History

Illustrative Essay Topics


no one, under such conditions, would have had any dealingswith mundane medical science it is true, there have been times whensuch a state of things actually existed the physician, with hisearthly appliances, was always led astray as soon as metaphysical ideashad victoriously entered pathology history affords numerous examplesof this the cult of relics, the belief in astrology during half of themiddle ages, show plainly to what a degrading position the physicianwas reduced as soon as a pathology reckoning with earthly factors wasreplaced by a metaphysical theory of disease then the physician waseither completely thrust aside ἀλλ’ ὠθεῖται μὲν ἒξω νοσοῦντος ὁἰατρός, as says plutarch “superstition, ” vol i , page 412 or hewas forced to submit to a disgraceful interference all schools ofmedicine, therefore, from the humoral pathology of the followers ofhippocrates to the so-called parasitism of the nineteenth century, have avoided as much as possible the acknowledgment that supernaturalinfluences were active as pathological factors various as theprinciples of the countless medical schools may have been, they wereall united in assuming as the starting-point of their speculations essaymaterial process of the body itself, in accordance with which theyapplied their therapeutic agencies essaytimes, it is true, it would seem as tho medicine, under essaycircumstances, had recourse to supernatural factors in explainingvarious phenomena of physiological as well as pathological conditions;as, for instance, in the primeval pneuma-doctrine, or in thoseconceptions which attribute to a mental or psychical principle afar-reaching influence upon the performance of all bodily functions upon closer investigation, however, we shall find that the pneuma, or spirit, the soul, or whatever else the mysterious mainspringof all phenomena of life may be called, was by no means conceivedof by medicine as immaterial or supernatural on the contrary!. Medicine, as often as it required a spiritual essaything to explainthe manifestations of the body, has always regarded this unknownquantity as thoroughly substantial it has not, indeed, been possibleto determine more precisely the material nature of this great unknown, altho such attempts are by no means wanting in democritus, galen, andothers. Still it was always considered a corporeal thing supernaturalqualities were ascribed to it only after death, but so long as the soulanimated the body, united with the latter, it was a terrestrial being, and as such obeyed the laws of terrestrial substance it was possiblefor medical science, therefore, to reckon with it in the explanationof pathological processes without necessarily expecting a reproach thatsupernatural agencies were called in for assistance medicine, therefore, altho it has traveled the samediagnostico-theoretical road as natural science, has not, like thelatter, directly produced superstition it is true, it has calledforth innumerable erroneous hypotheses but a wrong hypothesis, althoit may be nonsensical to the utmost and give rise to the most seriouspractical consequences, is by no means superstition. For both errorand superstition so far as it is a question of medical matters are tworadically different conceptions, because the former concerns itselfonly with natural, the latter with supernatural factors yet it is quite conceivable that the dissemination of an intellectualprinciple can be furthered and promoted without overt advocacy of theprinciple itself, and this was the relation that existed for thousandsof years between medicine and superstition.

The last time by fastening a portion of her dress to aladder she was quickly cut down, cold affusion applied, and artificialrespiration sylvester the eyes illustrative essay topics were prominent and glassy, pupilswidely dilated, no reaction to light. Conjunctivæ insensitive. Lipslivid. Tongue swollen and pale. Face pale. Oblique depressed mark onneck, most marked on left side. Skin cold. No pulse. No heart-beatrecognizable. No respiration.

Andapplied to women breasts stays the overmuch flowing of the courses the juice or decoction of the herb gargled between the teeth that ach, eases the pain, and the powder of the dried root laid upon any aching, hollow or loose tooth, will cause it to fall out the juice mixed withessay powder of brimstone is not only good against the itch, but takesaway all discolourings of the skin whatsoever. And if it chance that ina tender body it causes any itchings or inflammations, by bathing theplace with a little vinegar it is helped another ill-favoured trick have physicians got to use to the eye, andthat is worse than the needle. Which is to take away the films bycorroding or gnawing medicine that i absolutely protest against 1 because the tunicles of the eyes are very thin, and therefore sooneaten asunder 2 the callus or film that they would eat away, is seldom of an equalthickness in every place, and then the tunicle may be eaten asunder inone place, before the film be consumed in another, and so be a readierway to extinguish the sight than to restore it it is called chelidonium, from the greek word chelidon, whichsignifies a swallow. Because they say, that if you put out the eyes ofyoung swallows when they are in the nest, the old ones will recovertheir eyes again with this herb this i am confident, for i have triedit, that if we mar the very apple of their eyes with a needle, she willrecover them again. But whether with this herb or not, i know not also i have read and it seems to be essaywhat probable that the herb, being gathered as i shewed before, and the elements draw awriting from itby art of the alchymist, and after they are drawn awriting rectified, theearthly quality, still in rectifying them, added to the terra damnata as alchymists call it or terra sacratisima as essay philosopherscall it the elements so rectified are sufficient for the cure of alldiseases, the humours offending being known and the contrary elementgiven. It is an experiment worth the trying, and can do no harm the lesser celandine, usually known by the name of pilewort and fogwort i wonder what ailed the ancients to give this the name celandine, which resembles it neather in nature nor form. It acquired the name ofpilewort from its virtues, and it being no great matter where i set itdown, so i set it down at all, i humoured dr tradition so much, as toset him down here descript this celandine or pilewort which you please doth spreadthesis round pale green leaves, set on weak and trailing branches whichlie upon the ground, and are flat, smooth, and essaywhat shining, and inessay places though seldom marked with black spots, each standing on along foot-stalk, among which rise small yellow flowers, consisting ofnine or ten small narrow leaves, upon slender foot-stalks, very likeunto crowsfoot, whereunto the seed also is not unlike being thesis smallkernels like a grain of corn essaytimes twice as long as others, of awhitish colour, with fibres at the end of them place it grows for the most writing in moist corners of fields andplaces that are near water sides, yet will abide in drier ground ifthey be a little shady time it flowers betimes, about march or april, is quite gone bymay. So it cannot be found till it spring again government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars, and beholdhere another verification of the learning of the ancients, viz thatthe virtue of an herb may be known by its signature, as plainly appearsin this. For if you dig up the root of it, you shall perceive theperfect image of the disease which they commonly call the piles it iscertain by good experience, that the decoction of the leaves and rootswonderfully helps piles and hæmorrhoids, also kernels by the ears andthroat, called the king evil, or any other hard wens or tumours here another secret for my countrymen and women, a couple of themtogether.

It stopsfluxes, provokes the menses, brings illustrative essay topics away both birth and after-birth, softens the hardness of the womb. Being taken two hours before thefit comes, it helps agues mathiolus saith he seldom used any othermedicine for the quartan ague than a dram of myrrh given in muskadelan hour before the fit usually came. If you make it up into pills withtreacle, and take one of them every morning fasting, it is a sovereignpreservative against the pestilence, against the poison of serpents, and other venomous beasts. A singular remedy for a stinking breath ifit arise from putrefaction of the stomach, it fastens loose teeth, andstays the shedding off of the hair, outwardly used it breeds flesh indeep wounds, and covers the naked bones with flesh olibanum is hot in the second degree, and dry in the first, you maytake a dram of it at a time, it stops looseness and the running ofthe reins. It strengthens the memory exceedingly, comforts the heart, expels sadness and melancholy, strengthens the heart, helps coughs, rheums and pleurises. Your best way in my opinion, to take it is tomix it with conserve of roses, and take it in the morning fasting tachamacha is seldom taken inwardly, outwardly spread upon leather, and applied to the navel. It stays the fits of the mother, applied tothe side, it mitigates speedily, and in little time quite takes awaythe pain and windiness of the spleen. The truth is, whatsoever acheor swelling proceeds of wind or cold raw humours, i know no betterplaister coming from beyond sea than this gum it strengthens thebrain and memory exceedingly, and stops all such defluctions thence astrouble the eyes, ears, or teeth, it helps the gout and sciatica gum coopal, and gum anime, are very like one another both in body andoperation, the former is hard to come by, the last not very easy itstops defluctions from the head, if you perfume your cap with the smokeof it, it helps the headache and megrim, strengthens the brain, andtherefore the sinews gum tragaganth, which the vulgar call gum dragon, being mixed withpectoral syrups, which you shall find noted in their proper placesit helps coughs and hoarseness, salt and sharp distillations upon thelungs, being taken with a liquorice stick, being dissolved in sweetwine, it helps being drank gnawing in the bowels, sharpness andfreetings of the urine, which causes excoriations either in the reinsor bladder, being dissolved in milk and the eyes washed with it, ittakes away weals and scabs that grow on the eyelids, it is excellentlygood to be put in poultice to fodder wounds, especially if the nervesor sinews be hurt sagapen, dissolved in juice of rue and taken, wonderfully breaks thestone in the bladder, expels the dead child and afterbirth, clearsthe sight. Dissolved in wine and drank, it helps the cough, anddistillation upon the lungs, and the fits of the mother.

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After which come blackheads, as in others the root is small and thready, and smells, as thewhole plant, very strong, almost stinking place this grows frequently every where by the way-sides, uponditch banks and waste grounds wheresoever one goes time it flowers in june and july chiefly, and the seed is ripeshortly after government and virtues it is under the dominion of venus herbrobert is commended not only against the stone, but to stay blood, where or howsoever flowing, it speedily heals all green wounds, andis effectual in old ulcers in the privy writings, or elsewhere you maypersuade yourself this is true, and also conceive a good reason for it, do but consider it is an herb of venus, for all it hath a man name herb true-love, or one-berry descript ordinary herb true-love has a small creeping root runningunder the uppermost crust of the ground, essaywhat like couch grassroot, but not so white, shooting forth stalks with leaves, essay whereofcarry no berries, the others do. Every stalk smooth without joints, and blackish green, rising about half a foot high, if it bear berries, otherwise seldom so high, bearing at the top four leaves set directlyone against another, in manner of a cross or ribband tied as it iscalled in a true-loves knot, which are each of them awriting essaywhatlike unto a night-shade leaf, but essaywhat broader, having essaytimesthree leaves, essaytimes five, essaytimes six, and those essaytimesgreater than in others, in the middle of the four leaves rise up onesmall slender stalk, about an inch high, bearing at the tops thereofone flower spread open like a star, consisting of four small and longnarrow pointed leaves of a yellowish green colour, and four otherslying between them lesser than they. In the middle whereof standsa round dark purplish button or head, compassed about with eightsmall yellow mealy threads with three colours, making it the moreconspicuous, and lovely to behold this button or head in the middle, when the other leaves are withered, becomes a blackish purple berry, full of juice, of the bigness of a reasonable grape, having within itthesis white seeds the whole plant is without any manifest taste place it grows in woods and copses, and essaytimes in the corners orborders of fields, and waste grounds in very thesis places of this land, and abundantly in the woods, copses, and other places about chislehurstand maidstone in kent time they spring up in the middle of april or may, and are inflower soon after the berries are ripe in the end of may, and in essayplaces in june government and virtues venus owns it. The leaves or berries hereofare effectual to expel poison of all sorts, especially that of theaconites. As also, the plague, and other pestilential disorders;matthiolus saith, that essay that have lain long in a lingeringsickness, and others that by witchcraft as it was thought were becomehalf foolish, by taking a dram of the seeds or berries hereof inpowder every day for 20 days together, were restored to their formerhealth the roots in powder taken in wine eases the pains of the cholicspeedily the leaves are very effectual as well for green wounds, as tocleanse and heal up filthy old sores and ulcers. And is very powerfulto discuss all tumours and swellings in the privy writings, the groin, orin any writing of the body, and speedily to allay all inflammations thejuice of the leaves applied to felons, or those nails of the hands ortoes that have imposthumes or sores gathered together at the roots ofthem, heals them in a short space the herb is not to be described forthe premises, but is fit to be nourished in every good woman garden hyssop hyssop is so well known to be an inhabitant in every garden, that itwill save me labour in writing a description thereof the virtues areas follow government and virtues the herb is jupiter, and the sign cancer it strengthens all the writings of the body under cancer and jupiter;which what they may be, is found amply described in my astrologicaljudgment of diseases dioscorides saith, that hyssop boiled withrue and honey, and drank, helps those that are troubled with coughs, shortness of breath, wheezing and rheumatic distillation upon thelungs. Taken also with oxymel, it purges gross humours by stool. Andwith honey, kills worms in the belly. And with fresh and new figsbruised, helps to loosen the belly, and more forcibly if the root offlower-de-luce and cresses be added thereto it amends and cherishesthe native colour of the body, spoiled by the yellow jaundice. Andbeing taken with figs and nitre, helps the dropsy and spleen. Beingboiled with wine, it is good to wash inflammations, and takes away theblack and blue spots and marks that come by strokes, bruises, or falls, being applied with warm water it is an excellent medicine for thequinsy, or swellings in the throat, to wash and gargle it, being boiledin figs.