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Of the liver by obstructions;of the reins and bladder by the stopping of urine. And helps also toextenuate fat corpulent bodies what an infamy is cast upon the ashesof mithridates, or methridates as the augustines read his nameby unworthy people they that deserve no good report themselves, love to give none to others, viz that renowned king of pontusfortified his body by poison against poison he cast out devils bybeelzebub, prince of the devils what a sot is he that knows notif he had accustomed his body to cold poisons, but poisons would havedispatched him?. on the contrary, if not, corrosions would have doneit the whole world is at this present time beholden to him for hisstudies in physic, and he that uses the quantity but of an hazel-nutof that receipt every morning, to which his name is adjoined, shallto admiration preserve his body in health, if he do but consider thatrue is an herb of the sun, and under leo, and gather it and the restaccordingly rupture-wort descript this spreads very thesis thready branches round about uponthe ground, about a span long, divided into thesis other smaller writingsfull of small joints set very thick together, whereat come forth twovery small leaves of a french yellow, green coloured branches andall, where grows forth also a number of exceedingly small yellowishflowers, scarce to be discerned from the stalks and leaves, which turninto seeds as small as the very dust the root is very long and small, thrusting down deep into the ground this has neither smell nor tasteat first, but afterwards has a little astringent taste, without anymanifest heat. Yet a little bitter and sharp withal place it grows in dry, sandy, and rocky places time it is fresh and green all the summer government and virtues they say saturn causes ruptures. If hedo, he does no more than he can cure. If you want wit, he will teachyou, though to your cost this herb is saturn own, and is a nobleantivenerean rupture-wort hath not its name in vain. For it is foundby experience to cure the rupture, not only in children but also inelder persons, if the disease be not too inveterate, by taking a dramof the powder of the dried herb every day in wine, or a decoction madeand drank for certain days together the juice or distilled water ofthe green herb, taken in the same manner, helps all other fluxes eitherof man or woman. Vomitings also, and the gonorrhea, being taken any ofthe ways aforesaid it doth also most assuredly help those that havethe stranguary, or are troubled with the stone or gravel in the reinsor bladder the same also helps stitches in the sides, griping painsof the stomach or belly, the obstructions of the liver, and cures theyellow jaundice.

gm or c c ℞  ferrous sulphate |25 gr iv magnesium sulphate 4| ʒ i aromatic sulphuric acid |5 ♏ vii tincture of ginger |7 ♏ x compound infusion of gentian b p q s , ad 30| ℥ ithis, constituting a single dose, is to be taken twice daily-- at11 a m and 6 p m a little compound tincture of gentian andwater may be used in place of the compound infusion of the britishpharmacopeia he modifies this essaywhat as occasion demands by usingsodium sulphate and adding sodium bicarbonate which converts thesulphate of iron into ferrous carbonate and adds 10 minims of spiritof chloroform to act as a stomachic hunter also suggests the use of pills of aloes and iron in place ofthe mixture described above, and when constipation has been corrected, the aloes may be omitted and the pill of ferrous carbonate alone maybe used for the iron hunter comment regarding this pill is, “verysatisfactory ”the same form of iron is available in the compound iron mixture, formerly official, which hunter says is exceedingly good in thiscountry the compound solution of iron and ammonium acetate, bashammixture, so called, has long enjoyed a wide reputation as causing verylittle disturbance of the stomach, and the homely tincture of ferricchlorid is probably useful in a large majority of paper in which thestomach is not especially irritable we may say with assurance that one of the forms suggested herewill suffice for practically every case in which it is necessaryto reinforce the amount of iron available in the food by essaypharmaceutical preparation if these do not satisfy your requirements, consult a really competent pharmacist and enlist his aid in devisinga mixture especially suited to your individual patient -- from thejournal a m a , dec 29, 1917 article iv cactina pilletsthis preparation may be considered briefly in view of the recentdiscussion in this series of articles of the pharmacology of thedigitalis group and the principles of treatment in cardiovasculardisease the manufacturers maintain that cactina is wholly unlikedigitalis, and that is the truth, as we shall show. But since theyclaim that it is useful in certain conditions of the heart in whichdigitalis is commonly employed by well informed clinicians, it isnecessary to consider its cardiac actions-- or its lack of them!. it isdifficult to determine just what action cactina is supposed to exert onthe heart for example, one advertisement contains the following.

These two periods of life being very susceptible to thedepressing effects of heat a high temperature is easily borne if theair be pure and the atmosphere be not saturated with moisture telluricelectric conditions also have a modifying influence, undoubted thoughobscure in certain occupations an intensely heated atmosphere is endured withimpunity for a it assignment help considerable time, provided the air be maintained in acondition of purity and water be supplied to the person exposed thestokers upon ocean steam-ships, where a forced draught is employed, aresubjected to extreme heat, essaytimes reaching 60° c 140° f resortto forced and continuous ventilation of the stoke-rooms, with shorthours of duty, renders tolerance of the high temperatures possible sunstroke the terms “sunstroke, ” “insolation, ” “coup de soleil, ” areapplied to conditions induced, not alone by exposure to the rays ofthe sun, but rather by a combination of great heat with other excitingcauses they are used to designate attacks occurring in very hotweather after exposure to solar or other sources of extreme heat the striking and usual phenomena are exhaustion, unconsciousness, stertorous respiration, and death, occurring by syncope, within afew moments or hours in a number of paper the symptoms of cerebralapoplexy with death by coma are present in others, the condition seems one of complete exhaustion the majorityof paper seem to be a combination of these several conditions, withdeath resulting from syncope the ordinary phenomena of the attack are pain in the head, hurriedrespiration essaytimes stertorous, violent beating of the heart withfailing of its power, oppression within the chest and, occasionally, nausea and vomiting the pupils are essaytimes dilated and essaytimescontracted, but in all paper exhibit lessened sensitiveness to light the suddenness of the attack modifies the symptoms developed pathological conditions these are exhaustion with syncopic tendency and a rapid rise in thetemperature of the body to a point destructive to the activity of thenervous centres this is accompanied by an abnormal condition of theblood, resulting from loss of its watery portions, with retention ofeffete products and impaired aeration a tendency to general stasis, specially marked by congestions of the lungs and brain, is present the change in the blood is a very important factor in essay paper, notfatal at the outset, this induces a septic condition the greatly elevated temperature of the body undoubtedly producescertain modifications which type it, in essay respects, as a febriledisease. But this, with the septic tendency due to blood changes, isnot sufficient to designate it as a purely “thermal fever, ” as essayhave claimed it is essaything more than this sunstroke occurs more commonly in tropical than temperateclimates;694 and usually in the day-time, at the period of greatestsolar activity, those attacked being engaged in labor involvingconsiderable exertion it occasionally, though rarely, occurs at night the military service affords abundant opportunity for observation herethe seizures are on the march, rarely in camp fatigue, prolonged andextreme exertion, ill-adjusted clothing and accoutrements, with thedeprivation of cool water, are fully as active factors as the heat ofthe sun the death-rate ranges between forty and fifty per cent, themild paper being excluded death in essay paper is marked by syncope, in others by apnœa, though the majority seem to die by a combinationof both, as in most paper the pulmonary congestion is more or lesspronounced undoubtedly the character of the symptoms and mode of deathare influenced, in thesis paper, by individual tendencies leading toapoplectic conditions or to cardiac or other complications treatment this must be adjusted to the pathological conditions of the patient as already indicated, two classes of paper are met. One marked byexhaustion, with tendency to death by syncope. The other, a state ofor tendency to cerebral congestion or apoplectic conditions exactlyopposite methods of treatment are demanded in the first, frequencyand feebleness of the heart action, with faintness of the heartsounds and embarrassment of respiration, indicate the tendency todeath by nervous exhaustion, and must be met by placing the patientin a condition of absolute rest and quiet in a cool place stimulantsmust be promptly administered, though cautiously on account of thetendency to nausea and vomiting hypodermic injections of alcohol orether, or rectal enemata of turpentine, alcohol, or other stimulants, afford means of securing speedy effects when the stomach is irritable carbonate of ammonia and other cardiac stimulants are recommended depleting agents, or such as prove depressing, are to be avoided inessay paper, hypodermic injections of small doses of morphine provebeneficial individual paper must modify therapeutic procedures in the second class of paper the tendency to cerebral congestionindicates sedative and depleting procedures blood-letting has beenrecommended by essay authors, if employed with extreme judgment anddiscrimination 695 cold applied to the head and also to the wholebody by rubbing with ice696 or by effusion and the wet sheet, orother means, is indicated if the temperature is high 104° to 105° f active catharsis, by promptly acting purgative enemata, is also to beresorted to in most paper the convulsions occurring in essay paper aresuccessfully modified and controlled by inhalations of small quantitiesof chloroform post-mortem appearances these, though not clearly characteristic, are pronounced in essay paperno distinct conditions are found 697 local congestions are present innearly all paper upon the skin are found petechial and livid spots, pallor being occasionally noted ecchymoses and subserous hemorrhagesare also common these conditions have been described as resemblingthose of spotted typhus levick rigor mortis is marked and occurs early, putrefaction beginning soonafter death the lungs are highly congested and often œdematous, andeffusions of serum are frequently found in the pleural cavities 698the heart is usually changed in color and consistence, with the leftventricle contracted and the aorta empty, while the right ventricleand pulmonary arteries are dilated and engorged the blood is fluidand dark 699 the large vessels of the pia and dura are full ofdark blood congestion of the cerebral mass is not always noted theventricles contain serum. And extravasations of blood into the cervicalsympathetic ganglia and vagus are essaytimes found the kidneys areusually moist and œdematous. The liver and spleen congested and dry burns and scalds for all purposes of practice it is unnecessary to draw any distinctionbetween a burn and a scald, for in reality none exists, except asregards the nature of the causative agent in essay paper requiringinvestigation, this may prove to be a matter of much importance definition - a burn is an injury produced by the application to thebody of a heated substance, flame or radiant heat a scald is an injury produced by the application of a liquid at ornear its boiling-point appearances as indicating origin a hot body may produce a burn of any intensity, ranging betweenreddening of the skin and complete charring of the tissues, accordingas its temperature is elevated and the period of contact prolonged. Theshape of the object and its size being indicated by the form of theburn metallic substances heated to a temperature of 100° c 212° f are capable of producing redness and vesication and other injuriouseffects at this temperature the albuminous elements of the blood andother fluids undergo coagulation essay bodies require to be heated toredness, or nearly so, in order to produce a defined burn very hot and writingially-fused solids cause burns of greater severitythan where the heated body is of a character favoring prompt removal in such paper their adhesion to the skin involves the tearing awayof the superficial portions of the derma in their removal, or theyby their adherence prolong the contact of the heated body, thusintensifying their destructive action metals in a state of fusion produce burns which cannot be easilydistinguished from those caused by solid bodies such burns are classedas scalds their effects may vary in any degree between slight rednessand complete destruction of the tissues with charring burns caused bymelted solids are less regular in form and outline than those caused byheated solids they are usually of greater severity on account of thehigh temperature to which they have been raised 700boiling water - scalds by boiling water may be so slight as toproduce redness only, or they may be so severe as to cause marked andcharacteristic symptoms those noted in severe paper are an ashy hueof the skin, accompanied by a soaked or sodden appearance and theproduction of blisters occasionally these features are not easilydistinguished from those of burns from other sources blackening of theskin and charring of the tissues never result from burns by boilingwater as in all burns, a large surface involved renders an early fatalissue probable in severe paper, not necessarily fatal, gangrene of thewritings injured essaytimes occurs most of those met with are accidental, yet paper of scalding by hot water with intent to injure are notuncommon, aside from injuries and death resulting from explosionof boilers, bursting of steam-pipes, etc occasional instances arerecorded of death of children, the insane or feeble persons byinadvertent immersion in a bath of hot water case 21 severe and fatal burns of the mouth, fauces, and larynx in youngchildren occur from inhaling steam or swallowing boiling water from ateapot or kettle in an attempt to drink case 5 burns by burning oil produce effects and appearances similar to thoseby melted metals burns by flame are specially characterized by scorching of thesurface hairs upon the writing actually burned are scorched and usuallyalso those in the vicinity of the burned patches such conditionscould not result from scalds by hot water, boiling oil, or from a hotbody only burns by petroleum or its derivatives resemble the burns from flame, except that the injured portions of the body are not only scorched butblackened and are usually burned more severely than by flame alone, asthe clothing holds the burning substance in contact with the writings theodor of the agent is also very noticeable burns by acids and corrosive agents - the injury produced by amineral acid, the caustic alkalies, etc , has frequently been thesource of judicial inquiry “vitriol-throwing, ” as it has been termed, has been and occasionally is resorted to with malicious intent toinjure no case of death resulting directly and solely from this causeis recorded, but grave injuries, involving loss of sight, etc , haveresulted a case is referred to by taylor701 where sulphuric acidwas poured into the ear of a woman while asleep by her husband deathensued, after six weeks, from disease of the brain resulting indirectlyfrom the use of the acid the appearances of a burn by a mineral acid are distinguished from heatburns with little difficulty the eschar which results is not dry andleathery, as in a burn by heat, but soft and readily sloughing away there is no redness around the site of the injury, the color of theburn being uniform, and no blisters are formed there is no blackeningof the skin and the hairs are not scorched the color of the skinaround the injured portion may afford valuable evidence of the natureof the agent employed nitric acid produces a yellow stain, sulphuricacid a dark brown, and chlorohydric acid a brownish-yellow stain 702the clothing also is capable of affording characteristic evidence bythe discolorations produced. And the destructive agent employed may bedetermined by a chemical analysis of the fabric 703it is not possible to distinguish a post-mortem from an ante-mortemburn by an acid when no vital reaction has taken place the classification of burns a classification of burns according to the severity of the injuryinflicted is the most practical course upon this plan, burns may bedivided into four general classes:i burns in which the skin or subcutaneous cellular tissues only areinjured ii burns which involve the muscles, nerves, and blood-vessels iii burns involving the internal organs and bones iv burns in which the other three classes are variously mixed class i - the skin in paper such as may occur from a brief contact witha hot body or water near the boiling-point shows a slight redness orscorching with no enduring mark pain is considerable class ii - in the mildest paper the cutis is destroyed in its wholethickness, and the writings injured are occupied by eschars of ayellowish-gray or brownish color the surrounding skin is reddened, and the formation of blisters occurs either immediately or after aninterval of a few hours in these paper a shining cicatrix remainsafter the healing, without contraction of surrounding writings in theseverer paper the subcutaneous cellular tissue and underlying musclesand nerves are destroyed the blackish eschars formed are insensibleand separate by suppurative process, leaving a granulating surfacebelow extensive redness of surrounding tissues, with more or lessvesication, is usually noted the resulting cicatrices, together withthe skin and adjoining structures, are prone to contraction, resultingin considerable deformity, according to location and extent so greatis the deformity in injuries of the extremities, or even essay writings ofthe head and trunk, that extensive surgical operations become necessaryto relieve it class iii - burns of this class are so severe that an immediatelyfatal issue is usually the result such instances involve a prolongedexposure to flame or to a source of intense heat the appearancesdescribed as belonging to the preceding class are in writing found herewith the addition of charring or carbonizing the writings destroyed effects of burns the effects of burns may be considered as i , local, and ii , constitutional local effects - in different instances the effects vary in accordancewith the extent and severity of the burn redness, blisters, destruction of the cuticle and of the subcutaneous cellular tissue, blackening of the skin, scorching of the hair, and roasting of portionsof the body are met with in varying degrees in essay severe paper allthese are found upon a single body the redness produced varies inintensity and extent, according to the nature of the agent producingthe burn, its form, and the length of time the writing was exposed very soon after the infliction of the burn a special line of rednessappears between the burned writings and the uninjured skin this red lineof demarcation is formed by intensely injected vessels and becomes avery important medico-legal sign in essay paper the vesication may besingle or multiple, consisting of one or two large and full blistersor a number of large and small ones, scattered over the portionsburned, essay unbroken and still holding their contents, others brokenand denuded of cuticle or with breaks from which their serum hasescaped upon the surrounding writings in essay paper of burning cracksor fissures in the skin occur, due to the effect of the heat, makingit dry and brittle and causing it to rupture by the movements of thepatient case 8 these fissures are most frequently noted in proximityto the joints 704 they resemble wounds, and it occurs occasionallythat it is important to accurately distinguish their character inessay paper the skin only is fissured. In others the subjacent tissuesare also involved this difference depends upon the depth of the burn in the first condition the skin splits, leaving the subcutaneous fatexposed, which in essay instances is writingially melted by the heat andflows out over the edge of the crack upon the surrounding skin paper8, 13 the blood-vessels in such paper usually are not burned and, owing to their elasticity, remain stretching across the fissure case14 the smaller may be seen by careful examination with a lens:they should always be looked for in the second class of injuriesthe vessels are involved in the burn and break with the cracking ofthe skin the importance of careful observation of these fissures isemphasized in paper of apparent wounds associated with burning it maybe necessary to decide whether the wounds are the result of the actionof heat as above described or were caused by essay sharp instrument orweapon careful inspection of the edges of the wounds will show whetherthey are ragged, as the result of fissure, or clean-cut by essay sharpinstrument the absence of evidences indicating hemorrhage upon thesurrounding writings and the detection of uncut blood-vessels extendingacross the fissure will establish the differential diagnosis wounds ofthe above character resulting from the action of fire may exist on thesame body with wounds of actual violence it is important, therefore, in all paper to examine each wound with special care and record itsposition, shape, depth, and other characteristics constitutional effects - as in all sudden and violent injuries, theeffect of a severe burn upon the nervous system is very marked thisis manifest in the symptoms of “shock, ” with pallor and coldness ofthe surface of the body, a feeble pulse, chills or shivering, and atendency to collapse in other paper, proving immediately fatal, thesesymptoms are followed by obstructed respiration with death from comasucceeding in other paper convulsions precede death, while in such asare not immediately fatal a reaction more or less imperfect ensues uponthe first constitutional symptoms death from cerebral congestion or effusion may result before anydefinite evidence of reaction appears in essay instances pulmonarycongestion or œdema occurs, with or without pleural effusion, terminating in death before reaction this period usually coversthe first two days in essay paper immediate death results fromthe depression produced by the severity of the pain during thesubsequent two weeks a period of inflammatory reaction succeeds, wheninflammations of the thoracic and abdominal viscera, with ulcerativeprocesses in essay organs, are developed and induce a fatal termination paper 10, 11, 16 causes of death the causes of death are due to several conditions this factis explained in writing by the relation which exists between thecerebro-spinal and sympathetic nervous systems, and of the nervoussupply of the surface to that of the internal organs, which in paperof extensive injury proportionately modify the conditions of thevisceral organs as death in burning results from various causes, it isconvenient to consider them under two classes:1st those immediately fatal 2d those fatal after an interval the first division would include paper in which the deprivation offresh air and the presence of asphyxiating products of combustion carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were the immediate causes of deathby suffocation or asphyxia paper 9, 18 accidents in endeavoring to escape or injuries by falling wallsor timbers may cause death immediately, and burning the body occursubsequently immediate death may result from syncope or collapse from theviolence of the shock to the nervous system by the pain resulting fromthe burns the second division includes those conditions where death may resultearly, from a series of causes less immediate than those just mentioned cerebral congestion and effusion, resulting in death from coma, is not unusual case 15 in this connection taylor705 cites a caseof alleged poisoning by opium, in the treatment of a burn, in a childdying comatose, and emphasizes the undesirability of administeringopium or its preparations to children in paper of burns of anyseverity the danger claimed to exist is hardly to be considered in the case referred to, abernethy, who was a witness in the case, ascribed death to coma induced by the effect of the burn thepowerfully depressing influence of the pain in sensitive organizationsand liability to death from shock therefrom must be remembered inflammatory conditions of the respiratory tract or organs arecommon results. Pneumonia, bronchitis, and sudden congestion orœdema of the lungs are frequent paper 11, 15, 16 inflammation of the intestines, inducing peritonitis andulcerations of the intestines with or without resulting hemorrhage, occurs as a frequent lesion case 10 gangrene or septicæmia causes death in other instances exhaustion, from extensive and prolonged suppuration or from severeand long-continued pain and other conditions, terminates other paper case 12 legally, burns and scalds are included among injuries endangering life, but are not described as wounds they may be considered dangerousaccording to the extent of surface which they cover, rather than thedepth to which they involve the tissues the extensive injury to the sensory nerve structures and thesuspension of function or destruction of a considerable portion of theperspiratory tracts render large superficial burns far more fatal thanthose confined to a small writing of a limb, for example, which may bedeeply burned from a medico-legal point it is desirable to establishthe fact of how large a surface must be injured to prove fatal theeffort to reduce the subject to a statement of an exact minimum area ofsquare inches seems very objectionable and liable to lead to erroneousconclusions it is possible to make a general statement, subject to essayqualifications, which may serve as a basis of conclusion, as eachindividual case must be considered in its own circumstances a burn involving two-thirds of the body may be regarded as necessarilyfatal. But the injury of a much less proportion, even one-fourth ofthe surface, has resulted in death the qualifications to be madein burns of less extent are pronounced the writing affected is ofmuch importance burns of the trunk are more fatal than those of theextremities.

New york m j 118:315, 1913. Arch f verdauungskr 20:577, 1914 physiologic considerationsthroughout its clinical use, secretin has been given by mouth. Butits direct introduction into the intestine of a dog under anesthesiain even enormous quantities is without effect this fact, firstobserved by bayliss and starling, 32 was confirmed by fleig, 81 andmatuso, 36 and our personal experiments have convinced us of itstruth matuso found that ordinary secretin and that obtained fromintestinal lumen gave equally negative results large quantities ofactive secretin, moreover, acidified to 0 2 per cent hydrochloricacid, and left in the ileum for fifteen minutes, were still negative wertheimer and duvillier, 82 in a previous paper on this subject, had likewise found that acid solutions of secretin which might beconsidered more normal for the intestine than when neutral, whenintroduced into the ileum gave negative or inconstant results theyconclude that it is more likely that the pancreas does not respond tosuch minimal stimuli, than that the secretin is not absorbed 81 flieg. Arch gén de méd 191:1482, 1903 82 wertheimer and duvillier. Compt rend soc de biol 68:535, 1910 the destructive action of the digestive enzymes leads us to believethat it is in inactive form that secretin is absorbed likeepinephrin, it cannot pass through the digestive tract bayliss andstarling state that it is destroyed by one hour tryptic digestion lalou62 worked with the action on secretin of pepsin, dog gastricjuice, pancreatic juice, succus entericus and erepsin, and found ineach case a destructive effect, even almost after mixing. And afterfive minutes over 75 per cent of the activity had disappeared matuso36 introduced 30 c c of active secretin into the intestine, removed it five minutes later, and found that no activity remained other methods of administration have been tried subcutaneousinjections are practically negative matuso, 36 hallion83and intrapleural injections are likewise negligible bayliss andstarling55 83 hallion. Presse méd 20:433, 1912 starling63 finds that continued intravenous injections of secretin ina healthy dog produces after a time severe symptoms of collapse, which, he believes, are due to change in the intestinal mucous membrane causedby the entry and non-neutralization of the strongly alkaline pancreaticjuice intestinal digestion seems little affected in achylia gastrica stockton, 84 ehrman and lederer, 85 bayliss and starling32 thismay be due to other secretin stimulants as fats, or to the action ofthe nervous mechanisms meltzer86 84 stockton. In osier and mccrae modern medicine 3:19, 1914 85 ehrman and lederer. Deutsch med wchnschr 35:879, 1909 86 meltzer, s j. The factors of safety in animal structure andanimal economy, j a m a , feb 23, 1907, p 655 the destruction of secretin by human gastric juicewe have carried out in detail experiments on the digestive effect ofhuman gastric juice on secretin our results in every respect confirmthe findings of lalou, 62 who worked with commercial pepsin and doggastric juice, but are even more striking because of the much superiorquality of pure human gastric juice methods -- the human gastric juice was obtained from mr v , thegastric fistula case of our laboratory the chemical and digestivecharacters of his juice are discussed in a recent paper 87 in thedifferent experiments, different samples of gastric juice were used the secretin employed was always freshly prepared digestion wascarried out in the incubator at 38 c with the reaction of 0 4 percent acid, and the end of the period was marked by either boilingthe mixture or in the first two experiments by turning the mixturealkaline the action of the preparation, we proved, was not influencedby the method used the dogs on which the preparations were testedwere prepared for carotid blood pressure, injection into the externaljugular vein, and cannula in the pancreatic duct, essentially themethods of bayliss and starling32 being employed the preparationswere injected at body temperature after being neutralized and filtered except for the addition of normal salt solution instead of gastricjuice, the control injections of secretin were submitted to exactly thesame treatment as the other preparations 87 carlson. Am jour physiol 38:248, 1915 results -- our results are embodied in table 1 we assured ourselvesbefore beginning the series that incubation of secretin with boiledgastric juice produced no change it is to be noted in the table thateach experiment is a unit complete in itself, beginning and endingwith a control injection of secretin special attention is called tothe marked destruction that follows contact of human gastric juicewith secretin for merely one minute in experiment 4, using 1 c c of human gastric juice, the action fell to 14 drops from an originalsecretion of 21. In experiment 5, using 8 c c of gastric juice, theaction fell to 6 drops from an original secretion of 20 of interestalso is the rate at which we get complete destruction of secretin this is practically 2 hours for 2 c c with secretin giving originally110 drops experiment 2, fig 1, or 30 minutes for 5 c c with asecretin giving originally 53 drops experiment 6 these results arepractically parallel, though they were obtained with different samplesof gastric juice and in different experiments table 1 -- the destruction of secretin by human gastric juice | | secretion of pancreatic juice in drops | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- no |quan-|10 c c c| the secretin after incubation |10 c c of | tity|secretin| with human gastric juice |secretin exper-|of |control -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -control iment|gas- |-- begin-| | | | | | |-- end of | tric| ning |dig |secre-|dig |secre-|dig |secre-|experi- |juice|experi- |time, | tion |time, | tion |time, | tion | ment |used, | ment |hrs |rate |hrs |rate |hrs |rate | |c c | | | | | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 2 | 28 |6 | 0 |4 | 0 |2 | 0 | 16 2 | 2 | 110 |2 | 7 |1-1/2| 18 |1 | 18 | 41 3 | 2 | 40 |1 | 7 | 3/4| 7 | 1/4 | 8 | 31 4 | 1 | 21 | 1/2| 11 | 1/4| 12 | 1/60| 14 | 18 5 | 8 | 20 | 1/2| 1 | 1/4| 3 | 1/60| 6 | 18 6 | 5 | 53 | 1/2| 2 | | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- we also tried the effect of keeping the digestive time constant andvarying the amount of gastric juice employed increasing the quantityof gastric juice used increases the quantity of secretin destroyed table 2 table 2 -- experiment 7* pancreatic preparation juice drops 10 c c secretin 20 10 c c secretin digested with 0 5 c c gastric juice 15 10 c c secretin digested with 3 c c gastric juice 13 10 c c secretin digested with 10 c c gastric juice 8* the digestive time was kept constant at fifteen minutes the gastricjuice used had been diluted with stomach washings the reader will observe in table 1 that the results obtained fromthe control injection of secretin at the beginning of the experimentis uniformly greater than that obtained after several injections ofdigested secretin in view of the established fact that equal quantities of secretin cangenerally be relied on to produce results, 21 one might suggest thatthe injections of the split products of secretin have inhibited to essaydegree the action of the pancreas we can submit the data in table 3in support of this view, showing among other things that the action ofsecretin is not influenced by previous injections of inert depressorsubstances, though it by the injection of the cleavage products ofsecretin the various injections in the experiments were made at aboutfifteen-minute intervals we have carefully analyzed the reaction in blood pressure that followsthe injection of the various preparations we find no constant effect digested secretin gives a fall in blood pressure that is at times less, at times equal, and at other times greater fig 1 than that producedby the original preparation besides the bearing that it has on the therapeutic use of secretin, this destructive action of the digestive enzymes is also of primephysiologic interest failure to realize it has led to misconceptionsas to the intrinsic nature of secretin table 3 -- experiments 8 and 9 pancreatic preparations juice drops experiment 8. 10 c c secretin, five injections of inert depressor substances 29 10 c c secretin, two injections of completely digested secretin 28 10 c c secretin, eight injections of inert depressor substances 16 10 c c secretin 16 experiment 9. 10 c c secretin control, beginning of experiment 21 10 c c secretin, after thirty minutes incubation with 1 c c boiled gastric juice 27 10 c c secretin, after thirty minutes incubation with 1 c c fresh gastric juice 11 10 c c secretin control, end of experiment 18the findings of lalou, confirmed by us, explain the anomaly that hasled delezenne88 to put forward the antisecretin theory 88 delezenne and pozerski. Jour de physiol , 14:540, 1912 secretin has no action when given by mouthit is a constant claim that so thesis and complex are the factorsconcerned in physiologic processes, that it is not unusual for clinicaldeductions to establish themselves in the face of a priori laboratorydicta we considered it desirable, therefore, to test the action ofsecretin, orally administered, in the most direct manner, and the onefreest from possible criticism with this in view, we performed aseries of experiments on normal unanesthetized dogs having permanentpancreatic fistulas method -- in the operations for permanent pancreatic fistulas wefollowed closely the technic developed by pawlow, 89 and withexcellent results the dogs maintain themselves in splendid conditionif proper care is taken this consists in feeding them only with breadand milk, and giving sodium bicarbonate daily the dogs were giventhis treatment in the evening so that experimental procedure might becarried on in the day with empty stomach under constant conditions freshly prepared secretin in large quantities was given by stomachtube to these dogs, and the response of the pancreas studied andcompared with the response obtained from control preparations the samepreparation was generally not given on consecutive days 89 pawlow.

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From among the leaves, which always abidegreen, arise thesis slender, weak, naked foot-stalks, every one of thembearing at the top one large yellow flower, consisting of thesis rowsof yellow leaves, broad at the points, and nicked in with deep spotsof yellow in the middle, which growing it assignment help ripe, the green husk whereinthe flowers stood turns itself down to the stalk, and the head of downbecomes as round as a ball. With long seed underneath, bearing a writingof the down on the head of every one, which together is blown awaywith the wind, or may be at once blown away with one mouth the rootgrowing downwards exceedingly deep, which being broken off within theground, will yet shoot forth again, and will hardly be destroyed whereit hath once taken deep root in the ground place it grows frequently in all meadows and pasture-grounds time it flowers in one place or other almost all the year long government and virtues it is under the dominion of jupiter itis of an opening and cleansing quality, and therefore very effectualfor the obstructions of the liver, gall and spleen, and the diseasesthat arise from them, as the jaundice and hypocondriac. It opens thepassages of the urine both in young and old. Powerfully cleansesimposthumes and inward ulcers in the urinary passage, and by its dryingand temperate quality doth afterwards heal them. For which purpose thedecoction of the roots or leaves in white wine, or the leaves choppedas pot-herbs, with a few alisanders, and boiled in their broth, arevery effectual and whoever is drawing towards a consumption or anevil disposition of the whole body, called cachexia, by the use hereoffor essay time together, shall find a wonderful help it helps also toprocure rest and sleep to bodies distempered by the heat of ague fits, or otherwise. The distilled water is effectual to drink in pestilentialfevers, and to wash the sores you see here what virtues this common herb hath, and that is thereason the french and dutch so often eat them in the spring. And nowif you look a little farther, you may see plainly without a pair ofspectacles, that foreign physicians are not so selfish as ours are, butmore communicative of the virtues of plants to people darnel it is called jam and wray. In sussex they call it crop, it being apestilent enemy among corn descript this has all the winter long sundry long, flat, and roughleaves, which, when the stalk rises, which is slender and jointed, arenarrower, but rough still. On the top grows a long spike, composed ofthesis heads set one above another, containing two or three husks, witha sharp but short beard of awns at the end. The seed is easily shakenout of the ear, the husk itself being essaywhat rough place the country husbandmen do know this too well to grow amongtheir corn, or in the borders and pathways of the other fields that arefallow government and virtues it is a malicious writing of sullen saturn asit is not without essay vices, so hath it also thesis virtues the mealof darnel is very good to stay gangrenes, and other such like frettingand eating cankers, and putrid sores.