physician who becomes a witness to his patient lastwill and testament at the patient request is then subject to athorough examination on all points involving the patient testamentarycapacity 332where the patient testified herself and called an attending physicianto prove her physical condition, this was not a consent to theexamination of another attending physician, and it was said that theopposite writingy by tactics on cross-examination could not compel thepatient to abandon a privilege which she refused to waive 333 fish, j , in delivering the opinion of the court in the last-mentioned case, said of the operation of the statute, that it allows the patient touse the testimony of the attending physician if he thinks his evidencewill benefit his case, and to object and exclude it in case he thinksit will not benefit him. He may call to his aid the testimony of anyone whose views he approves and exclude that of another whose testimonymight tend to controvert that given with the consent of the patient;that in this case the excluded witness was the best witness and couldtell nothing else than the patient had disclosed if she had told thetruth and it would relate solely to what she and the other physicianhad described, but that the court could not consider whether thestatute tended to promote the cause of justice, and he distinguishedmckinney v grand street railroad company, 334 on the ground thatthere the consent had been that the same physician should disclose whathe knew, while here the waiver of the excluded physician testimonyhad been constantly withheld a decision which seems to be at variance with record v village ofsaratoga springs is treanor v manhattan railway company, 335 whereit was said that the patient cannot promulgate and uncover his maladiesand infirmities in court and keep his physician under obligations tosilence, and that he cannot, to mulct another in damages, inflame ajury with a false or exaggerated story of his injuries and sufferingsand preclude the physician from making a truthful statement of the case but where the patient testifies as to what passed between him and hisphysician, the physician may testify on the same subject, as a waiveris inferred from the circumstances. For the reason, that the patient, having gone into the privileged domain to get evidence on his ownbehalf, cannot prevent the other writingy from assailing such evidenceby the only testimony available, and the rule is no longer applicablewhen the patient himself pretends to give the circumstances of theprivileged interview 336 the requirement that a physician file witha board of health a certificate of the cause of death does not abrogatethe privilege in a judicial proceeding 337the evidence excluded “information ” in arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, northdakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin theprivileged matter is characterized as information 338in arkansas it seems that the information must be a confidentialcommunication;339 but in the other states where it has beennecessary to construe the word it has received a broader interpretation in michigan information is not confined to confidentialcommunications made by the patient, but includes whatever in order toenable a physician to prescribe was disclosed to any of his senses andwhich in any way was brought to his knowledge for that purpose;340it covers a letter written to a physician, 341 and matters observedby him;342 but it does not include information acquired by a thirdperson. For instance, the time when a physician saw his patientmay be disclosed by her mother;343 and the fact of treatment ornon-treatment is not information;344 nor are the facts that thephysician was the patient family physician, and that he attended himprofessionally.

“we would like simply to say that the physician and the council must be aware of the circumstances and the purposes which kids homework helper actuated us in placing lecithin at disposal, viz , the studies-- research-- of lecithin and the properties attributed to it and which led to inquiry for and consideration of it the quantities proposed for medicinal use were not suggested by us. The suggestion of lecithin in small quantities as a therapeutic agent was obviously directed by those who proposed it the question whether lecithin, per se, has therapeutic properties in contrast to lecithin as naturally contained in food substances, is essaything we do not undertake to decide the council, on purely theoretical grounds, decides in the negative notwithstanding clinical experience-- internal and hypodermic-- and thus would deny lecithin the status of a new and nonofficial remedy, worthy of at least tentative progressive clinical consideration we can only say that we offered bona fide lecithin and that we did not make the investigation of lecithin a pretext for the sale of all sorts of lecithin ‘jumbles’ with lecithin in small proportions, taking their name and making their bid on lecithin ”below appears the general article which has been omitted from n n r. lecithin preparationslecithins are fat-like bodies belonging to the group of phosphatides they all consist of glyceryl esters containing two fatty acid radicalsand the phosphoric acid radical in which one of the residual hydrogensis replaced by the choline group the fatty acid may be palmitic, oleicor stearic and various combinations are known to exist. For example, distearyl lecithin, stearyl palmityl lecithin and so on the commerciallecithins usually include the closely related kephalins on saponification the lecithins split more or less readily intocholine, the fatty acids and glycerophosphoric acid, and by fusion withalkali nitrate and carbonate they yield alkali phosphate they occur, free or in combination as lecithoproteins, most abundantly in certainanimal tissues, but there are also vegetable lecithins the lecithinsof commerce are obtained usually from yolks of eggs or from calves’ orsheep brains numerous processes have been devised for the preparation of lecithinfrom egg-yolk or animal tissue from egg-yolk it may be obtained bymaking an alcoholic extract and precipitating by cadmium chloride theprecipitate is washed with alcohol and ether, mixed with 80 per cent alcohol and warmed with the proper amount of ammonium carbonate toremove the cadmium after filtering hot and concentrating the filtratethe lecithin is thrown down by cooling to a low temperature-- 10 c orbelow the precipitate is taken up in chloroform and reprecipitated byacetone from tissues it is obtained by extracting with warm alcohol and ether, concentrating the extract, precipitating with acetone and repeating theoperations pure lecithin is white, but the commercial preparations areyellowish-brown wax-like solids, which are not soluble in water butform milky emulsions which exhibit the myeline figures under themicroscope the solubility in cold alcohol or ether is slight, but heataids it lecithins are not soluble in acetone they are hygroscopic andthe water mixtures undergo decomposition on standing they darken onexposure to air and light the alcoholic solution is precipitated by platinum or cadmiumchloride it is decomposed by alkalies with the formation of cholineand trimethylamine the ash contains phosphoric acid the differentlecithins contain from 3 84 to 4 12 per cent of phosphorus and 1 73 to1 86 per cent of nitrogen the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus shouldbe at 1 to 2 21 lecithin is incompatible with alkalies. It should be kept inwell-stoppered bottles and should be protected from the light the content of lecithin plus kephalin in tissues is about as follows. per cent egg-yolk 8 to 12 egg-white 0 1 to 0 2 liver 2 0 to 3 0 kidney 2 0 to 3 6 lung 2 0 to 3 0 pancreas 2 0 to 3 0actions and uses -- the lecithin preparations have been recommendedin thesis pathologic conditions, especially in malnutrition and sexualdebility moderate doses are said to bring about a marked retention ofnitrogen and phosphorus, but satisfactory proof of this is lacking itis extremely unlikely that the small doses which have been recommendedin pill or tablet form or in emulsions can have any perceptible action, in view of the fact that thesis of our natural foods contain much greaterweights of available lecithins than the medicinal doses provide thereis no good basis for the statement that the free lecithin has a greaterfood value or is more readily assimilated than is the substance asfound in eggs or tissue the reverse proposition is much more likelyto be true, especially when it is considered that the commercialpreparations are usually essaywhat altered or decomposed in the processof separation dosage -- given by the mouth in the form of pills, tablets orglycero-alcoholic emulsions the amount of actual lecithin ingestedin this way is usually small because of the doubtful purity of theoriginal preparation several doses, as commonly administered, wouldbe required to furnish the amount of lecithin present in a smallegg -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 122 proprietary names for liquid petrolatum report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has accepted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary a former report of the council liquid petrolatum or “russian mineraloil, ” report council pharm and chem , the journal, may 30, 1914, p 1740 called attention to the large number of concerns that wereplacing on the market liquid petrolatum as a proprietary under coinednames since then the number of such products has increased thecouncil has been requested by several concerns to consider theirproducts put out under proprietary brand names the rules of the council affirm that “the application of ‘trade names’to official or established nonproprietary substances tends to confusionand fosters thesis abuses ” in accordance with this general ruling, the council has invariably refused to countenance proprietary namesapplied to liquid petrolatum the council holds that proprietary orcoined names for this substance are detrimental to medical progress, since they are sure to foster the impression that the writingicularproduct is different from liquid petrolatum manufacturers have beenadvised that there is no objection to distinguishing their productsby the addition of their firm name or the initial representing thefirm name. For instance, “liquid petrolatum, a b and co ” or “liquidpetrolatum, smith ” the council also believes that such designationsas “star liquid petrolatum” or “liquid petrolatum, anchor brand, ”may be regarded as unobjectionable, provided that the words “liquidpetrolatum” are always used in connection with the brand designationand given equal prominence -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1915, p 127 seng report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary seng sultan drug co , st louis is called by the manufacturers. “ a palatable preparation of panax ginseng in an aromatic vehicle ”regarding ginseng panax quinquefolia the united statesdispensatory, nineteenth edition, page 1603, says. “the extraordinary medicinal virtues formerly ascribed to ginseng had no other existence than in the imagination of the chinese it is little more than a demulcent, and in this country is not employed as a medicine ”no discussion of ginseng is to be found in the more recently publishedbooks on pharmacology, materia medica and therapeutics, evidentlybecause their authors agree with this estimate on the other hand, physicians are told through the medium ofadvertisements appearing in medical journals that seng is.

Of the new york academy of medicine, etc , etc gunshot wounds general considerations few medical men there are who have long engaged in practice who havenot been compelled to take writing in essay medico-legal controversy inpaper of accidental or alleged homicidal gunshot wounds so soon asdeath occurs the surgeon ceases to work as such, but may continue towork as a medical jurist, and in preparation for this event must beready to answer any questions bearing upon the case which, thoughpossibly ridiculous in surgery, are or may be necessary in law hemay be called upon to testify as to the precise nature of a woundinflicted upon the body of a man seen before kids homework helper or after death. As to themeans by which it was inflicted. Whether the purport was suicidal orhomicidal. How much blood was lost. Whether the weapon was near to orat a distance from the body when fired. Whether it were possible thatthe deceased could have fired it himself. Whether after the receptionof the wound the person could have moved or performed any act in otherwords, whether death was instantaneous he may be asked also as togenuine or spurious blood-stains, whether genuine blood-stains werehuman or from essay other animal. Whether possibly they were from thebody of the deceased he will be expected to tell from what directionthe bullet or missile was fired. Which the wound of entrance and whichof exit, and thesis other things possible concerning the circumstancesunder which death occurred it is unnecessary to state that questionsof this nature call not only for conventional surgical skill, but forthe highest degree of shrewdness and general information, as well asessaytimes for expert knowledge with regard to small-arms and theirballistics it has been well said that the first duty of a medical jurist is tocultivate a habit of minute observation when this is combined with aknowledge of what the law requires and with the results of a technicaleducation, he will be able to meet all or nearly all of the scientificquestions which may be asked of him a learned judge once said that“a medical man when he sees a dead body should notice everything ”certainly he should make a minute scrutiny of the body to note whetherthere are upon the dress or hands of the deceased marks of blood, orwhether blood-stains are noted in different writings of the room. Whetherthe body or any writing of it is cold or warm. Whether the limbs are coldor rigid or pliant, since by these means the accurate date of death maybe more accurately determined examination and description in determining facts attending a suspicious case of gunshot wound, there should be noted, if known, 1st, the exact time of death, aswell as of infliction of the wound. 2d, location and attitude of thebody. 3d, condition of clothing. 4th, anything of importance in itsenvironment. 5th, external appearance of the body, as well as stateof countenance.

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J pharmacol & exper therap 16:449, 1921 266 compare schamberg, j kids homework helper f. Kolmer, j a , and raiziss, g w. Am j m sc 150:25 july 1920 salvarsan. Abrogate the patentthe journal has already commented on the difficulty in securingsalvarsan, on the moral and ethical question as to whether or not it isjustifiable for one person to control the output of a drug necessary topublic health this week we publish an account of the action of the st louis and chicago medical societies, which are calling on the medicalprofession to appeal to their senators and congressmen to abrogate thispatent the journal believes that this patent should be abrogated, notalone because the patentees have not supplied the demand, not alonebecause they have dictated to the medical profession who should havethe drug and how much a physician might have, not alone because ofthe war with gerthesis, not alone because of the special needs of thegovernment at this time for the control of venereal diseases, not alonebecause, as essay claim, the patent at washington does not correctlydescribe the product, but also because the people who are supplyingthis product are charging prices that are exorbitant compared to theprice at which others in this country can supply it the fact is thatthe salvarsan one can obtain today costs $4 50 per ampule of 0 6 gram, whereas the same dose of arsenobenzol-- a preparation identical with, ifnot better than, salvarsan-- costs $2 00 at retail, and as dr schambergsays. “if we are permitted to continue marketing the same drug afterthe war, we can sell it at $1 00 or less per tube ” to abrogate thispatent would be doing an injury to no one certainly the patentees ofsalvarsan have already reaped their harvest-- and a pretty rich one thesupply of salvarsan at a reasonable price in proportion to its actualcost of production is in the interest of the health of the entirepopulation of the country, whereas to let matters rest as they are, is to the benefit of one man while we are emphasizing here the cost, there is after all a greater question, and that is the supply necessaryto help control the ravages of one of the most serious diseaseswhich afflict humanity today it is the duty of congress to abrogatethe patent on this preparation and, incidentally, on all medicinalpreparations of importance -- editorial from the journal a m a , april 21, 1917 end the monopolythe adamson bill, known as the “trading with the enemy act, ” hasrecently been passed by the house of representatives, is now beforethe senate, and will doubtless be enacted into a law one of itsclauses confers authority on the federal trade commission to grantlicenses to citizens of this country to operate patents owned by enemyaliens physicians are interested in the bill primarily because itincludes the salvarsan situation the manner in which salvarsan hasbeen supplied in this country has been so arbitrary and the pricescharged so tremendously above the actual cost, that we should not besatisfied unless the monopoly is ended so that the drug can be suppliedat least at a fairly moderate figure, and the old methods eliminated it is to be hoped, therefore, that the federal trade commission willnot grant exclusive control-- that is, exclusive license-- to any oneperson or firm to do so would simply perpetuate the old monopoly andthe old conditions england has adopted a law, which, in principle, is similar to the adamson bill, and there several concerns have beenlicensed to manufacture the product the same should be done here thedermatologic research laboratories of philadelphia announce that theycan supply arsenobenzol at $1 50 a tube, and that there is immediatelyavailable a supply sufficient for any demand that may be made the samelaboratories have announced also that in a few months they will be ableto supply hospitals for $1 00 a tube considerable responsibility restson the federal trade commission in this matter, for it is not only aquestion of monopoly, but also a question of scientific qualificationsand ability to make the product on the writing of essay who may makeapplication undoubtedly the commission will secure the cooperation ofthe united states public health service, under whose supervision thesedrugs should be manufactured no matter who shall be licensed to makethe product -- editorial from the journal a m a , july 21, 1917 arsphenaminno, this is not a new chemical. It is simply the name adoptedby the federal trade commission for the hydrochlorid of3-diamino-4-dihydroxy-1-arsenobenzene-- in other words, salvarsan asour readers already have been informed three firms have been licensedto manufacture and sell arsphenamin.