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By laying compresses over the face, as in the caseof king benhadad, 927 whom hazael killed “and it came to pass on themorrow that he took a thick cloth and dipped it in water, and spreadit over his face so that he died. And hazael reigned in his stead ”benhadad was already quite ill and not expected to live death by suffocation928 may be considered as presumptive of homicideunless the facts are already referable to accident in infants, suffocation is, of course, either accidental or homicidal;in adults usually accidental the absence of signs of a strugglein adults suggests accident. Unless there is cause of suspicion ofprevious stupefying with narcotics taylor929 calls attention to a dangerous practice among essayattendants upon infants, of putting into the mouth of the child toquiet it a bag containing sugar. And instances a case in which thechild would have died of suffocation but for the fortunate discovery ofa writing of the bag protruding from the mouth in ten years, 3, 612 deaths were reported in the city of london, ofinfants smothered by being overlaid 930infants may be born into a mass of blood and fæces, from which theunattended mother in her weakness may be unable to remove them page931 shows by experiment that the inspiratory effort when violently exerted is sufficient to convey small objects into the air-passages cinders passed thus into the trachea and œsophagus of kittens and rabbits berenguier932 experimented on new-born pups, placing them in ashes, plaster, and starch in ashes they lived fifteen hours. These found their way into the middle of the œsophagus, but were stopped at the glottis plaster and starch formed a paste with the oral mucus and the movement of the mass was not so great as the ashes in no case did either of the materials pass beyond the glottis tardieu933 examined three infants which had been buried during life one was in ashes.

It is hot and dry in thesecond degree barks a pil rad of the roots of smallage take notice here, that the barksboth of this root, as also of parsley, fennel, &c is all of the rootwhich is in use, neither can it properly be interesting essay topics called bark, for it is allthe root, the hard pith in the middle excepted, which is always thrownaway, when the roots are used it is essaything hotter and drier thanparsley, and more medicinal. It opens stoppings, provokes urine, helpsdigestion, expels wind, and warms a cold stomach. Use them like grassroots avellanarum of hazel the rind of the tree provokes urine, breaksthe stone.

Alcohol by volume 7 0 per cent zinc zn 0 096 per cent iodin free and combined 0 029 per cent sulphate so₄--    0 146 per cent protein n × 6 36 0 012 per cent the above findings indicate that each 100 c c contains about 7 c c ofalcohol, 0 5 gram of zinc sulphate u s p znso₄7h₂o , 0 03 gramof iodin, 0 01 gram of protein calculated as such from nitrogen timesthe factor 6 36 and essay hamamelis water expressed in equivalentapothecary terms, each fluidounce contains essentially. Zinc sulphate 2-1/3 grains iodin free and combined 1/8 grain protein 1/25 grain alcohol 34 minimsthis amount of alcohol is equivalent to about 3-1/2 fluidrams of witchhazel water although the label states that each fluidounce containsthree grains of “proteo-albuminoid compound of iodine, ” yet the sum ofthe protein calculated from nitrogen content and iodin components isequivalent to less than 1/5 grain “national iodine solution” appears to be very similar to “gonocol” thenational drug co , philadelphia, pa , which was analyzed by the bureauof chemistry of the u s dewritingment of agriculture the bureau statedthat “it gonocol consisted essentially of an aqueous solution of zincsulphate, hamamelis water, a small amount of alcohol, 0 38 grain ofiodin, and 0 36 grain of protein per fluidounce ”it is evident that “national iodine solution” is not a solution offree elementary iodin as the name suggests. Instead it appears to bea solution of zinc sulphate in witch hazel water containing less than0 03 per cent of combined iodin and not more than a trace of freeiodin “national iodine solution” is one more to be added to thatalready long list of proprietaries which makes capital of the highesteem in which physicians hold iodin the claimsan advertising circular sent to physicians begins. “dear doctor. We beg to suggest a line of treatment while using national iodine solution which our thesis years of experience has proven to us to give the best and quickest results in the treatment of inflammation of the urethral tract ”in it are given directions for the treatment of “acute gonorrhea, male, ” “anterior urethritis, ” “anterior-posterior urethritis, ” “ardorurinæ and chordee, ” etc , by means of national iodine solution andother proprietaries of the national drug company make in fact thesolution is claimed to be “indicated in all conditions of urethraaccompanied by a discharge ” comment and conclusionsthe therapeutic claims made for “national iodine solution” areunwarranted such a solution is not indicated in all conditions of theurethra accompanied by discharge the advice contained in the circularis equivalent to mail-order treatment of gonorrhea it is of interest to note that the claims for an identical or asimilar solution prepared by the national drug company as a treatmentfor gonorrhea and intended for use by the laity, has been adjudgedmisbranded by the federal authorities notice of judgment no 8150, issued jan 25, 1921 in that it misled and deceived the purchaseror purchasers thereof in the statements regarding the therapeuticor curative effects of the article, which falsely and fraudulentlyrepresent it to be indicated in all conditions of the urethraaccompanied with a discharge, “whereas in truth and in fact it was not ”the council would emphasize that if physicians give heed to advertisingsuch as that sent out by the national drug company for this preparationthe medical profession cannot with good grace protest against theroutine treatment of venereal diseases by quacks and “patent medicine”venders -- from the journal a m a , june 4, 1921 mon-arsone not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary mon-arsone is offered by the harmer laboratories company as “a newand non-toxic arsenical for the treatment of syphilis ” in theadvertisements for mon-arsone it has been claimed that with thisdrug “the toxic, corrosive and uncertain reactions attending the useof arsphenamine have been entirely eliminated” and that “it has atherapeutic value equal to arsphenamine, but extensive case reportsfail to record the slightest toxic reaction following its use ”according to the manufacturers, mons-arsone is disodiumethylarsonate, the sodium salt of ethylarsonic acid, derived from arsenic acid byreplacement of one hydroxyl group by the ethyl group-- aso ch₂ch₃ oh₂ mons-arsone is related to sodium cacodylate, which is the sodium saltof dimethyl-arsenic acid-- aso ch₃₂oh-- derived from arsenic acid byreplacement of two hydroxyl groups by two methyl groups ethylarsonicacid and its potassium salt were described by la coste139 more thanthirty-five years ago, and the use of the sodium salt of methylarsonicacid was proposed in france essay years ago the harmer laboratoriescompany claims originality for mons-arsone in that it was the firstto prepare the sodium salt of ethylarsonic acid and to propose itstherapeutic use 139 la coste. Annalen der chemie liebig 208. 34 it was reported several years ago by castelli140 that sodiumcacodylate and the sodium salt of methyl arsenic acid were devoid ofeffect on experimental trypanosomiasis and spirochete infections careful clinical observations in this country by h j nichols141 andh n cole142 have demonstrated the inefficacy of sodium cacodylatein the treatment of human syphilis 140 castelli, g.

1 that the different tissuespresent interesting essay topics different resistances. 2 that the resistance in the sametissue varies greatly under different circumstances the tissue which offers the greatest resistance and also practicallythe greatest variation is the skin, or, more properly speaking, theepidermis the resistance of this is thesis times as great as that of therest of the body, and when perfectly dry it is impervious to currentsof great strength witz states that in using a ruhmkorf coil with anestimated force of 250, 000 volts in guinea-pigs and rabbits, it isadvisable to cut through the skin in order to apply the electrodesdirectly to the flesh, or, at least, to wet the skin thoroughly, otherwise the shock caused by the full strength of the battery sixjars charged from the coil would not cause death various animalsoffer rates of resistance which vary essaywhat apparently according tothe nature of the animal, but are probably largely dependent on theconducting power of its tissues, that is, of its skin the variationsbetween the resistance of similar animals, according to the conditionof the skin at the time of the experiment, are much greater than thosewhich are found between animals of different species under similarconditions, or which are referable to specific susceptibility mr harold p brown testified in the kemmler case court of appeals, stateof new york state of new york ex rel william kemmler againstcharles f durston, agent and warden that he had in the course of hisexperiments seen a horse weighing 1, 320 pounds, with a resistance of11, 000 ohms, killed by an alternating current at 700 volts the resistance of the different cutaneous surfaces of the human bodyas measured by jolly in siemens’ units was from 400, 000 down to 15, 000in the male and to 8, 000 in the female siemens’ unit is to the ohm as1 06 to 1 00 tschirfew and watteville made the resistance from 80, 000 to 3, 000 ohms experiments made at the edison phonograph factory and edison laboratoryin july, 1889, on 259 males between the ages of eleven and fifty-one, showed a resistance, measured between the hands immersed to the wristsin a solution of caustic potash independent of polarization, averaging986 ohms and varying from 1, 970 to 550 ohms the resistance of 236 men employed at messrs bergmann & co electrical works in new york appears to have averaged 1, 184 ohms andto have varied from 1, 870 to 610 ohms these measurements were alsotaken between the hands, which were washed with soap and water and thendipped in jars containing a solution of caustic potash the batteryconsisted of four chromic-acid cells each having an e m f of 2 volts as shown in all the experiments on animals and more especially in thepaper of electrocution, the continuance or duration of the current hasmuch effect on the resistance as the current continues the resistancediminishes thus in the case of mcelvaine the resistance between theimmersed hands was at the beginning 800 ohms and at the end of thecontact of fifty seconds had decreased to 516 ohms in this case, whenthe current of 1, 500 volts was applied from the forehead to the leg, the resistance was practically steady at only 214 ohms of course thesmall resistance in these paper electrocutions depends largely on theperfect contact secured according to the amount of resistance offered do the effects of severeshocks of electricity differ this is shown especially well in theaction of lightning, but is also true of powerful currents producedmechanically if the resistance of the skin be slight at the moment ofentering the circuit of a strong current, the current will pass throughit with comparative ease and without causing much injury. But if on theother hand the resistance is great, the current will be, as it were, momentarily retarded or stored, heat will be developed, and there willensue a burning and charring of the tissue of a special kind theseburns occur principally at the places where the current is speciallyresisted, that is, at the point of entrance of the current to the bodyand at its point of exit this is the cause of the frequent burns inthe heel or sole of the foot in the case of those struck by lightningwhile standing, as the electricity passes away from the body into theground and finds a strong resistance at the point of leaving the body this is also the cause of the burns where the current leaves the bodyfrom any other cause, as from the contact or proximity of a metallicobject the greater the resistance so long as the current passes, otherthings being equal, the more severe is the burn it is for this reasonthat in medical electricity we usually use wet sponges on the skin orelectrodes moistened with salt and water or with other fluids whichwill assist in rendering the passage of the electricity through theskin more easy solutions of chlorid of sodium and of certain othersalts do this the mechanical effects of currents vary thus according to theresistance encountered they also vary according to the intensity orconcentration of the current if a current of moderate force be appliedthrough a small metallic point, it will burn, pain, and produce activeirritative symptoms, while if the same amount be applied over a largesurface simultaneously, it may have little or no irritating effect wehave, therefore, three factors in determining the mechanical effect ofany electric current on the body. 1 the condition of the body, thatis, the amount of resistance which the current will encounter at itsentrance and exit. 2 the amount and intensity of the current. And 3the character of the current for practical purposes of the more severecurrents we have only to deal with the continuous and alternating symptoms direct symptoms the direct symptoms produced by powerful mechanical currents ofelectricity may be divided into three classes. I the mechanical. Ii the essential or internal. Iii the mental or psychical these classes are fairly distinct, but they are not absolute, andcertain symptoms are on the borders the most important mechanical symptoms produced by these currents areburns these occur at all points of strong resistance externally, hence especially at the points of entrance and dewritingure of thecurrent they vary from all grades, from the lightest possible, whereonly the fine hairs on the skin are singed, to those of extraordinarydepth and severity the characteristic burn from powerful currentsis, however, well distinguished it consists in a deep hole ofvarious shapes with clear-cut edges surrounded by an inflamed areaand containing in its cavity a mass of blackened tissue which onlyseparates from the portions below after several days, and causesa wound which, though not very painful, heals very slowly theseverity of electric burns is often at first sight underrated, andtheir duration, when severe, is unexpectedly long it occasionallyhappens that after a burn of this character appears nearly healed, thesurrounding and, in appearance, healthy tissue breaks down, perhapsunder a healthy skin, and a destructive process occurs which muchretards recovery this is evidently due to tissue destruction from astrong electric current of such a character as to produce necrobiosiswithout the external appearances of a burn these burns are, perhaps, oftenest seen on the hands, but this is only because these writings aremore likely to come into contact with the current they may occur inany portion of the body eyes - the injurious effect of electric light upon the eyes has beencarefully studied by several competent observers so far as known ithas been caused solely by the arc light the symptoms produced byexposure of the eyes for a considerable period to the electric lightmay be slight or severe in the slighter paper we find merely an acuteconjunctivitis with a slight central scotoma which passes off withintwenty-four to forty-eight hours the symptoms are those usual in acuteconjunctivitis photophobia, lachrymation, sensation of a foreign bodyunder the lids, discomfort in the eyes, and swelling of the lids inthe more severe paper all these symptoms are increased. The photophobiaand lachrymation may be intense there is essaytimes severe pain inthe supra-orbital nerve, and occasionally a tendency to somnolence in these paper we find an intense conjunctivitis with chymosis, acentral scotoma which may render the patient for the time practicallyblind, and on ophthalmoscopic examination a congestion of the vesselsof the retina and choroid, a neuro-retinitis, and essaytimes evenhemorrhages into the retina there is essaytimes peripapillary œdemaand infiltration around the optic nerve the pupil of the eye in thesepaper is usually much contracted there is essaytimes loss of epitheliumfrom the cornea in certain severe paper there is produced in addition to the eyesymptoms an erythema of the face bresse states that this erythema canbe produced on the face, arm, or hand by exposure to the voltaic arcat a distance of thirty to forty centimetres the blush grows deeperfor three or four hours, then remains stationary for a time, and endsin desquamation leaving a very durable pigmentation the erythema isaccompanied by a sensation of smarting the strength of the light and the length of time required to producethese effects probably vary essaywhat according to the color of thelight emrys jones states that he is informed that either excess ordefect of current gives a less injurious light than the normal current;the excess gives a more violet, the defect a more orange light on theother hand, charcot considered that the harmfulness of the electriclight was due at any rate in considerable writing to the chemical orviolet rays, and bresse found that when violet rays were added to anelectric light as by aluminium it was more injurious than before toanimals what writing the brilliancy of the light plays in determiningthe pathological results is not yet fully settled the heat, however, does not, as a rule, seem to have much effect unless in extraordinaryinstances where the cornea is burned muscular contractions - another effect of electricity which isexternally visible on the human system is muscular contraction slight muscular contractions are produced purposely in thesis paper inmedical treatment therapeutically or for the sake of diagnosis whenthe stimuli are sufficiently strong and follow each other with greatrapidity, or when a strong continuous current is passed through themuscles, they are brought into a state of continuous contraction ortetanus, and in this condition they will remain for a long periodor until the electric stimulus is removed in paper where a severeelectric shock is received as from an electric wire, the muscleswhich come in contact with the wire immediately contract and remaincontracted while the current continues to pass through them as aresult of this we often find that when a severe electric shock has beenreceived through the hands by means of a wire or other conductor thesufferer hands are involuntarily closed upon the wire or conductor, and cannot be unclosed by any voluntary effort until the current isstopped while thus holding the conductor the hands are often veryseverely burnt under these circumstances a strong force is required toremove a person from a charged wire if the current be not turned off, and it can only be done at a considerable risk unless by those expertand provided with special means not only the muscles immediately in contact with the conductor, butnearly all the voluntary muscles of the body may be thus affectedby a powerful current another effect of this involuntary muscularcontraction is the forcible muscular movements produced by the shock as previously stated, when a sufficiently strong shock occurs, thevoluntary muscles of the trunk and limbs may be thrown into suddencontraction in such a manner as to throw the person violently andforcibly on to the ground, or against essay object or objects in theneighborhood in this way one may be propelled several feet, and thesisvarieties of surgical injury may be caused rarely the force of thecontraction is such as of itself to rupture muscles or tendons, and itmight even fracture bones or dislocate joints already predisposed essential or internal symptoms we pass now to what we may consider the internal or essentialconditions of electric shock, leaving the mental or psychical resultsfor examination later when a person receives a severe electric shock, the symptoms areusually as follows. In the first place there may be little or nothingexcept a burn or burns, though usually there is essay sensation at themoment of the shock this may be a simple dizziness, and is oftenaccompanied by the sensation of a brilliant flash of light before theeyes, and essaytimes by a sense of impending danger usually, however, there is a loss of consciousness more or less complete and more orless lasting according to the severity of the shock and the characterand course of the current in the less severe paper this graduallypasses away, and in thesis paper the patient, although weak and feelingshaken and tired, suffers no further ill effects beyond those of theburns and mechanical injuries essaytimes there follows a general tremorwhich may last a few hours or for days, and occasionally a clonicrhythmical spasm of one or more extremities the loss of consciousnessmay, however, be accompanied or followed by a condition of collapse, in which the pale face, profuse perspiration, cold extremities, and feeble pulse all suggest the administration of stimulants andrestoratives as a rule, in the stage of unconsciousness the face isreddened and rather cyanotic the pupils are dilated as a rule and therespiration stertorous or absent. The pulse may be full or feeble, essaytimes imperceptible for a time the unconsciousness essaytimeslasts for hours, and all means of stimulation, electricity, artificialrespiration, rubbing, have to be applied before the patient can berestored essaytimes this condition is succeeded by delirium moyer ina certain number of paper the shock is immediately fatal, and in othersthe patients cannot be recalled from their unconsciousness the secondary results of the shock, aside from the injuries, may bevery slight or again may be serious and lasting they are far moreapt to be of the first class, and when long or continued motor orsensory changes unconnected with injuries follow, we are justifiedin suspecting mental or psychical phenomena one class of secondaryresults is the motor in addition to weakness, unsteadiness and tremorof the limbs and trunk, it is not uncommon for the patient to sufferfrom grand rhythmical movements, at first, perhaps, of all extremities, but soon limited to the extremity or extremities which were mostexposed or injured by the current we have personally seen thesemovements, and feel convinced that they can be distinguished from mostof the ordinary forms of convulsive motions and tremors the wholelimb is moved at once and not separate muscles, and the movement is alarge, rhythmical one, slow and co-ordinated, not at all suggestive oftremor movements of this character are essaytimes seen in so-calledfunctional disease hysteria and allied conditions they more nearlyresemble the movements seen in essay forms of jacksonian epilepsythan any others known to me as occurring in organic disease, but ibelieve them in these paper to be always strongly suggestive, if notabsolutely significant, of functional affections a case reported bydr robert, of el paso, well illustrates this condition the patient, a male, twenty-eight years old, received a shock through a telephonewire when seen first, reaction was slowly taking place, the entiremuscular system was in clonic convulsions temperature 97°. Pulserapid and of low tension. Respiration 50. No cerebral symptoms anhour later the movements were limited to the left upper and the rightlower extremities, and there was pain running from the region of thespine down the left arm twenty-four hours after the shock, temperature99 5°. Respiration 40. Pulse 100 had slept well, but the movements inthe left arm had never ceased the next day these motions were limitedto the muscles of the forearm, and on the fourth day they had whollyceased these convulsions consisted in extensive motions of the wholeextremity or of muscles or muscle-groups, and not of simple tremor ifthe movements were forcibly controlled, severe pain ensued next to the motor symptoms the sensory are the most important painnot infrequently occurs after the recovery of consciousness in theaffected limb. It is apt to be sharp, severe, darting and neuralgicin character this may last at intervals for essay days, a dull acheoccurring at first between the intermissions it disappears of itselfin time without lasting effects hyperæsthesia may exist at first should this continue, or ifanæsthesia not due to secondary traumatic conditions should appearlater, we should be inclined to place these symptoms in the third class of other symptoms occurring in accidents from currents of highpotential, those which seem to be due to the direct action of theelectricity are not serious buzzing in the ears and a metallic tastein the mouth often occur at the very beginning before the consciousnessis involved nausea and vomiting frequently occur later there isoften considerable dizziness and vertigo patients essaytimes complainof sensations as of an electric shock running through the body whichoccur without cause essay hours or even days after the real shock essayof these sensations are certainly to be reckoned under the mental orpsychical symptoms susceptibility to the effects of electricity, oflightning, and of thunder-storms, though undoubtedly in thesis paperpsychical, has probably in essay paper an actual foundation this iscertainly the case in lightning stroke on the other hand, in the largemajority of paper of electric accidents no such result follows, and inthesis we are expressly told that such a result was looked for but notfound the temperature, as affected by the electricity alone and not assecondary result of injuries, is not always easy to determine it seemsto be in most paper lowered at first, being in that of moyer 97 5° andin that of robert 97° later it may rise to a certain extent, usuallyto not more than 101°, but here again the influence of traumata isdifficult to separate the pulse may be full and soft or weak and compressible it isfrequently very feeble, essaytimes almost imperceptible, and oftenrapid it is apt to remain rapid and essaywhat soft for days in severepaper the respiration is at first rapid in severe paper unless the shock beso great as to cause its cessation this rapidity remains for a varyingperiod and then disappears as a typical case of the results of shock from an electric wire, wewill mention the one reported by dr f w jackson the patient, aman twenty-two years old, came in contact with a live electric-lightwire, touching it with his hands he was thrown a distance of aboutten feet and then back again, “swinging back and forth two or threetimes ” his hands were in contact with the wire about three minutes, when the current broke and he fell to the ground unconscious was seentwo hours later by physician temperature 100°.

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And now when he emerges and offers this work to the world, you can think of nothing to do but jeer at him i spent two weeks in his clinic. Then i took six months to write tohis physicians all over the country, and to experiment with hiscures on a great number of my friends italics again ours -- ed now i am spending another two weeks in his clinic, and i venture tostake whatever reputation i have, or hope to have in this world, uponthe statement that albert abrams has discovered the great secret ofthe diagnosis and cure of all the major disease again we mustitalicize -- ed he has proven by diagnosing with the taps of hisown sensitive finger tips over 15, 000 people, and my investigationconvinces me that he has cured over 95 per cent of these who havetaken his treatments moreover, he has taught his method to 200 or 300other physicians, and essay 80 per cent of these have submitted to meanswers to a questionnaire in which they claim thousands of cures you may say, perhaps, that i am not competent to judge of cures for the sake of argument, i will grant that. But i assert that i amcompetent to judge of physicians, for i have tested several score ofthem, and if i ever knew a devoted scientist and a great humanitarian, it is albert abrams in his clinic i have met perhaps a hundredphysicians, and i venture to assert that a number of these are menboth of integrity and capacity, and when i asked them why they came, igot invariably one answer. “because i sent him blood specimens and ifound that invariably he sent me a correct diagnosis ” not once, but atleast two score times, i have seen albert abrams take a blood specimenbrought to him, without even the name of the patient, and heard himdiagnose cancer or sarcoma, and from the blood specimen locate thegrowth precisely to an inch italics fail one here!. -- ed then i haveseen the patient, an entire stranger to abrams, brought into the clinicand examined, not merely by abrams, but by a score of other physicians, and the growth found precisely at the spot indicated this was donetwice between the time when this letter was dictated and the time whenit was transcribed three times, yesterday, i saw a diagnosis made ofsyphilis and the patient brought in, and all the standard reactionsdemonstrated i have seen, not once, but hundreds of times, tubercularlesions diagnosed and located from the blood specimen and the patientbrought in and the condition demonstrated by percussion all thesethings are going on day after day they are being done in otherclinics in several score of cities, and you may have the addresses forthe asking why do you not ask?. we have essay such addresses in thepropaganda files -- ed the economic elementi take up the second criticism, that albert abrams is mercenary hecharges $200 00 for the clinical course, which may last as long asthe physician wishes it seems to me that that price is to be judgedessaywhat in relation to what he has to teach he maintains a largeestablishment.