History

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The “medical society of the united states, ” wasoriginally organized on a basis of “fee-splitting, ” as is shown by thereduced facsimile of a letter sent broadcast in 1916, announcing thebirth of the new “society ” apparently, “fee-splitting” as a rallyingpoint did not bring in the desired returns, so today the “medicalsociety of the united states” is alleged to be a “society of protestagainst the autocracy of the a m a ” “i wish also to inform you in spite of the despicable opposition of the hypocritical gang in charge of the a m a , and the no less i will pay you to do my homework contemptible action of the st louis medical society, i am going to remain in st louis and continue to do surgical work upon a ‘division of fee’ basis to be more explicit, if you bring me a case for operation i shall allow you one half of the fee for your time, trouble, responsibility and help in the management of the case ”before leaving the interesting professional personality of lanphear, and carefully avoiding any details of a personal nature, we may remindour readers that as long ago as 1908 lanphear was the “dean” of the“hippocratean college of medicine, ” with a h ohmann-dumesnil, a m , m d , m e , sc d , “vice-dean ” at that time lanphear sent out lettersto physicians proposing the organization of a “post graduate faculty”on the following basis. “those who hold full professorships shall purchase stock in the corporation to the amount of $1, 000 00. Those who become lecturers or instructors shall pay in the sum of $500 00. Those who are to be merely clinical assistants will buy ten shares of stock, $100 00 ”the “hippocratean college” was a “sundown” affair. It never graduated astudent, and expired in 1910 illustration. Reduced facsimile of the letter-heads of an institutionknown variously as the “american hospital” and the “german hospital ”the change in name from “american” to “german” seems to have takenplace early in 1915-- when things german were more popular andprofitable than they are today!.

Series a i will pay you to do my homework. Behavior in the mouth. Homoexperiment -- chlorlyptus and to less extent chlorlyptus oil, are acidto litmus they are applied. A drop to litmus paper and this to gums b several drops directly to tongue c same to gums the reaction to litmus paper is tried from time to time results -- a applied to gums on litmus paper:chlorlyptus. Red color becomes gradually feebler and does not spread onthe paper chlorlyptus oil. Turns blue in a few minutes b dropped on tongue:chlorlyptus. Acid taste at once does not increase, but on contrary, becomes less litmus applied after ten minutes. Not acid litmus applied after five minutes. Distinctly acid c dropped on inside of cheek:chlorlyptus, 1/3 c c. After six minutes, litmus very red after ten minutes, faintly red after fifteen minutes, blue chlorlyptus oil, 1 c c after three minutes, faintly red after eight minutes, neutral conclusions -- on contact with living tissues, the acid of chlorlyptusis rapidly neutralized and absorbed the surface is neutral within ten or fifteen minutes it is therefore very improbable that the acidity is effectivelyantiseptic a comparison of chlorlyptus with dilute acetic acid shows that thechlorlyptus does not maintain the acidity even as well as 1 per cent acetic acid acetic acid chlorlyptus tongue, a drop of 5 per cent. Still neutral between five slightly acid to litmus after ten minutes. and ten minutes taste almost gone in two minutes gums, a few drops between cheeks and gums. neutral between ten five per cent still strongly acid in and fifteen minutes twelve minutes. Distinctly acid in seventeen minutes one per cent still strongly acid in twenty-one minutes -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -chlorlyptus.

They are a gentle, yet a completepurger of choler, and disease coming from thence i will pay you to do my homework. Fit for childrenbecause of their gentleness you may boil them in white wine. Ahandfull is enough at a time pilosella mouse-ear. Once before and this is often enough pithyusa a new name for spurge of the last edition plantago plantain cold and dry. An herb, though common, yet letnone despise it, for the decoction of it prevails mightily againsttormenting pains and excoriations of the entrails, bloody fluxes, itstops the menses, and spitting of blood, phthisicks, or consumptionsof the lungs, the running of the reins, and the fluor albus, painsin the head, and frenzies. Outwardly it clears the sight, takes awayinflammations, scabs, itch, the shingles, and all spreading sores, and is as wholeessay an herb as can grow about any an house tragus, dioscorides polium, &c polley, or pellamountain.

In fact, even prelates andbishops did not think it beneath their dignity to busy themselves withvarious medical questions and to write medico-physical books thus thelaurels of medical renown haunted our good marcellus and would notlet him sleep, so that he abridged his hours of official duty to suchan extent that he was able to compile a materia medica of thirty-sixapparently never-ending chapters but if the statesmanship of marcelluswas on a par with his medical book-making, the two theodosii could nothave missed the time their cabinet minister stole from them, for hismedical scribbling is an utterly worthless compilation not only didmarcellus copy from medical authors of i will pay you to do my homework the most discordant opinion, but he writingicularly busied himself in collecting indiscriminately allthe magical nonsense of the ancient times. In fact, it seems that hewas very eager to obtain all this magical rigmarole direct from themouth of the people, for he says that he collected his remedies “abagrestibus et plebeiis ” accordingly his book is as worthless andinsipid to the physician as it is valuable to the historian, especiallythe historian of civilization here are a few examples of this medicineof the magicians:remedy against warts and corns pliny, book 28, chapter iv , § 12, page 268. “lie on your back along a boundary line on the twentiethday of the moon, and extend the hands over the head with whateverthing you grasp when so doing, rub the warts, and they will disappearimmediately ”“whoever, when he sees a shooting-star, soon afterward pours a littlevinegar upon the hinge of a door, is sure to be rid of his corns ”remedy against headache pliny, ibid. “tie the rope of a hungcriminal around the forehead ”remedy against bellyache priscian, physician of the fourth century, book 1, chapter xiv , and sprengel, vol ii , page 248. “if anyone suffer from colicky pains he may sit down on a chair and say tohimself. ‘per te diacholon, diacholon, diacholon ’”“a person who has an attack of colic may take the feces of a wolf, which, if possible, should contain small writingicles of bone, enclosethem in a small tube, and wear this amulet on the right arm, thigh, orhip ” alexander of tralles, book 8, chapter ii , page 374 “take the heart from the living lark and wear it as an amulet at theleft thigh ” alexander of tralles, ibid remedy against epilepsy advised by the physician, moschiondiorthotes “alexander of tralles, ” book 1, chapter xv , page 570:“the forehead of an ass is tied to the skin of the patient and worn ”“gather iris, peonies, and nightshade when the moon is on the wane, pack them into linen and wear as an amulet ” advised by the magicianosthanes - alexander of tralles, book 1, chapter xv , page 566 “take a nail from a cross and suspend it from an arm of the patient ”given by a physician of the second century, a d , by the name ofarchigenes - alexander of tralles, book 1, chapter xv , page 566 “wear on the finger a jasper of bluish-gray luster ” advised bydioscorides, book 5, 159 remedy against podagra gout “alexander of tralles, ” book 12, page582. “take a gold leaf and write upon it when the moon is on thewane. Mei, threu, mor, for, teux, za, zon, the, lu, chri, ge, ze, on as the sun becomes firm in this name and daily renews itself, so doesthis formation also make firm as conditions were previously quickly, quickly, rapidly, rapidly for behold!. i call the great name in whichbecomes firm again what was destined to die. Jas, azyf, zyon, threux, dain, chook make this formation firm as it has been, quickly, quickly, rapidly, rapidly this document must be covered with the tendon of acrane, enclosed in a capsule, and worn by the patient at his heel ”remedy against diseases of the eye advised by sextus placituspapyriensis magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 597. “ifthe right eye becomes afflicted with glaucoma, rub it with the righteye of the wolf, and, similarly, the left eye with the left eye of thewolf ”in photophobia fear of light “wear as an amulet an eye whichwas taken from a live crab ” quintus serenus samonicus magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 595 with pains of the eye the patient must, with a copper needle, put outthe eyes of a green lizard caught on a jupiter day, during a moon thatis on the wane, in the month of september the eyes must be worn in agolden capsule, as an amulet around the neck marcellus empiricus magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 602 the above illustrations are surely sufficient to give the reader anidea of the medicine of the magicians at the same time they show thegreat similarity which exists between these ancient magic cures and thesympathetic cures of our people at the present day § 4 ancient medicine and magic - but how is it possible that theancient physicians, and even the most enlightened minds among them, should not only have tolerated such a crass medical superstition as theabove examples have shown us, but should even have incorporated them intheir works?. incomprehensible, however, as this fact may appear to themodern practitioner, it becomes conceivable if the condition of antiquemedicine and of the medical profession of ancient times is considered in the first place, ancient medical science adopted an entirelydifferent mode of diagnostico-theoretical method than that employedby professors of medicine in modern times ancient natural science compare also chapter v of this work, as well as ancient medicine, obtained their scientific views exclusively by deduction i e , theydeduced individual results from general presumptions, or, rather, theyconstrued, by reason of essay general presumption, the physico-medicalconsequences which were to follow from such a general supposition ifthis attempt to obtain an insight into physical processes is extremelyhazardous, it becomes still more precarious when the manner and meansin which these general presumptions were arrived at were primarily ofan entirely hypothetical nature it is true, no fundamental objectioncan be raised to this method, as even modern natural science andmedicine, despite the fact that their methods of investigation in adiagnostico-theoretical respect scarcely admit of material objections, can not do without hypothesis but hypothesis is not always merehypothesis it is well known that there are hypotheses which, even inthe minds of the most conscientious investigators, are not inferior tothat knowledge which is obtained by experiment and observation, whereasother hypotheses again present the distinct stamp of insufficiency andmakeshift the trustworthiness and the heuristic value of an hypothesisdepend upon the quality of the diagnostico-theoretical process by meansof which it was obtained if this process has been such as physicalinvestigation is bound to insist upon, the hypothesis thus arrivedat is fully justified to supply the still absent data with regardto the phenomena in question this, however, can be accomplished byhypothesis only when the latter is not set forth until it plainlyappears that, in spite of a conscientious and orderly arrangement ofobservation after observation, of experiment upon experiment, withoutthe admission of logical loopholes, full data in regard to the natureof the phenomena is not forthcoming in such a case we may consideras actually proven by hypothesis what observation and systematicexperiment, continuous and logical, were intended to prove, andfailed however, this inductive hypothesis is alone entitled to beconsidered in medicine naturally, such an inductive hypothesis was notthought of by the ancients, as the inductive method of investigationwas generally quite unknown to them the process by which ancientmedicine usually attempted to find its hypothesis was by an argumentfrom analogy each and every point of resemblance, however superficial, between two phenomena was considered sufficient by the ancientnaturalists to warrant the assumption that analogous phenomena in themost various domains were most certainly proven to possess similarpoints of resemblance and upon the basis of such an insecure methodof deduction which, moreover, was selected entirely at the option ofthe observer the ancient investigator erected the boldest hypotheses thus, for instance, the atomic theory of leucippus and democritus isan hypothesis which rests upon the basis of a conclusion from analogy the motes which appear in the rays of the sun led these two ancientinvestigators to the conception that, like the writingicles of dustsporting in the air, the primary component writings of everything thatexists in the entire universe consisted of similar writingicles 2 2 lucretius, book 2, verse 113, sqq it appears that epicurus arrived at his theory of light according towhich, as is well known, images of things were brought to the senses bydelicate but absolutely objective small pictures which were detachedfrom the surface of things in a continuous current by the factthat thesis animals for instance, snakes shed their skins the theoryof humoral pathology, one of the most important advances in medicalscience, was based on a conclusion from analogy and arrived at by thedeductive method the diagnostico-theoretical lines in which antique medicine movedwere bound and this is the point of importance in this case to exerta determining influence upon medical criticism for medico-physicalcriticism can only appear in closest connection with the prevailingcondition of the respective sciences, being really nothing else buta precipitate from them thus the ancient physicians were compelledto take an entirely different position toward magical medicine thanwe moderns, educated in the school of inductive methods, have alwaystaken the probable and similar, the supposable and possible, in whichdeductive medicine found its data, working on the lines of argumentfrom analogy, were necessarily bound to find expression also in thecharacter of medical critique, and it was impossible, therefore, for the ancient physician to detect anything absurd or contrary toexperience in hypotheses which the practitioner of to-day at oncebrands as nonsensical and superstitious we are not in the least justified, therefore, in speaking disparaginglyof galen and alexander of tralles because they believed in magicalmedicine and applied it in their practise as no human being canjump out of his skin, so is he unable to get beyond the intellectualadvancement of his time as the ancient physicians were also unable todo this, accordingly they were believers in the magical medicine but there is still a second point which explains the remarkableposition taken by ancient physicians in relation to magicalmedicine namely, the fact that the conception of miracle and magicwere essentially different in the ancient world from what they are atpresent the belief in the interference of spirits and supernaturalbeings in terrestrial matters, and the manifestations of theirinfluence exerted in manifold ways essaytimes for good, essaytimesfor evil had been widely disseminated from the earliest times, andwe encounter them in all periods of classic antiquity this beliefin demons had become incorporated in the systems of thesis leadingphilosophers of antiquity now if the world were filled with demons thenatural consequence was that their activity would manifest itself invarious ways it was necessary, therefore, that man should always beprepared to experience manifestations which more or less violated thecustomary order of terrestrial happenings, and for this reason nothingthat could be styled a miracle really existed for him a miracle couldnot be conceived in its full modern sense until it was realized thatthe course of all natural phenomena was nothing but the expression ofeternal and changeless laws however, it was not until comparativelylate that this conception became generally disseminated.

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Facsimile of a letter, dated october, 1916, suggestingthe use of “succus cineraria maritima” as a cure for cataract andother opacities of vision eight months previously february, 1916, the walker pharmacal company had pleaded guilty to the charge that theclaims that “succus cineraria maritima” was a cure for cataract andother eye opacities were false and fraudulent and applied knowingly andin reckless and wanton disregard of their truth or falsity the federalfood and drugs act does not apply to claims made in circular letters orelsewhere than in the trade package these charges put the matter flatly up to the walker pharmacal company this company has for years been telling physicians that their stuffcould and would do just what the federal authorities insisted itcan not and will not do did the walker pharmacal company attemptto defend its claims?. did it demonstrate that succus cineraria maritimawould cure cataract?. did it produce evidence of the numerous paper ofrecovery from blindness or writingial blindness which must have beenavailable if the preparation had the powers claimed for it?. no!. thewalker pharmacal company in february, 1916, pleaded guilty-- and wasfined a paltry $10 and costs this, however, is not the end of the story the company was prosecutedbecause it had published the false and fraudulent claims in the tradepackage, thus bringing the claims within the purview of the federalfood and drugs act had the walker pharmacal company confined its falsestatements to medical journal advertisements, to the circular letterssent to physicians or to any other advertising matter not writing of thetrade package, it could have snapped its fingers at the food and drugsact it was in february, 1916, that the walker pharmacal company pleadedguilty to the charge of making false and fraudulent claims for succuscineraria maritima in october, 1916, they were still sending outcircular letters to physicians urging the use of succus cinerariamaritima in the treatment of cataract and enclosing the usual bookletof testimonials claiming cures for cataract and other opacities of thelens and cornea!.