History

Interview Essay


“a number of severe contusions of the belly runa rapidly fatal course without the autopsy showing any definiteanatomical lesion of the viscera ” he also adds that the less severepaper at first often show very profound shock, which is out ofproportion to the force of the injury the cause of death has beenexplained, like that of sudden death from a blow on the larynx, by thetheory of inhibition these paper are often illustrated experimentallyon frogs, where the same result is obtained under similar conditions such paper are the more remarkable from the fact that the fatal blowmay cause no ecchymosis or other mark of injury to appear on theabdominal walls blows on the head may produce a variety of results besides that ofthe contusion itself in fact, death itself may result though themarks of contusion are very slight or even imperceptible intracranialhemorrhage, laceration with ecchymosis of the brain, on the same oropposite side to the injury, and concussion of the brain may result ofthese only concussion will be considered now concussion has been defined as a shock communicated to an organby a blow or fall on another writing of the body, which may or may notbe remote, and without producing a material or appreciable lesion according to lutaud, 607 english pathologists understand by it atemporary or permanent nervous exhaustion resulting from a sudden orexcessive expense of nervous energy its effect is observed in thefunction of an organ and especially in the brain concussion of thebrain causes stupidity, loss of consciousness, amnesia, coma theintracranial lesion most often associated with concussion is ecchymosisand laceration on the surface of the brain, but there may be no lesionvisible even if the case is a fatal one fatal concussion has beenobserved where the marks of external violence were very slight or evenfailed entirely, as illustrated by the two following paper cited byvibert:608vibert made an autopsy on a man who had been struck by a pitchfork, one of the teeth of which struck behind the ear, the other two in theface, only producing slight skin wounds the man immediately lostconsciousness and died in two days in coma no lesion whatever wasfound within the skull, and only three slight ones externally he observed another case where the man fell three or four metresinto an excavation, landing on his feet, and died in a short time on autopsy only slight erosions and no intracranial or extracraniallesions were found this case belongs to a rare class where the blow is transmitted throughthe spinal column without sign of injury externally or internally tothe head the following case cited by vibert is even more remarkable in theproduction of the severe though not fatal concussion. An officerwas riding at full speed on horseback, when his horse suddenlystopped short by great exertion the officer clung to the horse, butimmediately lost consciousness his fall from the horse was broken bythose about him, and the concussion he received was not due to thefall, but to the shock of stopping suddenly when his momentum was great as a rule, however, the diagnosis of concussion, especially if it issevere enough to be fatal, is easily made by the marks of externalviolence with or without intracranial lesions the effects ofconcussion may be transient and leave no trace, but, on the otherhand, they may be prolonged and severe, i e , paralysis, aphasia, loss of memory, imbecility, etc the medical examiner should be onhis guard against simulation in respect to these prolonged effects ofconcussions one of the most frequent consequences of concussion istemporary amnesia, which ordinarily succeeds immediately after theinjury, but essaytimes develops more slowly the following curious caseis quoted from lutaud as cited by brouardel:a woman in getting out of a train at versailles, where she had goneto attend the funeral of a relative, was struck by the door of thecomwritingment she fell, but did not lose consciousness, and pickedherself up, but forgot what she had come for another result of an injury which has caused a contusion or contusedwound may be a fracture or dislocation fractures and dislocations ofspecial writings will be referred to later, in considering injuries of theseveral regions of the body, but it seems appropriate here to refer toessay of those general considerations relating to these injuries whichmay especially demand the attention of the medical expert fractures may be produced by blows or falls, or from muscular action the medical witness may be questioned as to the cause of the fractureor, if it was produced by a blow, whether a weapon was used or not, asthe defence is likely to assert that it was caused by an accidentalfall the nature of the associated wounds and contusions, if any exist, may, as we have seen, indicate the weapon used if anything exists toindicate that a fall which caused the fracture was not accidental, thisshould be noted, as the assailant is responsible for the effects of thefall a number of conditions influence the ease with which a fracture isproduced and account for a fracture being due to a slight injury, andso are mitigatory circumstances in the case fractures are more easily produced in the old and young, especiallythe former, than in the adult from the same force this is due tobrittleness of the bones in the old and their small size in theyoung certain diseases like syphilis, arthritis, scurvy, carcinoma, and rickets make the bones more frangible, and there is a peculiarbrittle condition of the bones known as fragilitas ossium, more orless hereditary, in which the bones become fractured from very slightviolence mercer is quoted by taylor as stating, but on how goodauthority it does not appear, that in general paralysis of the insanethe bones are writingicularly liable to fracture certain it is that notuncommonly insane patients are found dead with single or multiplefractures, but the attendants are generally convicted in essay writings, like the orbital plate of the frontal bone, the bone isvery thin and brittle, but brittleness from any cause only mitigates, it does not excuse taylor609 reports a case in point where it was proved that the bonesof the skull were thin and brittle, and the fractured skull provedfatal from inflammation of the brain the punishment was mitigatedowing to the circumstance of the brittleness of the bones spontaneous fractures may occur from only a moderate degree of muscularaction, and even where there is no disease of the bones, but theabove-mentioned condition of fragilitas ossium, rendering the bonesmore brittle, aids in the production of such fractures the olecranon, patella, and os calcis are writingicularly liable to such fractures, butthe long bones of the ribs and extremities are essaytimes so fractured, as instanced in the following paper cited by taylor:610the humerus of a healthy man has been broken by muscular exertionsimply by throwing a cricket ball 611 in 1858 a gentleman forty yearsold, during the act of bowling at cricket, heard a distinct crack likethe breaking of a piece of wood he fell immediately to the ground, andit was found that his femur was fractured again, in 1846, a healthy man, æt 33, was brought to gray hospitalwith the following history. He was in the act of crossing one leg overthe other to look at the sole of his foot, when essaything was heard togive way. His right leg hung down and he was found to have receiveda transverse fracture of the femur at the junction of the middle andlower thirds the writer had a case in bellevue hospital during the past winter 1892-93 of a man who stated that he had been well and active untilessay weeks previously, when, from muscular force alone, he sustained afracture of the neck of the femur essaything abnormal in the bone maybe present in such paper in paper of spontaneous fractures there are no marks of externalviolence which, if present, would remove the idea of spontaneity fractures of the extremities are not dangerous per se, unless theyare compound or occur in old, debilitated, or diseased persons, andthey are more severe the nearer they are to a joint the healing offractures is more rapid in the young than in the old and in the upperthan in the lower extremity it is not proven that adiposity of itselfimpedes union the question may be asked, how long before examination a given bone wasfractured as a rule, we can only say as to whether the injured personhas lived a long or short period since the injury, as the process ofrepair varies according to age and constitution no changes occur untileighteen to twenty-four hours, when lymph is exuded according tovillermé the callus is cartilaginous anywhere between the sixteenthand twenty-fifth days, it becomes ossified between three weeks andthree months, and it takes six to eight months to become like normalbone the question may also be asked. Has a bone ever been fractured?. The existence and situation of a fracture can often be recognizedlong after the accident, by the callus or slight unevenness due toprojection of the edges or ends of the fragments where the bone liesdeeply covered by soft writings, it is difficult and often impossible totell, long after union has taken place, whether or where a fracture hasoccurred the answering of this question may essaytimes be of importance inidentifying the dead, especially in the case of skeletons in thelatter instance by sawing the bone longitudinally we can tell by thethickness, irregularity, or structure of the bone tissue whether afracture existed, and if it were recent or old at the time of death dislocations call for a medico-legal investigation less often thanfractures they are less common in the old and where the bones arebrittle, when fracture occurs more readily they are seldom fatal perse, unless between the vertebræ or when compound they may occur fromdisease in the affected joint or even spontaneously the diagnosis ofa dislocation is easy until it has been reduced, and then it may leaveno trace except pain in and limitation of the motion of a joint besidesswelling and ecchymosis these effects are transient, and after theyhave disappeared it may be impossible to say whether a dislocation hasexisted on a living body, unless, as essaytimes occurs, especially inthe shoulder joint, there may be a temporary or permanent paralysisof a nerve and muscular atrophy after death, the existence of an olddislocation may often be recognized on dissection by scar tissue in andabout the capsule examination and description the examination of wounds or injuries in a case which is or may becomethe subject of a medico-legal investigation should be made withwritingicular care and exactness as the examination of the wounded person is to give most, and in essaypaper all, the information to the medical expert on which he isto base his testimony, it should be made with reference to all thepossibilities of the case the writingicular variety of wound as described in the foregoing sectionshould be noted, and any peculiarities as to its situation, shape, extent, length, breadth, depth, direction, and the writings involved besides these points, the condition of the edges of the wound, whetherswollen and ecchymotic, smooth and straight or dentated and irregular, and whether inverted or everted and gaping, are matters of importance the presence or absence of coagula and clots, the staining of thetissues with blood, the presence of ecchymosis and its comparative age, as shown by its color, should also be noted thesis of the above points help us in solving another problem, namely, the form of the instrument used this question will be discussedin a subsequent section, but the basis for our opinion is founded, of course, on an examination of the writingiculars of the wound thesolution of still another question which often arises and which willbe discussed in the next section, namely, whether a wound was producedbefore or after death, is based upon writingicular features of the woundsuch as the fluid or clotted condition of the blood on the surface, or ecchymosed in the tissues, also the amount of the hemorrhage ascompared to the vascularity of the writing as well as the greater or lessstaining of the tissues with blood, and the conditions of the edges, whether inverted or everted and whether or not retracted the questionas to whether a wound was directly, secondary or necessarily the causeof death, is determined, in writing at least, by examination of the wound in this connection we take note as to whether a wound has opened ordivided a large vein or artery or is situated in such a vascular writingas to be fatal from hemorrhage we also note whether death could havebeen due to shock from the situation of the wound, or whether aninflammation which was directly responsible for death was necessarilydue to the wound, as in case of a penetrating wound of the viscera, etc further, we note whether one of the thesis forms of wound diseasesfrom infection of the wound has complicated the case and caused deathin the case of a wound not otherwise necessarily fatal it may be addedthat often the necropsy aids us in the solution of the question as towhether the wound was the necessary and direct cause of death, byshowing a healthy or diseased condition of the viscera the question as to which of a number of injuries was first inflicted, also as to the relative position of the victim and assailant, can beanswered, if at all, only by an accurate and close examination of thewounds finally, the most important question of all, from a medico-legalstandpoint, namely, the distinction between homicidal, suicidal, andaccidental wounds, is decided or inferred from the characteristics ofthe wound after careful examination all the foregoing questions contribute to the solution of this themost important one the various questions referred to above will beconsidered at greater length in the subsequent sections they have beenmerely referred to in brief above, to show the various lines of thoughta medical examiner must have in mind in making an examination as to the act of examination itself, the physician should conductit in such a way as not to harm the wounded person often simpleinspection is the most that can be done, or the examination may haveto be deferred altogether until the physician in charge informs thecourt that an examination may be safely made it is often necessaryfor the expert to get information as to the original lesion from thephysician in charge if the wound has been a fatal one and if we arecalled in after death, we may examine the wound on the dead body withmuch more freedom here we may examine the depth, direction, etc , of apunctured wound by cutting down on a probe or director after carefulinspection of the wound we may examine it by palpation, and go on tothe dissection of the wound and the surrounding writings, tracing andnoting the various vessels, muscles, etc , involved in the wound, andlooking for the presence of any foreign body in the wound furthermore, if the cause of death be at all obscure, we should examinenot only the wound itself and the writings about the wound, but also, byan autopsy, all the cavities and organs of the body for death may havebeen due to natural causes in an organ not examined, if the examinationhas not included all, and the physician has to disprove it in examining at an autopsy the depth of a wound in reference to theinstrument which caused it, it should be borne in mind that the woundmay be deeper than the weapon owing to a depression of the surface bythe handle of the weapon this may appear especially marked in the caseof the movable viscera, as at the time of the accident the viscus mayhave been as near as possible to the surface, and at the examination asfar as possible from the surface, as in the case of a given coil of theintestines also the thorax when opened at autopsy enlarges or expandsa little, so that the measured depth of a wound may be greater than theweapon which caused it vibert612 mentions a case of a penetratingwound of the thorax involving the heart, where the measured depth ofthe wound was 0ᵐ 035 greater than the length of the instrument thismay also be accounted for by a depression or flattening of the thoraxby the blow, as in the case of soft writings it is often difficult in anexamination to measure accurately the depth of a wound, for one mayfind it hard to determine the precise end of a wound also, for exactmeasurement it is necessary to have the writings in the same position asat the time of the accident, and these writings are more or less displacedby the necessary dissection besides the examination of the wound there are other points theexamination of which may aid us in solving the problems presented by acase among these, the examination of the clothing or dress is perhapsthe most important this may indicate the weapon used in an incised orpunctured wound contused and lacerated wounds or fractures, etc , maybe produced without injuring the clothing blood, dirt, or grease onthe clothing may throw light on the case in self-inflicted wounds thewound in the clothing and that on the body may not and often do notcorrespond, as an intending suicide often a murderer rarely opensthe clothing to select the spot for the wound the wound in the dressis then added by a second blow not corresponding to the first in thisway we may essaytimes distinguish between a homicidal and suicidalwound, and thus remove a false suspicion of murder or show that a woundwas self-inflicted to conceal other crimes or to falsely impute it toanother the suspicion of homicide in accidental wounds may be clearedup by an examination of the dress, as in the following instance relatedby taylor:613a woman was found dead in bed with two indentations about the middleof the right parietal bone, a large superficial clot here and threeounces of clotted blood between the dura mater and skull, which latterwas fractured over an area of four inches no other cause of death wasfound the evidence brought out the facts that she had been knockeddown the evening before, about 7:30 o’clock, by a man accidentallyrunning into her she fell on the back of the head, was stunned, raisedup, and stimulated.

Hyoid bone intact but interview essay superiorthyroid cornua fractured at base 16 horteloup. Ann d’hygiène, 1873, xxxix , pp 408-416 - man founddead on essay leaves in a fountain at bottom of staircase. Skull andspine fractured the murderers stated that they had struck him on thehead with a crutch.

The referee of the council who is conducting an investigation of silver preparations asked me to inquire if you are willing interview essay to submit your evidence for the following claims which are made in your circulars for silvol. 1 how it is possible for the solution to be astringent, and at the same time nonirritant and noncoagulant?. 2 that intestinal irrigation with a silvol solution containing 10 to 15 grains to the pint is sufficiently bactericidal to “be used in the abortive treatment of such infectious processes as dysentery, cholera infantum, and colitis ” 3 what evidence have you as to the degree of antiseptic and germicidal power of silvol solutions?. 4 what evidence have you as to the degree of antiseptic and germicidal power of 5 per cent silvol ointment?. A reply to the above questions and any other information in regardto silvol will receive careful consideration -- from the journala m a , july 13, 1918 katharmon report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfollowing inquiries, the council took up “katharmon” for considerationand authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary the katharmon chemical company of st louis in advertising itskatharmon appeals especially to a profession whose members, shouldthey live up to their ethical code, could not prescribe it 124 in1893 when the publication of “a formula” for proprietary preparationswas thought to satisfy the requirements of scientific medicine anadvertisement in the journal of the american medical association gavethe following “formula” for katharmon:124 “ it is equally unethical to prescribe or dispense secretmedicines or other secret remedial agents, ” sec 6, art i, chapterii, principles of medical ethics “hydrastis canadensis, phytolacca decandra, acid salicylous c p from oil of wintergreen, acid boric c p , mentha arvensis, thymus vulgaris, dist ext hamamelis virg conc ”in 1907 an advertisement in the kansas city medical index-lancetdeclared that. “katharmon represents in chemical combination the active principles of hydrastis canadensis, gaultheria procumbens, hamamelis virginica, phytolacca decandra, mentha arvensis, thymus vulgaris, with two grains c p boric acid to each fluid drachm ”now the advertisements which appear in essay medical journals state. “katharmon represents in combination hydrastis canadensis, thymus vulgaris, mentha arvensis, phytolacca decandra, 10-1/2 grains acid borosalicylic, 24 grains sodium pyroborate to each fluid ounce of pure distilled extract of witch hazel ”a comparison of these so-called formulas shows that they have not onlyvaried from time to time, but that in no instance was a quantitativestatement with regard to all the asserted ingredients given the chemical laboratory of the a m a reports. Katharmon has analkaline reaction and therefore cannot contain boric acid, salicylicacid or “borosalicylic acid” the latter is unknown to medicalliterature except as loosely applied to a simple mixture of boric andsalicylic acids the solution gives tests for sodium, borate, andsalicylate and therefore probably contains sodium borate and sodiumsalicylate examined by the methods used for the determination ofhydrastin in goldenseal preparations, a residue giving only a fainttest for alkaloid was obtained. If present at all, hydrastis canadensis goldenseal is there only in very small amounts a circular wrapped with the trade package of katharmon contained thefollowing, palpably unwarranted, claims. “internally it is very useful in acute indigestion, gastric catarrh, diarrhoea and cholera infantum ” “ it has demonstrated its remarkable curative effects, not only in preventing unhealthy conditions of fresh wounds, but also in correcting the decaying of putrefactive processes peculiar to the body under certain circumstances it has, further, a remarkable efficacy in surface inflammations, whether produced by accident or disease, and is an indispensable remedy in the affections of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, stomach, bowels, vagina, uterus, urethra, bladder and rectum ”katharmon is in conflict with rules 1 and 4 of the council on pharmacyand chemistry because of its indefinite and secret composition andthe method of advertising it indirectly to the public. It is inconflict with rules 10, 6 and 8, in that it is an irrational shotgunmixture sold under unwarranted therapeutic claims and under a namenondescriptive of its composition -- from the journal a m a , aug 10, 1918 iodinized emulsion scott and creosotonic scott report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry“iodinized emulsion scott” and “creosotonic scott” are proprietarypreparations of the dawson pharmacal company, dawson springs, ky thelatter preparation used to be known as “iodinized emulsion scott withhypophosphites, guaiacol and creosote ” in 1907 these preparations wereconsidered by the council and found inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies examination of the preparations having been again requested, the council considered them anew because the composition and claimshad been changed essaywhat and because at the previous consideration noreport was published the reports which appear below were sent to the dawson pharmacalcompany for comment before publication in reply the company offered torevise its claims for the preparations the council replied that thereport sent explained that both preparations are irrational mixtures, and hence a revision of the claims would not make them eligible for newand nonofficial remedies it advised that publication of the reportwould be withheld sixty days and that it would be revised if newinformation or evidence was submitted permitting such revision afterexpiration of the stipulated postponement, the dawson pharmacal companywrote that no new advertising matter had been prepared, but that theold circulars were not being sent out as these irrational preparations were still sold and advertised to themedical profession and presumably used by essay physicians, the councildirected publication of its report with this explanation w a puckner, secretary iodinized emulsion scottthe label for iodinized emulsion scott declares. “each fluidram contains. Alcohol, m 4-3/4. Rectified ol of turpentine, m 3-1/2. Iodin, gr 1/8.

It is so singularly good forall sorts of hurts in the body, that none that know its usefulness willbe without it the truth is, i have known this herb cure essay diseases of saturn, ofwhich i thought good to quote one thesis times such as give themselvesmuch to drinking are troubled with strange fancies, strange sightsin the night time, and essay with voices, as also with the diseaseephialtes, or the mare i take the reason of this to be accordingto fernelius a melancholy vapour interview essay made thin by excessive drinkingstrong liquor, and, so flies up and disturbs the fancy, and breedsimaginations like itself, viz fearful and troubleessay those i haveknown cured by taking only two spoonfuls, of the syrup of this herbafter supper two hours, when you go to bed but whether this does itby sympathy, or antipathy, is essay doubt in astrology i know thereis great antipathy between saturn and venus in matter of procreation;yea, such a one, that the barrenness of saturn can be removed by nonebut venus!. nor the lust of venus be repelled by none but saturn. Buti am not of opinion this is done this way, and my reason is, becausethese vapours though in quality melancholy, yet by their flying upward, seem to be essaything aerial. Therefore i rather think it is done byantipathy. Saturn being exalted in libra, in the house of venus burnet it is called sanguisorbia, pimpinella, bipulo, solbegrella, &c the common garden burnet is so well known, that it needs nodescription - there is another sort which is wild, the descriptionwhereof take as follows.

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And certificates authorize their possessor to practisemedicine and, surgery 4 the certificate must be recorded in the office of the clerk of thecounty in which the holder resides within three months from its date, and the date of recording indorsed until recorded, the holder cannotlawfully exercise the rights and privileges conferred a personremoving to another county to practise must record his certificate inthe county to which he removes 5 examinations may be wholly or writingly in writing and shall be ofelementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test thequalifications of the candidate as a practitioner 8 the board may refuse to issue a certificate to a person guilty ofunprofessional interview essay or dishonorable conduct, and may revoke for like causes the applicant in case of a refusal or revocation may appeal to thegovernor and his decision will be final 9 definition - “practising medicine” is defined as treating, operatingon, or prescribing for any physical ailment of another the actdoes not prohibit services in case of emergency, nor the domesticadministration of family remedies, and does not apply to commissionedsurgeons of the united states army, navy, or marine hospital service inthe discharge of official duty 10 itinerant vender - an itinerant vender of drug, nostrum, ointment, orappliance intended for treatment of disease or injury, or professingby writing, printing, or other method to cure or treat disease ordeformity by drug, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient, must paya license fee of $100 per month into the treasury of the board theboard may issue such license selling without a license is punishableby fine of from $100 to $200 for each offence the board may for causerefuse a license 11 penalty - practising medicine or surgery without a certificate ispunishable by a forfeiture of $100 for the first offence, and $200 foreach subsequent offence. Filing or attempting to file as his own thecertificate of another, or a forged affidavit of identification, is afelony, punishable as forgery exceptions - the act saves for six months after its passage the rightof persons who have practised continuously for ten years in the stateprior to its passage, to receive a certificate under former act butall persons holding a certificate on account of ten years’ practice aresubject to all requirements and discipline of this act in regard totheir future conduct. All persons not having applied for or receivedcertificates within said six months, and all persons whose applicationshave for the causes named been rejected, or their certificates revoked, shall, if they practise medicine, be deemed guilty of practising inviolation of law 12 penalty - on conviction of the offence mentioned in the act, the courtmust, as a writing of the judgment, order the defendant to be committed tothe county jail until the fine and costs are paid 13 fees - to the secretary of the board, for each certificate to agraduate or licentiate, $5 2 for graduates or licentiates in midwifery, $2 2 to county clerk, usual fees for making record to treasury of board, for examination of non-graduates. $20, inmedicine and surgery. $10, in midwifery only if the applicant fails to pass, the fees are returned if he passes, acertificate issues without further charge 7 indiana qualification - it is unlawful to practise medicine, surgery, orobstetrics without a license act april 11th, 1885, s 1 the license is procured from the clerk of the circuit court of thecounty where the person resides or desires to locate to practise. Itauthorizes him to practise anywhere within the state. The applicantmust file with the clerk his affidavit stating that he has regularlygraduated in essay reputable medical college, and must exhibit to theclerk the diploma held by him, his affidavit, and the affidavit of tworeputable freeholders or householders of the county stating that theapplicant has resided and practised medicine, surgery, and obstetricsin the state continuously for ten years immediately preceding thedate of taking effect of this act, stating writingicularly the localityor localities in which he has practised during the said period, andthe date and length of time in each locality. Or his affidavit andthe affidavit of two reputable freeholders or householders of thecounty, stating that he has resided and practised medicine, surgery, and obstetrics in the state continuously for three years immediatelypreceding the taking effect of this act, and stating writingicularly thelocalities in which he practised during the said period, and the dateand length of time in each locality, and that he, prior to said date, attended one full course of lectures in essay reputable medical college the clerk must record the license and the name of the college in whichthe applicant graduated, and the date of his diploma 2, asamended by act march 9th, 1891 a license issued to a person who has not complied with the requirementsof sec 2, or one procured by any false affidavit, is void act april11, 1885, s 3 penalty - practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics without a licenseis a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $10 to $200 s 4 no cause of action lies in favor of any person as a physician, surgeon, or obstetrician who has not prior to the service procured a license;and money paid or property paid for such services to a person not solicensed, or the value thereof, may be recovered back 5 exemptions - women practising obstetrics are exempted from theprovisions of the act 4 fees - to clerk, for license, $1 50 act april 11th, 1885, as amendedact march 9th, 1891 registration - it is the duty of all physicians and accoucheurs toregister their name and post-office address with the clerk of thecircuit court of the county in which they reside act 1881, p 37, s 10 fees - to the clerk, for registration, 10 cents 11 iowa qualification - every person practising medicine, surgery, orobstetrics, in any of their dewritingments, if a graduate in medicine, must present his diploma to the state board of examiners forverification as to its genuineness if the diploma is found genuine, and is by a medical school legally organized and of good standing, which the board determines, and if the person presenting be theperson to whom it was originally granted, then the board must issuea certificate signed by not less than five physicians thereof, representing one or more physicians of the schools on the board sic, and such certificate is conclusive if not a graduate, aperson practising medicine or surgery, unless in continuous practice inthis state for not less than five years, of which he must present tothe board satisfactory evidence in the form of affidavits, must appearbefore the board for examination all examinations are in writing;all examination papers with the reports and action of examiners arepreserved as records of the board for five years the subjects ofexamination are anatomy, physiology, general chemistry, pathology, therapeutics, and the principles and practice of medicine, surgery, andobstetrics each applicant, upon receiving from the secretary of theboard an order for examination, receives also a confidential number, which he must place upon his examination papers so that, when thepapers are passed upon, the examiners may not know by what applicantthey were prepared upon each day of examination all candidates aregiven the same set or sets of questions the examination papersare marked on a scale of 100 the applicant must attain an averagedetermined by the board. If such examination is satisfactory to atleast five physicians of the board, representing the different schoolsof medicine on the board, the board must issue a certificate, whichentitles the lawful holder to all the rights and privileges in the actprovided laws 1886, c 104, s 1 the board receives applications through its secretary five physiciansof the board may act as an examining board in the absence of the fullboard.