History

Illustration Essay Definition


Fifteen minutes later, an illustration essay definition effort at respiration. Facechanging from blue to white and then to red. Pulse small, irregular;still unconscious. Mark of ligature distinct.

Of ripe oil, and illustration essay definition the roots of elecampane bruised, and their juice, of each one writing, and of generous wine half a writing, which is to be evaporated away oil of euphorbium. Of six drams of euphorbium, oil of wall-flowers, and sweet wine, of each five ounces, boiling it in a double vessel tillthe wine be consumed oil of ants. Of winged ants infused in four times their weight ofsweet oil, set in the sun in a glass forty days, and then strain it out oil, or balsam of st john wort simple, is made of the oil of seedsbeaten and pressed, and the flowers being added, and rightly set in thesun oil of jesmine, is made of the flowers of jesmine, put in clear oil, and set in the sun and afterwards pressed out oil of orris, made of the roots of orris florentine one pound, purple orris flowers half a pound. Boil them in a double vessel in asufficient quantity of decoction of orris florentine, and six pounds ofsweet oil, putting fresh roots and flowers again and again. The formerbeing cast away as in oil of roses oil of earthworms, is made of half a pound of earthworms washed inwhite wine, ripe oil two pounds, boiled in a double vessel with eightounces of good white wine till the wine be consumed oil of marjoram, is made with four ounces of the herb a littlebruised, white wine six ounces, ripe oil a pound, mixed together, letthem be set in the sun repeated three times. At last boiled to theconsumption of the wine oil of mastich, is made of oil of roses omphacine one pound, mastichthree ounces, wine four ounces. Boil them in a double vessel to theconsumption of the wine oil of melilot is made with the tops of the herb like oil of chamomel oil of mints is made of the herb and oil omphacine, as oil of roses oil of mirtles, is made of mirtle berries bruised and sprinkled withsharp wine one writing, oil omphacine three writings. Set it in the suntwenty-four days, and in the interim thrice renewed, boiled, and theberries pressed out oil of daffodils is made as oil of roses nard oil is made of three ounces of spikenard, sweet oil one pound andan half, sweet white wine and clear water, of each two ounces and anhalf, boiled to the consumption of the moisture oil of water-lilies, is made of fresh white water-lily flowers, onewriting, oil omphacine three writings, repeating the flowers as in oil ofroses oil of tobacco is made of the juice of tobacco, and common oil, of eachequal writings boiled in a bath oil of poppies, is made of the flowers, heads, and leaves of gardenpoppies, and oil omphacine, as oil of dill oil of poplars, is made of the buds of the poplar tree three writings, rich white wine four writings, sweet oil seven writings. First let the budsbe bruised, then infused in the wine and oil seven days, then boiled, then pressed out oil of rue, is made of the herb bruised, and ripe oil, like oil ofroses oil of savin is made in the same manner so also is oil of elder flowers made oil of scorpions, is made of thirty live scorpions, caught when the sunis in the lion. Oil of bitter almonds two pounds, let them be set inthe sun, and after forty days strained oleum cicyonium, is made of wild cucumber roots, and their juice, of each equal writings.

But such certificate shall notbe granted until the person making such application shall have givenevidence of qualification by undergoing an examination or otherwise, as the statutes of the university require, and the applicant shall inall other respects first comply with the rules and regulations of theuniversity in that behalf 68 homœopathists - until a homœopathic medical college for teachingpurposes is established in manitoba, in the case of candidates wishingto be registered as homœopathists, the full time of attendance uponlectures and hospitals required by the university statutes may be spentin such homœopathic medical colleges in the united states or europe asmay be recognized by the university of manitoba 69 every candidate who at the time of his examination signifies hiswish to be registered as a homœopathic practitioner shall not berequired to pass an examination in materia medica or therapeutics, ortheory or practice of physic, or in surgery or midwifery, except theoperative practical writings thereof, before any examiners other thanthose homœopathic examiners who shall be appointed by the university ofmanitoba 70 unlawful practices - to wilfully procure or attempt to procureregistration by false or fraudulent representation or declaration, ispunishable by a penalty not exceeding $100 to knowingly aid or assisttherein, is punishable by a penalty of from $20 to $50 for each offence73 persons not registered, for hire, gain, or the hope of reward, practising or professing to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, or advertising to give advice in medicine, surgery, or midwifery, areliable to a penalty of from $25 to $100 74 a person wilfully or falsely pretending to be a physician, doctorof medicine, surgeon, or general practitioner, or assuming a title, addition, or description other than he actually possesses and islegally entitled to, is liable to a penalty of from $10 to $50 s 75 for a person to assume a title calculated to lead people to infer thathe is registered, or is recognized by law as a physician, surgeon, or accoucheur or a licentiate in medicine, surgery, or midwifery, ispunishable with a penalty of from $25 to $100 76 on prosecution, costs may be awarded in addition to the penalty, andthe offender may be committed to the common jail for one month, unlessthe penalty and costs are sooner paid 78 prosecutor - any person may be prosecutor or complainant under the act80 limitations - prosecutions are limited to commence within six monthsafter the date of the offence 81 appeal - a person convicted under this act, giving notice of appeal, must before being released give satisfactory security for the penaltyand costs of conviction and appeal 82 stay - the council may stay proceedings in prosecutions 84 fees - the council is authorized to determine by by-law an annual fee, which is required to be paid by each member of the college the fee canbe not less than $2, nor more than $5, is payable on january 1st, andmay be recovered as a debt by the college 32 the fee for registration is subject to regulation by the council33 new brunswick medical society - all persons registered under the act constitute thenew brunswick medical society act 1881, c 19, s 2 council - there is a medical council called the council of physiciansand surgeons of new brunswick, of nine legally qualified medicalpractitioners, of not less than seven years’ standing. Four arenominated and appointed by the governor in council, and five by the newbrunswick medical society 3, 5 the secretary of the council is the registrar 7 register, evidence - the registrar is required before may 1st annuallyto print and publish in the royal gazette of the province, and suchother manner as the council shall appoint, a correct register of thenames and residences and medical titles, diplomas, and qualificationsconferred by any college or body, with the dates thereof, of allpersons appearing on the register on the 1st of january the registeris called the medical register. A copy for the time being purporting tobe so printed and published, or a certificate signed by the presidentof the council, and attested by the registrar with the corporate sealof the council, is prima facie evidence that the persons thereinspecified are registered and qualified. The absence of a name from suchcopy or the want of such certificate is prima facie evidence thatsuch person is not registered if a name does not appear on the copy, acertified copy, under the hand of the registrar of the council, of theentry of a name on the register is evidence of registration s 8 entrance upon study - a person beginning or entering on the studyof physic, surgery, or midwifery, for the purpose of qualifying topractise in the province, must have obtained from the council acertificate that he has satisfactorily passed a matriculation orpreliminary examination in the subjects enumerated in the act, unlesshe has passed a matriculation examination for the medical course inarts and science at essay college in great britain, ireland, canada, theunited states of america, or the continent of europe 10 the act prescribes formalities for admission to such preliminaryexamination 10 qualification - subject to the exceptions hereinafter, no personcan lawfully practise physic, surgery, or midwifery unless he beregistered, or unless he shall have received from the council a licenseto practise 11 no person is entitled to registration or license unless he shallsatisfy the council that he has passed a matriculation or preliminaryexamination. That after passing such examination he has followed hisstudies for not less than four years, one of which may be under thedirection of one or more general practitioners duly licensed. Thatduring such four years he has attended at essay university, college, or incorporated school of medicine in good standing, courses oflectures amounting together to not less than twelve months on generalanatomy, on practical anatomy, on surgery, on practice of medicine, on midwifery, on chemistry, on materia medica and pharmacy, and onthe institutes of medicine or physic, and one three-months’ courseof medical jurisprudence. That he has attended the general practiceof an hospital in which are not less than fifty beds under the chargeof not less than two physicians or surgeons, for not less than oneyear or two periods of not less than six months each. That he hasalso attended two three-months’ courses or one six-months’ course ofclinical medicine, the same of clinical surgery. That he has, after anexamination in the subjects of the course, obtained a degree or diplomafrom such university, college, or incorporated medical school if suchinstitution require a four-years’ course for its diploma, or for thewant of such degree or diploma that he has satisfactorily passed anexamination in the various branches hereinbefore specified before theexaminers appointed by the council. That he is not less than twenty-oneyears of age. That he has paid to the registrar of the council a feeof ten dollars the council has power, subject to the approval ofthe governor in council, to make alterations as may be required inthe foregoing curriculum if any person apply for registration as apractitioner of any system of medicine, the registered practitioners ofthat system have the right to appoint an examiner or examiners on thesubjects peculiar to that system, viz , materia medica, pharmacy, andtherapeutics, and if they neglect so to do the council has the power toappoint such examiner or examiners 12 the last preceding section does not apply to persons in actual practiceentitled to register under sec 38 any person producing to the councilconclusive evidence that he has passed a matriculation or a preliminaryexamination, as required by this act for persons beginning medicalstudies in new brunswick, that he has before graduating or taking adiploma studied at least four years as provided in sec 12, or pursuedwhat the council deem an equivalent course of study and has passed afinal examination in the subjects of such course, or, for the want ofsuch requirement, shall have fulfilled such conditions as the councilmay determine, and shall pay a fee of ten dollars, shall be entitled toregistration and to receive a license to practise 13 the act makes special provision for residents of the province who beganstudy before january 1st, 1881 14, as amended 1882, c 30, s 1 duties of council - the council is empowered and required to regulatethe study of medicine, surgery, and midwifery, with regard topreliminary qualifications, course of study, final examination, and theevidence to be produced before the council. To appoint a registrationcommittee. To examine all degrees, diplomas, licenses, and othercredentials presented or given in evidence under the act to enable theowner to practise in new brunswick, and to oblige the owner to atteston oath or affirmation that he is the person whose name is mentionedtherein, and that he became possessed thereof properly and honestly;to cause every member of the profession practising in new brunswick toregister his name, age, place of residence, place of nativity, dateof license or diploma, and the place where he obtained it. To appointmedical examiners, who may be members of the council, to hold finalexaminations, who shall be regularly qualified practitioners of notless than five years’ professional standing and three years’ residencein the province 15, as amended 1882, c 30, s 2, 3 correction of register - the registrar is required to erase the namesof all registered persons who shall have died, left the provincewithout the intention of returning, or ceased to practise for fiveyears.

They are dull witted, my herb shallfortify their apprehensions. And yet among astrologers all this doesnot deserve a good word. Oh the patience of mars!. felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere caucas, inque domus superum scandere cura facit o happy he that can the knowledge gain, to know the eternal god made nought in vain to this i add, i know the reason causeth such a dearth of knowledge. ’tis because men love the earth the other day mars told me he met with venus, and he asked her, whatwas the reason that she accused him for abusing women?. he never gavethem the pox in the dispute they fell out, and in anger writinged, andmars told me that his brother saturn told him, that an antivenereanmedicine was the best against the pox once a month he meets with themoon mars is quick enough of speech, and the moon not much behindhand, neither are most women the moon looks much after children, andchildren are much troubled with the worms. She desired a medicine ofhim, he bid her take his own herb, wormwood he had no sooner writingedwith the moon, but he met with venus, and she was as drunk as a hog;alas!. poor venus, quoth he. What!. thou a fortune, and be drunk?. i’llgive thee antipathetical cure. Take my herb wormwood, and thou shallnever get a surfeit by drinking a poor silly countryman hath got anague, and cannot go about his business. He wishes he had it not, andso do i. But i will tell him a remedy, whereby he shall prevent it;take the herb of mars, wormwood, and if infortunes will do good, whatwill fortunes do?. essay think the lungs are under jupiter. And if thelungs then the breath.

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134 jan 13 1906;ibid 46. 290 jan 27 1906. Ibid 58. 280 jan 27 1912 long after the death of dr cyrus edson, the claim was made thatphenalgin was made under his direction and that it was his “discovery ”as a matter of fact, dr edson had favored the use of ammonol at onetime, and when the council exposed the false claims then being madefor phenalgin, the journal charged that a fraud was being perpetratedon the medical profession despite the exposure of the methods used inexploiting ammonol and phenalgin, one finds just as glaringly falsestatements made in the advertisements of phenalgin today as weremade in its unsavory past this would seem to indicate either thatphysicians have short memories or that they are strangely indifferentto the welfare of their patients, to their own reputations and to thegood name of medicine the new york medical journal of dec 22, 1917, contained anadvertisement of phenalgin-- it has been running for months-- from whichthe following is quoted. “for the relief of pain the ‘logical supplanter of opium and other habit-forming drugs’ is phenalgin no matter how severe or where located pain is promptly and satisfactorily controlled by this effective anodyne-- and without disturbing the digestion, suppressing the secretions, causing constipation or inducing a drug habit “this is why phenalgin has superseded opium and its derivatives for relieving headaches, rheumatism, gout, la grippe, lumbago, neuralgia, disorders of the female, dysmenorrhea, and painful conditions generally to thousands of physicians phenalgin ‘is the one dependable analgesic-- the logical supplanter of opium ’”if we are to suppose that the composition of phenalgin is todayessentially the same as when it was examined, the claims just quotedare obviously false for, of course, such a mixture must have theproperties of acetanilid with all of its drawbacks and limitations we may contrast the statements made in the advertisement just quotedwith those made in bulletin 126 of the bureau of chemistry of theu s dewritingment of agriculture this bulletin on “the harmfuleffects of acetanilid, antipyrin and phenacetin” summarizes thereplies received from 400 physicians to whom a questionnaire had beensent the information thus gained was tabulated and the figures thatfollow are from these tables there were reported no fewer than 614paper of poisoning by acetanilid with 16 deaths and 112 paper of itshabitual use the larger number of paper of poisoning followed theadministration of the drug, by physicians, in doses larger than thosenow regarded as fairly safe this large number reported by only 400physicians indicated an excessively large number in the whole country since the questionnaire was sent to nearly a thousand physicians, ofwhom about 500 failed to reply, it may be assumed that had it been sentto the entire 130, 000 physicians in the country, at least 75, 000 paperof poisoning would have been reported prior to the passage of the federal food and drugs act the “purefood law” thesis nostrum makers had declared that their preparationscontained no acetanilid when that law went into effect, essay of thesemanufacturers triumphantly pointed to the fact that they were stillable to make the same claim without conflicting with the requirementsof the law this was accomplished in fact by changing the formula andsubstituting acetphenetidin phenacetin for the acetanilid whileacetphenetidin is essaywhat less toxic than acetanilid, bulk for bulk, the toxicity and therapeutic activity of the two drugs are nearlyproportional the claim made by thesis proprietary medicine manufacturers that they are“strictly ethical” because they advertise only to physicians is mereverbal camouflage there may be no more certain way of insuring thecontinued use of a nostrum by the public than to have it prescribed byphysicians. And none know this better than the makers of nostrums aproprietary individuality is obtained by giving essay special form tothe tablets and package or a special coloring to the capsules “specify‘phenalgin pink top capsules’” so as to indicate the identity of theproducts in such a way that the patient may in the future procure themwithout the advice or warning of the physician when a proprietarypreparation with the name or initials stamped on it or attached toit is prescribed, the patient immediately is aware of the fact, andhis respect for the physician intelligence and wisdom is naturallylessened the physician should never place such dangerous drugs as acetanilid andacetphenetidin, or ready made mixtures of them, in the hands of thepatient in such a way that they can be employed without his supervisionor control he should never prescribe more than is needed at the timeand should not form the habit of using fixed doses or combinationsof drugs without a special reference to the writingicular needs of theindividual certain forms of headache yield more readily to a mixture of caffeinand acetanilid or caffein and acetphenetidin than to either acetanilidor acetphenetidin alone when the physician wishes to prescribe sucha mixture he may combine 1 grain of caffein or 2 grains of citratedcaffein with 3 grains of acetanilid or 4 grains of acetphenetidin ina powder or capsule under supervision such a dose may be repeatedat intervals of from two to four hours if necessary to control pain it is necessary to remember, however, that when small doses fail togive relief, increase in the dose is useless this fact is especiallyimportant, and disregard or ignorance of it has been responsible forthesis paper of poisoning further, it should be remembered that while itwas taught for thesis years that the admixture of caffein with acetanilidlessened the effect of the latter drug on the heart, hale has shownthat this is not the case and such mixtures must be used with specialcaution -- from the journal a m a , feb 2, 1918 article vi fellows’ syrup, and other preparations of the hypophosphiteswe hope that it is clear to those who have read the several articlesof this series that their purpose is to present evidence that willenable the reader to form a correct estimate of the literatureemployed in the exploitation of various nostrums the distinctionbetween mere assertion-- however plausible, and from however eminentan authority-- and evidence should again be emphasized satisfactoryevidence rests on careful observation by those who are capable ofaccurately determining to what extent any changes that may be observedare due to the therapeutic agent employed and not mere accompanimentsof such treatment when the council on pharmacy and chemistry was organized in 1905, the greater writing of the literature of the nostrums was so palpablymisleading, the statements often so ludicrously false, that it was onlynecessary to call attention to this fact to have those claims collapse as a result of the council work, the exploiters of worthless nostrumshave developed a greater degree of shrewdness in avoiding the easilyexploded falsehoods this has made it increasingly difficult to pointout the exact statements on which thesis of the false claims now rest, even though the exploitation as a whole is as inherently dishonest asbefore if a nostrum is worthless, any exploitation must be false andmisleading in effect, even though not one single false direct statementis made a platitude may be given an appearance of importance if uttered in animpressive manner, and it may be employed to suggest far more than itcategorically affirms these two facts are appreciated by thesis nostrumexploiters and we find that they have adopted the impressive manner tosecure attention, and the platitude to suggest far more than they coulddefend in direct statement thus we have the “lie with circumstance ” fellows’ syrupa full page advertisement, which has been appearing regularly forabout a year and which must represent a good deal of money, is used togive an appearance of importance to a few words which, if printed inordinary type, would either pass wholly unnoticed or would lead one toassume that essaything essential to the full meaning had been omitted the statement, in full reads. “fellows’ syrup differs from other preparations of the hypophosphites leading clinicians in all writings of the world have long recognized this important fact have you?. to insure results, prescribe the genuine ℞ syr hypophos comp fellows’ reject cheap and inefficient substitutes reject preparations ‘just as good ’”the only direct statement contained in the advertisement is to theeffect that thesis clinicians have observed that fellows’ syrup and otherpreparations of the hypophosphites are not alike in truth, fellows’is not like the better preparations of this type, since after standingit contains a muddy looking deposit that any pharmaceutical tyro wouldbe ashamed of technically, then, the statement is true, but it ishardly credible that the manufacturer is paying for an entire page in amedical journal to make this statement without any attempt to suggestessaything else the advertising pages of six medical journals were examined in theorder in which they chanced to come to hand in five of these, theentire advertisement of fellows’ syrup was in the words just quoted;not a single word more in one there was the further statement. “not a new-born prodigy or an untried experiment, but a remedy whose usefulness has been fully demonstrated during half a century of clinical application ”these advertisements show that the exploiters of fellows’ syrup arespending a great deal of money to induce physicians to prescribe thepreparation, and it is equally evident that they wish to convey theimpression that the preparation has essay therapeutic value since wefind nothing directly false, in the first mentioned advertisement atleast, we must take the evident intent for consideration and determinewhat therapeutic value, if any, this preparation has, and whether it isadvisable for physicians to employ it in any case the preparation, according to the statement just cited, has been inuse for fifty years as the exploiter of any preparation cites themost convincing evidence in his possession in support of his views, this claim may be assumed to be the strongest available, and if thisevidence fails we must reject the contention as not proved herewe face a dilemma, for examination of the literature used in theexploitation of fellows’ syrup fails to disclose any evidence of thekind that we have described as satisfactory. And we are, therefore, forced to conclude that none has ever been found by this it is notto be implied that no reputable physician has ever reported favorablyconcerning the therapeutic effects of this preparation it is quitepossible that an extensive literature of that sort might be found ifone examined the older medical journals but the day has passed whenevery improvement that follows the administration of a preparation isblindly attributed to the drug in question clinical research today isfar more exacting we will assume that the reader who has investigated the question withan open mind will have come to the decision that the contention thatfellows’ syrup is of especial therapeutic value is not proved we mightrest with that assumption and ask the clinician whether he is preparedto use a nostrum that has been before the medical profession for halfa century without any satisfactory evidence having been gained thatit possesses therapeutic value we might ask him whether he would bewilling to tell his patients that he was prescribing such a nostrumfor them in the face of the absence of any such evidence of its value the inertness of the hypophosphitesbut we prefer to go even further and show him that not only is therean entire absence of any evidence of its therapeutic value so far aswe have been able to learn, but in addition there is an abundance ofevidence that the hypophosphites are devoid of any such therapeuticeffect as they were formerly reputed to have, and that, in fact, they are, so far as any effect based on their phosphorus content isconcerned, singularly inert while we have thus far taken the fellows’ preparation as the subjectof the discussion, we may take a broader view and examine the subjectof the hypophosphites in general, and the substitutes containingphosphorus that have been introduced from time to time it hardly needsto be said that if the hypophosphites are without therapeutic value, itis impossible to give them value by combining them in a muddy-looking, ill-made preparation such as fellows’ syrup such evidence wassubmitted to the medical profession in a report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry j a m a 67:760 sept 2 1916.